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Maximum Clarity and Other Writings on Music

Maximum Clarity and Other Writings on Music

Ben Johnston
EDITED BY BOB GILMORE
Copyright Date: 2006
Pages: 328
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/j.ctt1xcqj6
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  • Book Info
    Maximum Clarity and Other Writings on Music
    Book Description:

    Described by New York Times critic John Rockwell as "one of the best non-famous composers this country has to offer," Ben Johnston reconceives familiar idioms--ranging from neoclassicism and serialism to jazz and southern hymnody--using just intonation. Johnston studied with Darius Milhaud, Harry Partch, and John Cage, and is best known for his String Quartet No. 4, a complex series of variations on Amazing Grace. This collection of Johnston's writings spans his whole career and shows him to be a truly literate composer who writes about music, his own and that of others, with eloquence and charm. _x000B__x000B_"Maximum Clarity" and Other Writings on Music spans forty years and brings together forty-one of Johnston's most important writings, including many rare and several previously unpublished selections. They include position papers, theoretical treatises, program notes, historical reflections, lectures, excerpts from interviews, and letters, and they cover a broad spectrum of concerns--from the technical exegesis of microtonality to the personal and the broadly humanistic. The volume concludes with a discography of all commercially available recordings of Johnston's music.

    eISBN: 978-0-252-09157-5
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. EDITOR’S ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xi-xxiv)
    Bob Gilmore

    For the past fifty years Ben Johnston has been the most genuine kind of radical: a composer who has made a mark on American music in the late twentieth century not by loudly espousing a cause but by the persuasiveness of his thought and the appeal and fascination of his music. He has been described by critic Mark Swed as “probably our most subversive composer, a composer able to make both radical thinking and avant-garde techniques sound invariably gracious.”¹

    Born in Macon, Georgia, in 1926, Johnston studied in Virginia, Ohio, and northern California, and taught for over thirty years at...

  5. BEN JOHNSTON: A CHRONOLOGY
    (pp. xxv-xxxviii)
    Bob Gilmore
  6. I. ON MUSIC THEORY

    • AESTHETIC THEORY; PHILOSOPHICAL BACKGROUND FOR MATHEMATICAL THEORY; MUSICAL BACKGROUND FOR APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICAL THEORY 1959–60
      (pp. 3-9)

      Beginning with the four physical characteristics of musical tone (pitch, timbre, duration, loudness), it is possible to develop an aesthetically wellgrounded theory of music as a complex of rhythmic phenomena perceived at different rates of speed.

      Suzanne Langer (in Feeling and Form) regards music as evocative of the subjective experience of time. This characterization of time is achieved through the interplay of various levels of rhythmic organization. The subjective experience of time is not simply an undifferentiated duration, but a duration characterized by moods orstates, or perhaps byeventsinvolving changing states. The only difference between these two aspects...

    • SCALAR ORDER AS A COMPOSITIONAL RESOURCE 1962–63
      (pp. 10-31)

      When listening to music we hear changing sound qualities in rhythmic patterns which create an illusion of growth. Most people hear music most readily as rhythmic gesture. Their musical present moment is the beat, the bar, the phrase (or the equivalents of these in less traditional music).

      Tone qualities, noise textures, and pitch combinations make up the musical “objects” which are composed into rhythmic gestures. These different kinds of phenomenal gestalts are, physically speaking, different modes of vibration. Qualities and relationships of sounds are our way of perceiving great numbers of tiny events (vibrations) on a molecular scale. We cannot...

    • PROPORTIONALITY AND EXPANDED MUSICAL PITCH RELATIONS 1965
      (pp. 32-40)

      Before considering the problem of expanded pitch resources in contemporary composition of music, I shall contrast two different traditions for the realization of precise pitch relations in performance.

      The first tradition may be represented by the practice of Gregorian chant.¹ In plainchant the melody is unaccompanied, or monophonic. Thus the relations of melodic tones to each other are the only intervals used. The perfect fifth and perfect fourth and the interval of difference between them, the major second, are the basis of pitch choice. The particular distribution of the seconds within the melodic distances of fifths and fourths, and the...

    • MICROTONAL RESOURCES 1969
      (pp. 41-45)

      The termmicrotonesdenotes musical scale intervals smaller than the semitones of twelve-tone equal temperament. The use of microtones provides so-called neutral intervals and unfamiliar near-equivalents of common intervals as well as the small intervals themselves. Hence,microtonalrefers to music in which successive or simultaneous pitch relations lie outside twelvetone equal temperament and outside traditionally used variations of just tuning or unequal temperament.

