Skip to Main Content
Have library access? Log in through your library
Benjamin Franklin, Pennsylvania, and the First Nations

Benjamin Franklin, Pennsylvania, and the First Nations: The Treaties of 1736-62

EDITED BY SUSAN KALTER
Copyright Date: 2006
Pages: 472
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/j.ctt1xckr9
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Benjamin Franklin, Pennsylvania, and the First Nations
    Book Description:

    This is an annotated edition of the treaties between the British colonies and Indian nations, originally printed and sold by Benjamin Franklin. Last published in 1938, Benjamin Franklin, Pennsylvania, and the First Nations makes these important treaties available once again, featuring a simpler, easier-to-read format, extensive explanatory notes, and maps. A detailed introduction by Susan Kalter puts the treaties in their proper historical and cultural context. _x000B_This carefully researched edition shows these treaties to be complex intercultural documents, and provides significant insight into the British colonists' relationship with native peoples of North America. They also reveal the complexity of Benjamin Franklin's perceptions of Native Americans, showing him in some negotiations as a promoter of the Indian word against the colonial one. Finally, the treaties offer an enormous wealth of linguistic, aesthetic, and cultural information about the Iroquois, the Delawares, and their allies and neighbors. _x000B__x000B_

    eISBN: 978-0-252-09158-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. PREFACE
    (pp. ix-xvi)
  5. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-44)

    By the time Benjamin Franklin began to pay attention to the treaties that Pennsylvania colony was making with the Indian nations around its borders, the League of the Haudenosaunee was losing power. Western history has not successfully discovered how much prestige, influence, or dominance this original Iroquois Confederacy might have had with other nations prior to the arrival of European fishermen near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River in the late fifteenth century. However, as far as postcontact power, the Iroquois reached their peak in the middle of the seventeenth century. At the beginning of this century, the intrusion...

  6. EDITOR’S NOTE
    (pp. 45-48)
  7. A TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP HELD WITH THE CHIEFS OF THE SIX NATIONS, AT PHILADELPHIA, IN SEPTEMBER and OCTOBER, 1736.
    (pp. 49-62)

    The Chiefs of theSix Nationshaving been expected atPhiladelphiathese four Years past, to confirm the Treaty made with some of them, who came down in the Year 1732,¹Conrad Wyserour Interpreter, about the Beginning of this Month, advised fromTulpyhokin,that he had certain Intelligence from some Indians sent before him, that there was a large Number of those People with their Chiefs, arrived atShamokinonSasquchannah;upon which he was directed to repair thither to attend them, and supply them with Necessaries in their Journey hither.

    On theTwenty-seventhof this Month, about a...

  8. THE TREATY HELD WITH THE INDIANS OF THE SIX NATIONS, AT PHILADELPHIA, IN JULY, 1742.
    (pp. 63-85)

    THE Deputies of the Six Nations having, at their last Visit, agreed to release their Claim to all the Land on both Sides of the RiverSasquehanah,as far South as this Province extends, and to the Northward to those called theEndless MountainsorKittochtinny Hills;in Consideration whereof, they then received a large Quantity of valuable Indian Goods for the Lands situate on the Eastern Side of the said River, but declined at that Time to receive any for those on the Western Side of the said River, chusing to defer the same till another Visit; A large...

  9. A TREATY, Held at the TOWN of Lancaster, in PENNSYLVANIA, By the HONOURABLE the Lieutenant-Governor of the PROVINCE, And the HONOURABLE the Commissioners for the PROVINCES OF VIRGINIA and MARYLAND, WITH THE INDIANS OF THE SIX NATIONS, In JUNE, 1744.
    (pp. 86-122)

    The Governor and the Commissioners took some of theIndianChiefs by the Hand, and, after they had seated themselves, the Governor bid them welcome into the Government; and there being Wine and Punch prepared for them, the Governor and the several Commissioners drank Health to theSix Nations;andCanassatego, Tachanoontia,and some other Chiefs, returned the Compliments, drinking the Healths of Onas,* Assaragoa,† and the Governor ofMaryland.

