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The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions

The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions: Volume 1: A-L; Volume 2: M-Z

Associate Editor SEAN MEIGHOO
Editorial Coordinator JOYCE LEUNG
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 640
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  • Book Info
    The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions
    Book Description:

    The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions is the definitive reference for Caribbean religious phenomena from a Caribbean perspective. Generously illustrated, this landmark project combines the breadth of a comparative approach to religion with the depth of understanding of Caribbean spirituality as an ever-changing and varied historical phenomenon. Organized alphabetically, entries examine how Caribbean religious experiences have been shaped by and have responded to the processes of colonialism and the challenges of the postcolonial world. _x000B__x000B_Systematically organized by theme and area, the encyclopedia considers religious traditions such as Vodou, Rastafari, Sunni Islam, Sanatan Dharma, Judaism, and the Roman Catholic and Seventh-day Adventist churches. Detailed subentries present topics such as religious rituals, beliefs, practices, specific historical developments, geographical differences, and gender roles within major traditions. Also included are entries that address the religious dimensions of geographical territories that make up the Caribbean. _x000B__x000B_Representing the culmination of more than a decade of work by the associates of the Caribbean Religions Project, The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions will foster a greater understanding of the role of religion in Caribbean life and society, in the Caribbean diaspora, and in wider national and transnational spaces.

    eISBN: 978-0-252-09433-0
    Subjects: History, Religion

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents [Volume 1]
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Editorial Board and Personnel
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
    Patrick Taylor and Frederick I. Case

    From the earliest days of European colonization, the Caribbean has remained an area of religious concern in the European imagination. Caribbean indigenous peoples were portrayed as being either barbaric beasts fit for enslavement or noble savages in need of redemption. Enslaved Africans were deemed by both Roman Catholics and Protestants to be practitioners of “witchcraft” lacking true religious sensibility or unfortunate idol worshippers in need of conversion. The Hindus and Muslims who were brought to the region as indentured workers provided new opportunities for Presbyterian and other missionaries to eradicate what they saw as “paganism” emanating from the “Orient.” Today,...

  6. Abakuá
    (pp. 1-9)
    Israel Moliner

    Between 1550 and 1850 an extensive number of people who had been taken by force from the Calabar region in southeast Nigeria near Cameroon were brought to Cuba as slaves. In this predominantly swampy area, the Efik, Andoni, Kwa, Ibibio, Ekoi, Ekakana, Ikwe, Bonny, Ijaro, Bros, Ke, and Onmike ethnic groups coexisted during the centuries of African slave trading. The Carabalí (from Calabar) were known in Cuba by the names of Abaló, Abuya, Acocuá, Apapá, Beron, Bibí, Bríkamo, Efik, Elugo, Hatan, Ibó (Igbo), Cola, Isuéque, Biafara, and Isuama (Suama). Although Fernando Ortiz included the Ibó among the Carabalí, it is...

  7. African Caribbean Religions
    (pp. 9-17)
    Maureen Warner-Lewis and Carol B. Duncan

    Among the neotraditional African religions in the Caribbean are Vodou of Haiti and its related Rada (Vudunu) of Trinidad, Santería or Lucumí in Cuba, Orisha Tradition or Shango in Trinidad and Grenada, Kele in Saint Lucia, Palo Monte in Cuba, Kumina in Jamaica, Winti in Suriname, Kromanti Dance (Kromanti Play) of the Jamaican Maroons, and Comfa in Guyana. All these religions have evolved out of religions practiced by various ethnic groups in West and Central Africa. Vodou derives largely from the Fon people of the former Kingdom of Dahomey and also incorporates Kongo elements; Orisha, Lucumí, and Kele have crystallized...

  8. African Caribbean Funerary Rites
    (pp. 17-33)
    Yvon van der Pijl, J. D. Elder, Maarit Forde, Donald R. Hill, J. D. Elder and Jerry Romain

    The African Surinamese population (see Suriname) is characterized by internal variation and cultural-religious heterogeneity but can be divided roughly into “Creoles,” who are urban-based and urban-oriented, and Maroons, the descendants of escaped slaves. Both groups, however, share a belief in the unremitting intertwinement of the world of the living and the world of the dead. In the perception and experience of the majority of African Surinamese, death does not mean the definitive end of life. Death implies a continuation of life in another form. Contacts between the living and the yorka or kabra, the spirits of the deceased, are possible...