      Microtones and microtonally distinct variations of common intervals have been introduced into Western music in four principal forms: in equal temperament within the octave, in equal temperament within some other interval, in extended just intonation, and...

    • TONALITY REGAINED 1971
      (pp. 46-52)

      It is now possible to say that the concept of tonality has been elucidated and generalized. Using just intonation of various kinds, it can be shown how traditional seven-tone triadic tonality expands to twelve-tone chromaticism and thence to scales of fifteen, nineteen, thirty-one, thirty-four, fifty-three, and sixty-five tones per octave (plus an indefinitely great number of still more numerous scales). Using this system as a model, alternative tonalities based on analogous but different triads, tetrads, pentads, or hexads (or still more numerous basic chords) can be constructed.

      To have a tonal system withnnotes in its basic chord (nth-ad),...

    • MUSIC THEORY 1973
      (pp. 53-61)

      A theory of music comprises acoustics, aesthetics, and stylistic practice. The musical theories of a culture reflect not only its attitude to the arts but also its religious, philosophic, and scientific biases. China, India, Greece, and Islam developed musical theories long before the modern era, and western Europe has, since medieval times, contributed extensively to this multiple heritage.

      Acoustics connects with instrument design and musical-scale derivation and also with number theory and metaphysical symbolism. Aesthetics derives from the practice of artists and also from religious and philosophic theories of universal and social order. Although musical practice generates theories of composition...

    • RATIONAL STRUCTURE IN MUSIC 1976
      (pp. 62-76)

      “Over the whole of the historical period of instrumental music, Western music has based itself upon an acoustical lie. In our time this lie—that the normal musical ear hears twelve equal intervals within the span of an octave—has led to the impoverishment of pitch usage in our music.”¹

      We lie especially when we pretend to ourselves that vertical combinations of these pitches constitute harmony. We do not avoid the lie if we abandon harmony in music, so long as we retain a tempered scale.

      Feeling that the harmonic mode of pitch perception is far too important a resource...

    • A NOTATION SYSTEM FOR EXTENDED JUST INTONATION 2003
      (pp. 77-88)

      Extended just intonation is a kind of ratio-scale tuning based upon pure intervals—i.e., those analogous to the pitch relationships of the harmonic series. To handle the complex ratio relations necessary to achieve a truly accurate just tuning of modulatory triadic music, plus its many harmonic extensions beyond simple triads, a basic notation as close as possible to familiar, widely used Western music notation is desirable. As long as certain fundamental differences in what the symbols refer to are clearly understood, there is no ambiguity in such a procedure.

      This notation is not tied to any particular diapason (such as...

  7. II. ON MUSICAL AESTHETICS AND CULTURE

    • MUSICAL INTELLIGIBILITY: WHERE ARE WE? 1963
      (pp. 91-102)

      Music is first of all for the ear. Well-designed music alerts memory, integrates a span of time. Its event patterns evoke symbolic insight.

      In a time of rapid change it is hard to achieve this. Our tradition is branching again. We need a larger cultural context.

      Vocal polyphony originated during the same period when the Gothic cathedrals were being built. After the Renaissance, instrumental music asserted independence. Since then a series of historical transformations has cast us into the single but unintegrated world of the twentieth century. We can no longer be provincial but our new wholeness has to be...

    • A TALK ON CONTEMPORARY MUSIC 1963
      (pp. 103-106)

      Let me begin by asking some awkward questions about the place of music in our lives, because for many people contemporary art music seems baffling. They are tempted to accuse it of unnecessary ugliness.

      The first question is: What is music for? Why do we bother with it? The question is embarrassing because it should be so easy to answer, and it is not. In the first place we do not have a music; we have a number of them, answering numerous real and imaginary needs. But all these varieties satisfy, with more or less success, two kinds of needs:...

    • FESTIVALS AND NEW MUSIC 1965
      (pp. 107-108)

      A musical event is, most frequently, a transaction among three participants, a composer, a performer, a listener. Music exists for the listener. If it is art, however, it does not aim simply to gratify the most comfortable of his tastes. Rather art music leads him into aesthetic experiences which have been judged valuable. The performer exists to project these experiences powerfully to the listener. The composer tries to discover for himself “timeless” aspects of experience, and to restate them in a context which is unmistakably of his own day. He is not, any more than the performer, expressing merely himself....