    After they were all served with Wine, Punch, Pipes and Tobacco, the Governor told theIndians,that as it was customary, and indeed necessary, they should have some Time to...

  10. AN ACCOUNT OF THE TREATY Held at the CITY of Albany, in the Province of NEW-YORK, By His EXCELLENCY the Governor of that PROVINCE, And the HONOURABLE the COMMISSIONERS for the Provinces OF MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, AND PENNSYLVANIA, WITH THE INDIANS OF THE SIX NATIONS, In OCTOBER, 1745.
    (pp. 123-141)

    Having been honoured with a Commission, authorizing us, the Subscribers, in Conjunction with the Governors of the Neighbouring Colonies, or their Delegates, or separately, to treat with theIndiansof the Six United Nations atAlbany,inOctoberlast; we think it our Duty to tender an Account of our Conduct therein; which be pleased to receive as follows.

    The next Day after the Receipt of the Commission, that is, on theTwenty-seventhDay ofSeptemberlast, we set out forAlbany,where we arrived on theThird of Octoberfollowing. On theFourthofOctober,the Day appointed to...

  11. A TREATY BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT and COUNCIL OF THE Province of PENNSYLVANIA, AND THE INDIANS of OHIO, Held at PHILADELPHIA, Nov. 13. 1747.
    (pp. 142-148)

    THEIndianWarriors fromOhio,having arriv’d in Town onWednesday,the President sent them a Message Yesterday, by Mr.Weiser,the Interpreter, to bid them welcome: And understanding that they were desirous to be heard To-day, he summon’d the Council for this Purpose. Mr.Weiserattending, he was sent to tell theIndiansthe Council was sitting, and ready to receive them. They immediately came. The President inform’ d them, the Council were glad to see their Brethren, took their Visit very kindly, and desired to know what they had to communicate.

    After a Pause, the principal Warrior rose...

  12. A TREATY HELD BY COMMISSIONERS, MEMBERS of the COUNCIL of the PROVINCE of PENNSYLVANIA, At the TOWN of LANCASTER, With some CHIEFS of the SIX NATIONS at OHIO, and others, for the Admission of the TWIGHTWEE NATION into the Alliance of his MAJESTY, &c. in the Month of July, 1748.
    (pp. 149-159)

    A PROCLAMATION was made for Silence, and then a Commission, in His Majesty’s Name, under the Great Seal of the Province, was read, constituting the honourableBenjamin Shoemaker, Joseph Turner, Thomas Hopkinson,andWilliam Logan.Esquires, Commissioners to treat with theseIndians;and the Interpreter was order’d to tell them the Purport thereof, and to bid them heartily welcome among their Brethren.

    The Commissioners having been informed thatScarrowyady,a Chief of theOneidoNation, living atOhio,was appointed Speaker for theIndians,but was so much hurt by a Fall, that he was unable to attend; order’d the...

  13. A TREATY HELD WITH THE OHIO INDIANS, AT CARLISLE, In OCTOBER, 1753.
    (pp. 160-180)

    Not knowing but theIndiansmight be waiting atCarlisle,we made all the Dispatch possible, as soon as we had received our Commission, and arrived there on the Twenty-Sixth, but were agreeably surprized to find that they came there only that Day.

    Immediately on our Arrival we conferred withAndrew Montour,andGeorge Croghan,in order to know from them what had occasioned the present coming of theIndians,that we might, by their Intelligence, regulate our first Intercourse with them; and were informed, that tho’ their principal Design, when they leftOhio,was to hold a Treaty with...