  9. Ahmadiyya Movement
    (pp. 33-39)
    Halima Kassim

    The Indians who arrived in the Caribbean were predominantly Hindu (see Hinduism). Yet within India, and particularly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, and Punjab, there were large Muslim populations. Although Sunni Muslims (see Sunni Islam) formed the majority of these populations, there were a minority of Shia Muslims and Wahhabi Muslims (see also Islam). For every shipload of Indian immigrants that arrived in Trinidad, Guyana, and Suriname, then, there were invariably a few Muslims who were most probably Sunni in orientation. One historian estimates that of these immigrants, 80 percent were Hindus, 15 percent Muslims, and the rest...

  10. Anglican Church
    (pp. 39-60)
    Noel Titus, Noel Titus, Michael Clarke, Glenroy Taitt, Charles-Poisset Romain, Juana Berges, Jorge Luis Lora Moran and Herman Snijders

    Ecclesia Anglicana was the Church of England not only in England but also in the Caribbean, where it gradually took root in the seventeenth century. Its advent in the region was part of the process of migration from England during that century. European trading nations had already successfully challenged the idea that the Spanish had a title to the “New World” biblically derived from Adam. The advent of commercial rivals not only made the Caribbean a theater for military activity, it also made the region the stage on which religious intolerance was acted out. Just as residents of Spanish or...

  11. Antigua and Barbuda
    (pp. 60-67)
    Carl E. James

    In his 1846 report on education in postemancipation Antigua, Lois Rothe indicated that it was the “dissenting sects,” the Moravian Church and the Methodist Church, and not the established Anglican Church (Church of England), that were mainly responsible for the religious and moral values that were in evidence among the enslaved Africans before and after their emancipation in 1834. “Of the British colonies, Antigua did the most, even before emancipation, to promote religion and morality among the slaves. They were thus more prepared for the changes which took place in their conditions. As in the other colonies, here, too, it...

  12. Apostolic Teaching Centre
    (pp. 67-70)
    Judith Soares

    The Apostolic Teaching Centre (atc) was founded in Barbados on January 5, 1995, by Pastors Eliseus and Marcia Joseph, a husband and wife team who had been pastoring in the tradition of the Wesleyan Holiness Church. The atc church can be described as nondenominational with roots in the neo-Pentecostal, neo-charismatic movement (see Pentecostal Churches; Fundamentalism). It exercises its role as church in the nation through the power of prayer. It focuses on issues of national import and is concerned with what a future Barbados will look like. Since the atc considers itself an agent of social change rather than a...

  13. Arará
    (pp. 70-78)
    Israel Moliner

    The inhabitants of western Africa captured during the slave trade in the territories today known as the Republics of Benin, Togo, and Ghana were called Arará in Cuba, Aradas in Haiti, and Jejes in Brazil. Men and women belonging to the Adja, Fon, and Ewe ethnic groups, who lived in the territories where the kingdoms of Arada (see Rada), Ardra, and Jakin (also known as Porto Novo) had their main settlements, were brought by slave traders under these names. In Cuba, they were also known as Agicón, Kuévanos, Maginos, Nezevé, and Sabalú.

    Arará is the result of the mixing of...

  14. Arawak and Carib Religions
    (pp. 78-94)
    Patrick Taylor, Leah Stewart, Karin Boven, Karin Boven, Gloria De Wever, Leah Stewart, Damon Corrie and Kathryn Grimbly-Bethke

    The encounter of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean area (see Indigenous Religions) with Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the subsequent imposition of European nomenclatures for such peoples have resulted in much distortion and confusion in the written record. Columbus took literally the Taíno word caribe, referring to a fearsome mythical creature that consumed human flesh (Columbus 1989, 329–31). When he confronted the peoples of the eastern Caribbean, some of whom were encroaching on the territory of the Taínos of the Greater Antilles by the fifteenth century, he assumed that these were the caribes, and the...