    • THREE ATTACKS ON A PROBLEM 1967
      (pp. 109-117)

      Schoenberg’s solution to the impasse of music in his day was a heroic but temporary expedient. The sickness he diagnosed was real; the therapy he devised was more than adequate for him and for his time, since he enjoyed great creative vitality. Between his right and left hand, no collusion: his practice did not restrict itself to his theory.

      A great composer and an independent thinker, Schoenberg would have deplored the academy which has been erected upon the very part of his technique which he refused to teach to his students (regarding it, no doubt, as his own peculiar solution...

    • ON CONTEXT 1968
      (pp. 118-121)

      Thinking about music is not nearly so clean-cut and so specialized a problem as some of us university musicians seem to think it is. There is no doubt that the role of music in our lives, the place of art in our values are undergoing profound changes. This ferment is part of a much larger and more pervasive process, a global technological and social revolution.

      We are flooding the world with people. Technology is building a kind of ark to get humanity through this crisis. It will take all the ingenuity of avant-garde thinkers to invent for us new ways...

    • CONTRIBUTION TO IMC PANEL 1968
      (pp. 122-125)

      I’m going to talk in turn, briefly, about each of three topics: the sounds of things to come; the attitude of the youth; and the composer, the performer, and the changing audience.

      I think that the sounds of things to come will be many things to as many people: no one style or idiom, but a plurality of them rubbing shoulders.

      In my opinion the single most important revolutionary musical fact of life in the twentieth century is the extension of the acoustical materials of the art to include the whole world of sound. Challenged by this vast horizon, music...

    • HOW TO COOK AN ALBATROSS 1970
      (pp. 126-133)

      The world of “serious music” stubbornly bases itself on a sterile presumption. Since the “standard repertory,” in no matter what areas of performance, is historical, it creates a museum situation. While there is nothing wrong with having museums, we should not take their contents to be the principal means to satisfy contemporary needs. Perennially we make just this error.

      The proportion of music of our own times now in the repertory of most concert artists and ensembles is smaller today than at any other period in the history of concert giving. When most performing artists, warned that they are not...

    • ART AND SURVIVAL 1971
      (pp. 134-142)

      The aims of avant-garde art show themselves in large part destructive: happily so, to be sure, but quite ruthlessly so. It is important that destruction not proceed indiscriminately, as well.

      Most musical concerts are, without any need to parody them, a form of anti-art. Nevertheless, if concerts are to be destroyed, what then will be the occasions when we listen to music? On records and tapes only? In concerts which have become theater occasions? Solely in historical museums?

      Some music is enhanced by the impersonal formality of conventional concerts, but much of it is stultified by this environment. Always to...

    • ON BRIDGE-BUILDING 1977
      (pp. 143-148)

      In the sixties, I wrote a paper called “On Context,” in which I expressed the opinion that we are collectively at a moment of history where a chasm faces us, which we must either bridge or fall into. I sounded an optimistic note, though the paper came just at the darkest point of the decade. (It was read the very day Martin Luther King was assassinated.) I said I felt that for a bridge over the abyss to hold, it must be anchored far in the past and far in the future.

      Later, in trying to rise to the challenge...

    • SEVENTEEN ITEMS 1980
      (pp. 149-150)

      1. Since 1960 my music has concentrated mainly upon microtonal just intonation, though I have done a variety of other kinds of works as well. I am concerned not to compose all works in a single, predictable style. I aim to show the applicability and value of microtonal just intonation to a great variety of kinds of music and a wide range of styles.

      2. The first composer to interest me seriously was Claude Debussy. Of my teachers, Harry Partch was the most influential. Among contemporary composers György Ligeti, Iannis Xenakis, and Toru Takemitsu interest me particularly. The ideas of...

    • ART AND RELIGION 1981
      (pp. 151-152)

      Properly understood, art and religion have the same aims. Only we do not commonly understand either art or religion.

      Is religion superstition, a primitive, childish worldview? Is a religion a group of ideas manipulating groups of people? Is religion an institution dedicated to good works, elevated morals, and the worship of the Creator? Or is it each man’s search inward: an effort to bring each surface life into meaningful relation with its most personal, least egocentric level of self?

      Are the arts diversions which entertain and amuse? Do the arts make their most important contribution to culture, to status, to...