  14. MINUTES OF CONFERENCES, HELD WITH THE INDIANS, at EASTON, In the Months of July and November, 1756;
    (pp. 181-225)

    I HAVE received an Account from SirWilliam Johnson,sent me by SirCharles Hardy,Governor of New-York, that, immediately after the Council held atFort Johnson,Deputies were dispatched by theSix NationstoAtsaningo,and that they convened theDelawares, Shawanese,and otherIndians,from the several Towns on theSasquehannah,to the Number of Three Hundred, to whom they delivered Messages from that Council, blaming them for taking up the Hatchet against their Brethren theEnglish,and commanding them to lay it down immediately; and that they had hearkened to this Message, and agreed to strike no...

  15. MINUTES OF CONFERENCES, HELD WITH THE INDIANS, At HARRIS’S FERRY, and at LANCASTER, In March, April, and May, 1757
    (pp. 226-254)

    May it please your Honour,IN Pursuance of your Instructions, as soon as I was informed of theIndiansbeing come toJohn Harris’s, I set off fromPhiladelphiato meet them, and arrived atJohn Harris’s the 29th ofMarch,1757, where I met about One Hundred and SixtyIndians,Men, Women and Children, Part of eight Tribes.

    The Thirtieth, I examinedJoseph Peepy,andLewis Montour,in regard to the Messages I had sent by them to theSasquehannah Indians.²

    They informed me, thatTeedyuscungwas gone to theSenecaCountry, to get a Number of theSenecas...

  16. MINUTES OF CONFERENCES, HELD WITH THE INDIANS, AT EASTON, In the Months of July, and August, 1757.
    (pp. 255-289)

    Brother,I AM very glad to meet you once more with your People, and some of your Uncles theSix Nations,according to your Agreement with me at this Place, inNovemberlast. The Number ofIndiansyou have brought down with you on this Occasion, and the Pains you have taken to carry the News of our good Dispositions for Peace to so great a Distance, confirms the good Opinion we have always had of you, and shews the Sincerity of the Professions you have made of your earnest Desire to restore the Friendship and Brotherly Love that always...

  17. MINUTES OF CONFERENCES, HELD AT EASTON, In OCTOBER, 1758,
    (pp. 290-333)

    THE Governor and Council coming to Town this Afternoon,Teedyuscung,accompanied withMoses Tittamy, Daniel, Teepyuscung,andIsaac Stille,waited on his Honour, and made the usual Salutations.

    Brother,I am very glad to see you here again; you may remember that we have already made Peace, and you desired me to halloo loud, and give Notice of it to all theIndiansround about.

    I have spoke loud, and raised my Voice, and all theIndianshave heard me as far as theTwightwees,and have regarded it, and are now come to this Place.².

    I bid you welcome,...

  18. MINUTES OF CONFERENCES, HELD AT EASTON, In AUGUST, 1761.
    (pp. 334-357)

    THE Governor opened the Conference with the usual Ceremonies of giving them a String, to bid them heartily welcome, and another to wipe the Sweat from their Bodies, to take the Thorns and Briars out of their Legs and Feet, to clear their Throats, and to open their Hearts; after which he acquainted them, that he then was, or would at any Time be ready, upon their giving him Notice, to attend to any Thing they had to say to him.

    ThenSeneca Georgestood up, and spoke as follows,viz.

    Brother Onas, I am very glad to meet you...

  19. MINUTES OF CONFERENCES, HELD AT LANCASTER, In AUGUST 1762.
    (pp. 358-406)

    THE Governor having been informed last Week, atPhiladelphia,that in Consequence of several Invitations sent by this Government, at sundry Times, to theIndiansliving on and near theOhio,theDelawareChiefBeaver,and the Deputies of other Tribes of WesternIndians,would be atLancasteron the Eighth Instant; sat out fromPhiladelphia,attended by several Gentlemen, and came here on the Ninth Instant, and found that theIndianshad arrived the Evening before.

    On the Tenth the Governor, attended by the Gentlemen abovementioned, with several of the Inhabitants of this Town, paid a Visit toBeaver,...

  20. GLOSSARY OF PERSONS AND GROUPS MENTIONED IN THE TREATIES
    (pp. 407-424)
  21. INDEX
    (pp. 425-454)
  22. Back Matter
    (pp. 455-457)