  15. Arya Samaj
    (pp. 94-98)
    Brinsley Samaroo

    The Arya Samaj (Society of Noble People) was formed in India in 1875, at a time when Indian indentureship in the Caribbean was in full force. Like the Brahmo Samaj (Society of Brahma) and the Dev Samaj (Society of God), it was one of the movements that arose in British India during the nineteenth century to improve the social status of Hindus (see Hinduism—Religious Diversity) by replacing the unacceptable socioreligious norms that were then current with the earlier norms of the Vedic period. In a significant way, these movements created the necessary spiritual revival in a highly religious society...

  16. Bahamas
    (pp. 99-103)
    Judith Soares

    The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is a multi-island country. Its 29 islands, 661 cays, and 2,387 rock islands stretch from the southeast of Florida in the United States to the north of Hispaniola, forming an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. Covering an area of 5,353 square miles and with an estimated population of some 305,655 in 2007 (Bahamas Guide 2008), the Bahamas, like the rest of the Caribbean, has a history rooted in colonial plunder, slavery, and the dominance of the Christian religion (see Christianity).

    With the close neighbors of Cuba, Hispaniola (see Haiti, Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, and Jamaica,...

  17. Baptist Churches
    (pp. 103-114)
    Jean Besson, Charles-Poisset Romain and Juana Berges

    During colonial plantation slavery in Jamaica, the established Anglican Church of the planters had little impact on enslaved Africans and their descendants. In the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, however, English nonconformist missionaries (Moravians, Methodists, and Baptists) were sent to the colony (see Baptist Churches; Methodist Church; Moravian Church). This missionary activity had more influence on the black population than the white population. The established church and most planters largely opposed the preaching of the missionaries. The Baptists had the most success in converting slaves, as the Baptist faith had been introduced by Negro preachers. The most important of...

  18. Barbados
    (pp. 114-117)
    Judith Soares and Noel Titus

    The history of religion in Barbados usually begins with the arrival of the British, the Church of England, and Christianity. However, it is important to note that the country’s prehistory is marked by the settlement of indigenous peoples of South American origin. According to Beckles (1990, 1), Barbados “was first inhabited by an Amerindian migrant group now called the Saladoid-Barrancoid about ad 350–650.” These first inhabitants were followed by waves of Lokono and Kalinago (Island Carib) peoples from what is now Guyana, Guyane, Suriname, and Venezuela, where descendants of their ancestors continue to live and practice their spirituality (see...

  19. Bedwardism
    (pp. 117-122)
    Veront M. Satchell

    Jamaica, a former Caribbean colony of Britain, has had a long history of plantation slavery marked by racism and social and political oppression of the black population and the struggle of that population to liberate itself. Religion among the black population has often become a starting point for political activity and resistance to white culture. Revivalism is a form of that religiously motivated resistance (Chevannes 1971a, 47). The Jamaica Native Baptist Free Church, a working-class Revivalist movement established in August Town, Saint Andrew Parish, Jamaica, in 1889, rose to prominence in the island between 1891 and 1920 under the charismatic...

  20. Belize
    (pp. 123-129)
    Patrick Taylor

    Belize, the name assumed by the former British Honduras with its independence from Britain in 1981, presents a unique case in any discussion of Caribbean religions because of its location on the Central American mainland. Although there are some parallels with the Guyanas in South America (see Guyana; Guyane; Suriname), the continuing presence of vital Mayan cultures, unique to the Central American region, and the ever-changing impact of waves of migration from neighboring countries on three sides as well as from overseas have contributed to making Belize ethnically different from anywhere else in the region. Despite this difference, Belize takes...

  21. Caribbean Theology
    (pp. 130-140)
    Harold Sitahal

    Understanding Caribbean theology can be facilitated by a comparative study of the Latin American theology of liberation. Liberation theology, as formulated by its Latin American proponents, has its genesis in certain historical circumstances similar to those experienced by the peoples of the Caribbean territories. Liberation theology evolved as the theological reflection on the liberating hopes, activities, and expectations of and on behalf of the suffering masses of people. As the developmental model for dealing with the socioeconomic problems of these states became ineffective in eradicating the depressing conditions of the poor, a new model was sought. It became evident that...