    • EXTENDED JUST INTONATION: A POSITION PAPER 1986
      (pp. 153-155)

      In 1962 and 1963, when I was writing “Scalar Order as a Compositional Resource” forPerspectives of New Music,I sent several versions to the editors before we agreed on one for publication. The story of the second revision is instructive. I had been trying to meet what I felt wasPerspectives’s rather thorny prose style and was at the same time insisting to myself that the article be readable by other than specialists. In the midst of this effort I gave the manuscript to a teacher of technical prose writing who offered to critique it. I got a scathing...

    • A.S.U.C. KEYNOTE ADDRESS 1987
      (pp. 156-162)

      Being here reminds me pointedly of the American Society of University Composers meeting in St. Louis in 1967 when the membership rejected the narrower focus of many of its founding members and set itself to represent the actual state of American music as reflected in colleges and universities. I remember in particular the aggressive stand of Peter Yates, who very strongly pushed for a broad and representative society. It was especially memorable for me because Peter was chairing a panel on microtonality, which was the first time I had publicly spoken about the then-recent change in my work which set...

    • JUST INTONATION AND MERE INTONATION 1994
      (pp. 163-165)

      Any time there are two sound sources or more vibrating at the same time there are resultant patterns of interference between them. If these are simply related enough, they are intelligible to a listener. If they are too complexly related, that listener will probably try to account for them by regarding them as approximations of simpler relations. The absence of clearly related resultant patterns is perceived as an absence of power in the psychological responses which they evoke. The sharp, clear patterns made by justly related pitches evoke strong psychological responses. This clarity is mirrored revealingly in the simple arithmetic...

    • WITHOUT IMPROVEMENT 1995
      (pp. 166-170)

      In William Blake’s symbolical workThe Marriage of Heaven and Hell,one of the “Proverbs of Hell” reads: “Improvement makes strait roads, but the crooked roads without Improvement are roads of Genius.”

      In the very manner of making art there is important symbolism. Since it does not belong to a particular artist, it refers to a culture as a whole. It results from and tends to propagate a way of living and experiencing life. It has the force and function of a shaping myth. To alter in a fundamental way this myth is to induce change not only in art...

    • MAXIMUM CLARITY 1996
      (pp. 171-180)

      Imagine looking at home movies when the person running the projector suddenly improves the focus. It is a pleasant but definite shock to see how much clearer the images are now, even though we had accepted them before the adjustment. This is a very precise analogy to what happens when the players in a musical ensemble clean up the intonation. They do not have to compute this or even analyze the music to discover what it needs to bring it in tune. No, this is done “by ear”: simply by listening for maximum clarity in the intervals that constitute the...

  8. III. SOME COMPOSITIONS

    • ON STRING QUARTET NO. 2
      (pp. 183-184)

      For over fifty years the art of music as practiced in the West has been tending toward a split between an art of noise and an art of tone. Especially since the 1960s the great majority of avant-garde composers have turned their attention to the art of noise, feeling, as have also many more conservative musicians, that the organization of music in terms of tone relations is bankrupt. While some composers have tried systematically to organize the remaining possibilities of tone relations so as to squeeze more possibilities out of a diminishing field, most who have remained loyal to the...

    • ON SONATA FOR MICROTONAL PIANO
      (pp. 185-186)

      MySonata for Microtonal Pianodeploys chains of just tuned (untempered) triadic intervals over the whole piano range, in interlocked consonant patterns. Only seven of the eighty-eight white and black keys of the piano have octave equivalents, one pair encompassing the distance of a double octave and the remaining six pairs separated by almost the entire length of the keyboard. Thus there are eighty-one different pitches, providing a piano with almost no consonant octaves.

      Effectively, for the listener, there are three main gradations of consonance/ dissonance: (1) smooth untempered thirds and fifths, which have the least amount of harshness caused...

    • THE GENESIS OF KNOCKING PIECE 1983
      (pp. 187-191)

      In the early 1960s Wilford Leach, with whom I had collaborated onGertrude, or Would She Be Pleased to Receive It?and was later to collaborate with onCarmilla, approached me about doing incidental music for his playIn Three Zones, subsequently produced at Lincoln Center.

      I proposed to Leach that the music be composed of every degree of tonal organization frommusique concrèteshading into literal sound effects, through non-pitched percussion to conventionally tuned instrumental music and just tuned microtonal instrumental music held together by a microtonally tuned piano. I further proposed that the action be framed by the...