  22. Carnival
    (pp. 140-151)
    Eugenio Matibag and Vernet Larose

    The popular yearly festivals called Carnival—characterized by community participation, parading, masquerading, music playing, drinking, feasting, and dancing in the streets—give both occasion for a general unleashing of energies and license to the pursuit of sensual pleasures normally discouraged during the holidays they either precede or follow. Carnival reiterates in general the celebratory indulgences of Roman bacchanalia and the orgiastic fertility rites of non-Christian peoples. In the pre-Lenten celebrations of the Hispanic Caribbean islands, Carnival rehearses the old conflict between Don Carnal and Doña Cuaresma, the personifications of the Flesh and Lent as memorialized once and for all in...

  23. Carriacou
    (pp. 151-156)
    Donald R. Hill

    Religious practices in Carriacou, Grenada, mirror those of the eastern Caribbean generally. Most people in Carriacou identify themselves as Christian; indeed, as defined locally, “religion” is Christianity, and Christianity usually means either the adherence to the Catholic or Anglican churches. Carriacou also supports small Wesleyan, Evangelical, Pentecostal, Seventh-day Adventist, Spiritual Baptist, and African Baptist faiths who meet in their official churches or in temples, in homes or outdoors (see Methodist Church; Pentecostal Churches; Seventh-day Adventist Church; Spiritual Baptist Faith). Rastafari celebrate in their Nyahbinghi temple in the village of Bogles.

    Many Carriacouans blend weekly church or temple activity with attendance...

  24. Chinese Caribbean Religions
    (pp. 156-165)
    Patrick Taylor, Federico A. Chang Pon, Frank F. Scherer and Keith Lowe

    With the emancipation of enslaved Africans, beginning in 1834 in the Anglophone Caribbean, and the need for new sources of cheap labor to work on plantations and in other areas of the economy, planters and their agents started to look beyond Africa to satisfy their needs. A new wave of European imperial expansion was already under way, and it was soon established that Indians and Chinese could replace Africans. Although much has been written about the Indians who were brought to the Caribbean as indentured workers (see Hinduism, Islam), less has been written about the Chinese who were brought to...

  25. Christianity
    (pp. 165-167)
    Noel Titus

    The Christian religion was first brought to the Caribbean region during the last decade of the fifteenth century. This was one of the results of the Spanish expedition to the region under the leadership of Christopher Columbus, beginning in 1492. The explorers and colonists who migrated to the Caribbean during the succeeding decades included clergy of the Roman Catholic Church in Spain. Quite naturally, they brought a form of Christianity that reflected in part the one to which they were accustomed. The Spanish Church was controlled by the Spanish monarchs to an unprecedented extent. In the Caribbean the Church showed...

  26. Church of God
    (pp. 167-171)
    Frankie Douglas Drakes and Frankie Douglas Drakes

    Members in the Caribbean-Atlantic Region of the Church of God are affiliated with the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), which is sometimes referred to as the Church of God Reformation Movement. The Caribbean-Atlantic Region covers an area from Bermuda in the north to Guyana in the south, and from the Cayman Islands in the west to Barbados in the east. It includes all those English-speaking islands in which the Church of God has been established, as well as Dutch-speaking Curaçao, off the coast of Venezuela, and French-speaking Haiti.

    The Church of God originated in the Midwest during the very dynamic...

  27. Church of Religious Science
    (pp. 171-174)
    Judith Soares

    The Church of Religious Science (CRS) emerged in Barbados in 1970 out of the u.s.-based Unity Mission. Its first minister, Diane Seaman, was a u.s. national and former head of the Unity Mission. Though part of the worldwide movement of Religious Science, the Barbadian Church enjoys an autonomous existence and operates more like a study group. Study sessions are conducted along the principles of participation and are intended to help adherents experience health, happiness, peace, and love as they explore the intersections of science, philosophy, and religion.

    The Church of Religious Science was born and reared in the New Age...

  28. Church of Scotland
    (pp. 174-177)
    Harold Sitahal

    The Church of Scotland evolved out of the very strong influence and activity of the Reformation in Scotland. It must be emphasized that the formation of the Church of Scotland followed closely the Calvinist stream of the sixteenth-century reformation of Christianity. The Reformation in Scotland was most dependent on the leadership and ideas of the Scottish reformer John Knox (1513–72) (see Protestantism). During his exile in Geneva, Knox had worked closely with another Protestant reformer, John Calvin (1509–64). The Church of Scotland was established as a Protestant church in 1567. After a period of disruption and popular revolt...

  29. Comfa
    (pp. 177-186)
    Kean Gibson

    The word “Comfa” (also written “Cumfa” and “Kumfa”) is the generic term for the manifestation of spirits in Guyana. The word has several references to the nonpractitioner in that it refers to anyone who becomes spiritually possessed on hearing the beating of drums, or who becomes possessed without apparent reason. These people are said to “ketch Comfa.” But it refers as well to a religion that is also known as “Spiritualism” or “Faithism,” in which spiritual possession plays a central role (see also Spiritism in Cuba). The term was used to refer to the worship of the Watermamma spirit (Duff...

  30. Congregationalism
    (pp. 186-193)
    Claire Annelise Smith

    Congregationalism in the English-speaking Caribbean was begun through the work of the London Missionary Society (lms). The lms was formed in England in 1795. Its Plan declared that “The sole object is to spread the knowledge of Christ among heathen and other unenlightened nations” in recognition that “the union of God’s people of various denominations, in carrying on this great work, is a most desirable object.” It established as its fundamental principle the sending of only “the glorious Gospel of the blessed God, to the heathen; and that it shall be left (as it ought to be left) to the...

  31. Convince
    (pp. 193-197)
    Kenneth Bilby

    Described in the 1960s as one of the most “Africanoid” forms of worship in Jamaica (Hogg 1964, 262), Convince (also known as Bongo or Flenky) remains one of the least known religions in the Caribbean. Before the work of anthropologist Donald Hogg (1960; 1964) in St. Mary Parish, almost nothing had been written about Convince except in a doctoral dissertation by Joseph Moore (1953, 58–60), who gave a brief description of its practice in St. Thomas Parish during the early 1950s. More recently, Kenneth Bilby (1981; 1999) has carried out short-term ethnographic work with a number of individual Convince...

  32. Cuba
    (pp. 197-223)
    Jorge Ramírez Calzadilla, Jorge Ramírez Calzadilla, María Elena Vinueza, Yolanda Wood Pujols, Nancy B. Mikelsons and Maribel Rivero Socarrás

    Cuban society presents an extraordinary level of religious, racial, cultural, and economic diversity, as do other modern nations, especially those in Latin America and the Caribbean, where nationality developed through the contributions of different peoples. This diversity began with the European conquest and colonization. The abrupt arrival of the Spanish imprinted new paths on the course of the history of the region. Cuban culture is the outcome of a process of transculturation, a more appropriate concept than that of acculturation or enculturation. Cuba is a melting pot of cultures, a synthesis of different races, from the oldest and most influential...

  33. Dominica
    (pp. 224-227)
    Gary R. Smith

    The people of volcanic, rainforest-draped Dominica nurture a traditional blend of conservative Roman Catholicism (see Roman Catholic Church—Anglophone Caribbean) and a complex set of secular beliefs about nature and human beings’ proper role as arbiters and residents among its varied mysteries. At least ten active points of volcanism threaten Dominica’s lush landscape. Hurricanes frequently storm through the area, wreaking destruction and mayhem on the sixty-odd village communities that mostly cling to its thirty-two- mile- long leeward and windward coasts. The rain-soaked, montane-forested interior offers both bounty and challenge to the people who plumb its depths in search of sustenance....

  34. Dominican Republic
    (pp. 227-236)
    Eugenio Matibag and Andreana L. Ososki

    As if to bless the entire nation with outstretched arms, the towering statue of Christ stands atop the Isabel de Torre Hill of Puerto Plata, a major city in the Dominican Republic. Resembling the Christ of the Corcovado of Rio de Janeiro, the monument greets visitors who arrive at the foot of its pedestal by way of cable car, the country’s only tranvía (Brown 1999, 12). The Cristo of Puerto Plata also stands as a symbol of the country’s dominant religions, although his stiff embrace is belied by the dynamism and heterogeneity that the country’s mosaic of religious cultures presents....