    • QUINTET FOR GROUPS: A REMINISCENCE 2002
      (pp. 192-195)

      I was chairman of the Music Planning Committee for the Festival of Contemporary Arts at the University of Illinois during the early sixties. On the second big festival we undertook with a generous budget (for those times) to include composers and styles which in general the performance faculty neither understood nor happily wanted to cooperate with. In some cases we brought in outside groups to perform music otherwise unperformable locally. When searching for an orchestra to perform, among other difficult scores, a piece by Iannis Xenakis, we discovered that Eleazar De Carvalho was attempting to turn the St. Louis Symphony...

    • ON CARMILLA
      (pp. 196-198)

      My operaCarmilla, with text by Wilford Leach, is based upon the novella of that title by Sheridan Le Fanu. The most significant departure from the source text is the ending, in which the killing of the vampire is presented as a premonition, preceding the last scene, which deals with the seduction of Laura, the victim, by Carmilla, the vampire. This of course means that Laura goes into the experience with foreknowledge, a drastically different meaning.

      The entire story supposedly unfolds in a Styrian castle inhabited by Laura, her father, Laura’s nurse, and Mademoiselle de la Fontaine, her father’s “assistant.”...

    • ON CROSSINGS (STRING QUARTET NO. 3 AND STRING QUARTET NO. 4)
      (pp. 199-200)

      Twice it has happened to me that during or just after the lengthy composition process required to produce a complex work (I work very slowly on such pieces, with much care and computation), an almost equally elaborate one will emerge with surprising speed and fluency. Such was the case when I interrupted, in 1964, the nearly five-year struggle to complete mySonata for Microtonal Piano/Grindlemusic, sketches for which date from 1960, to produce, in little over two months,String Quartet no. 2. The second such occurrence came in 1966, just after the intricate effort to compose the orchestral pieceQuintet...

    • ON THE AGE OF SURVEILLANCE
      (pp. 201-202)

      In the fall of 1978 I wrote a “Do-It-Yourself-Piece” (one of a genre of my devising which entails a typewritten recipe on how to make a piece of music). This one was the fifth in a series (actually the sixth, as one not so-called qualifies) and, like some of the others, pushes back the boundaries of what can be called music, since it is altogether verbal, spoken in the normal mode.

      The Age of Surveillancewas a reaction to the activities of a campus group of students and faculty whose political convictions are fairly clearly Marxist in outlook. In this...

    • ON STRING QUARTET NO. 5
      (pp. 203-203)

      I composedString Quartet no. 5in 1979 for the Concord Quartet, but they delayed performance of it because of unrelated recording commitments. When in 1983 the piece was requested on a Chicago retrospective concert of my music, I requested that they release the work so that the Tremont Quartet could premiere it, promising them my next quartet (no. 7), which they now have. The Tremont Quartet had performed and liked very much myString Quartet no. 4in a retrospective concert of my works at State University of New York at Buffalo several years earlier.

      This work, like the...

    • ON STRING QUARTET NO. 6
      (pp. 204-204)

      String Quartet no. 6was composed for the New World Quartet on the occasion of their winning recognition from the Walter W. Naumburg Foundation. It has required not only more than usual care and creative partnership from within the quartet but also, during the rehearsal period, from me. Without a spirit of true collaborative participation in realizing and projecting the artistic aims of the work, a convincing performance would not have been possible. I am permanently grateful to these four men for their understanding, dedication, and hard work.

      Since this quartet explores the extended (microtonally more-than-chromatic) reaches of a harmonic...

    • ON JOURNEYS
      (pp. 205-206)

      The commissioning ofJourneyscoincided with my moving from Urbana, Illinois, to Rocky Mount, North Carolina, my wife’s childhood home. My own childhood was spent in Macon, Georgia, and Richmond, Virginia, so this move has been, in a real sense, a homecoming. My wife and I had lived in Champaign-Urbana since 1951 . All of our children grew up there, so in an even more basic sense, Illinois is our home. Certainly the University of Illinois was home, and more, to my musical life. The whole of my professional life has been based there, and most of my compositions until...

    • ON SLEEP AND WAKING
      (pp. 207-208)

      When Ron George approached me to compose a percussion work for him, he offered to design and build instruments capable of being tuned as I would like, and sent me recordings of his own work. I liked best the American gamelan, so we decided to work together on a gamelan composition.

      I wanted to do a work that would reflect the Partch-like dichotomy of Otonality and Utonality, so I decided to base the tuning on the fourth through the sixteenth partials of the overtone series of A and the exact mirror of this. Tuned pipes, tuned gongs, tuned drums, and...

  9. IV. ON OTHER COMPOSERS

    • LETTER FROM URBANA 1963
      (pp. 211-215)

      The 1963 Festival of Contemporary Arts at the University of Illinois included twelve musical events as well as two lectures and a roundtable discussion which posed questions illuminated by the concert programs. Edward T. Cone’s lecture, “The Irrelevance of Tonality,” developed the thesis that there are musical works in the pitch organization of which the perception of a central point of reference is crucial to the heard structure of the composition, while there are others, more frequently encountered in contemporary music but not absent from the music of earlier periods, in which the structure does not so depend, though the...

    • TO PERSPECTIVES OF NEW MUSIC RE. JOHN CAGE 1969
      (pp. 216-218)

      Dear Sirs:

      I have a bone to pick withPerspectives. If it were not that this magazine is the leading scholarly publication in the United States which deals with new music, my taking up this issue would hardly be worth the trouble, since it concerns a matter (I think) of diehard aesthetic bias. ButPerspectiveshas been good to me, printing my articles when no one else was interested; so I think I should give it the courtesy of registering in its pages my objections.

      I take vehement exception toPerspectives’sperennial one-sided treatment of John Cage, so consistent that...

    • THE CORPOREALISM OF HARRY PARTCH 1975
      (pp. 219-231)

      What was planned this past winter for Harry Partch cannot now take place, because he died last fall. But that underlines the urgency that something else has to happen: the rescue of his life work, which could easily slide into oblivion.

      More than is usually the case, there is after Harry Partch’s death little certainty that any continuity will result from his life’s efforts. Practically none of his works are performable without his instruments, and there is only one set of these. They are quite perishable and very difficult to maintain in playable condition. If anything of his work is...

    • HARRY PARTCH/JOHN CAGE 1978
      (pp. 232-234)

      The motivation to be avant-garde is a complex thing, often compounded of dissatisfaction with one’s own time, enthusiasm for new possibilities, and nostalgia for the past. Artists of the Renaissance, in turning their backs on the medieval world, looked back to classical times before looking to the newly discovered larger world outside Europe. Many of the innovations of early twentieth-century art were sparked by the art of primitive cultures. It would seem that to extend toward the future, it is usually necessary to reach at the same time into the past.

      In the United States there has been since colonial...

    • HARRY PARTCH’S CLOUD-CHAMBER MUSIC 1978
      (pp. 235-242)

      The challenge provided by Harry Partch’s pitch usages is much stronger than it appears, lost as it is among half a dozen more radical-seeming elements in his work. In particular, the impressive array of sculptural new instruments of the plectra and percussion types, whose sound has a strong attack component followed by a relatively sharp decay, obscures rather than dramatizes Partch’s pitch designs.

      It is not the melodic element that gets short shrift but rather the harmonic. In Partch’s art, both are overwhelmingly important parameters, along with metrical rhythm. Far from dethroning pitch as a major organizing element in music,...

    • BEYOND HARRY PARTCH 1981
      (pp. 243-250)

      Most of American culture sees art as a variety of entertainment, and “serious” art as a not very successful variety of high-class amusement. Note the adjective: an interest in serious art is seen as a credential for identification with a higher social class. The government, and the majority of the people, thinks that art should support itself like any other commercial enterprise and that if a minority wants to indulge in aristocratic pretensions it should pay for these without subsidy.

      A minority, mostly wealthy, has never given up an aristocratic stratification of society and supports an art which imitates European...

    • REGARDING LA MONTE YOUNG 1995
      (pp. 251-258)

      My relevance to La Monte Young is that I am a composer who is involved, as he is, in just intonation. About this much more later. But as a writer on him I could function as a critic, which is a variety of journalism, or I could reminisce and comment about my relation as another composer to La Monte, and try to give some insight into why he does as he does when dealing with music. On the whole, I feel much more inclined to the second alternative, though doubtless some elements of the former will from time to time...

  10. NOTES ON SOURCES
    (pp. 259-262)
  11. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 263-266)
  12. DISCOGRAPHY
    (pp. 267-270)
  13. INDEX
    (pp. 271-276)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 277-287)