  35. Ecumenical Movement
    (pp. 237-259)
    Harold Sitahal, Glenroy Taitt, Harold Sitahal, Juana Berges and Juana Berges

    The Caribbean Conference of Churches (CCC) originated and developed in the matrix of noticeable social ferment and corresponding contextual theological reflection in the Caribbean in the 1960s (see Caribbean Theology). This was an era in which Third World theological reflection profoundly influenced the ecumenical movement. The peculiarity of this theology was the concern to deal with unjust social structures that deprived and dominated certain classes, nations, races, and women. The conclusion was that there was a confluence and even a coincidence of God’s concern for the poor, oppressed, and powerless and their revolutionary aspirations and struggles in the face of...

  36. Education
    (pp. 259-282)
    Carl E. James, Lila Gobardhan-Rambocus and Halima Kassim

    Evident in the schooling and educational experiences of members of most Western societies is the significant, and oftentimes direct, role played by religious organizations and their workers. In the English-speaking Caribbean in particular, our experiences were informed and mediated by the dominant religious belief or denominational doctrine (usually Anglicanism and Catholicism) of the governing structure of the respective islands as well as the particular church affiliation of the schools we attend or attended. Both historically and contemporarily, religion has influenced the schooling processes and educational experiences of English-speaking Caribbean people and has played a role in the production and reproduction...

  37. Ethiopianism
    (pp. 282-284)
    Ikael Tafari

    For generations of Africans and people of African descent, the undying symbol of an ancient, independent, black Kingdom of Ethiopia under an African Christian king was their guiding star of Bethlehem during the darkest hours of the long night of European conquest and occupation, beginning toward the turn of the twentieth century in the wake of the balkanization of the ancestral motherland (see Christianity). Celebrated in classical antiquity, Ethiopia’s rich, romantic history was also steeped in the enduring mystique of biblical prophecy. Thus, it was divinely ordained that “Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her...

  38. Firepass Ceremony
    (pp. 285-289)
    Keith E. McNeal

    The “firepass” or firewalking ceremony is important because it represents perhaps the most prominent religious ritual of the “Madrassis,” indentured immigrants who came to the Caribbean from South India. It came to be seen as an integral aspect of Madrassi identity in colonial Trinidad. But the firepass ceremony is also important because it has not only influenced but also been partially appropriated by and reframed within contemporary forms of ecstatic Kali worship and related forms of Shakti Puja practiced in postcolonial Trinidad. (Puja is a general term for ritual worship to a deity, and shakti is a conceptualization of cosmic...

  39. Fundamentalism
    (pp. 289-297)
    Judith Soares and Junior Campbell

    Christian fundamentalism, as theology, ideology, and movement, is not indigenous to the Caribbean, although this religious expression has become “indigenized” through the course of history (see Christianity; Protestantism). An offshoot of u.s. Protestant fundamentalism, it began its exodus to the Caribbean from as early as the turn of the twentieth century, a period that coincided with the emergence of monopoly capitalism in the United States and the spread of American imperialism in the Caribbean. Therefore, the history, theology, and ideology of the fundamentalist movement in the Caribbean is intricately bound up with that of the United States and must be...

  40. Gangá
    (pp. 298-301)
    Israel Moliner

    The name “Gangá” included different West African ethnic groups who were enslaved in Cuba. Fernando Ortiz (1975, 58) lamented the impossibility of locating the exact origins of the Gangá. Henry Dumont (1915, 161) placed them in the area near the Las Palmas cape on the West African coast and indicated that there were two types, “those who live on the coast and those who reside in the mountains.” However, aside from the Longowá subgroup, there is no doubt whatsoever that the Gangá originated in the Senegambia and can be classified as a subgroup of the Mandinga. The Gangá Longowá are...

  41. Grenada
    (pp. 301-304)
    Beverley Steele

    Grenada Island is the most southerly island of the Windward Island grouping and the most southerly island in the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. The island of Grenada must be distinguished from the state of Grenada that comprises the islands of Grenada, Carriacou, and Petit Martinique and a number of other smaller islets, collectively known as the Grenada Grenadines. Grenada Island is about 21 miles in length and 12 miles wide at its widest point and covers 129 square miles.

    The religious complexity of Grenada reflects the history, demography, and immigration patterns of the island. Grenada was first inhabited by...

  42. Gumbay
    (pp. 304-305)
    Kenneth Bilby

    Gumbay (Goombay, Gumbe, Gombay) is the name of a particular type of square or rectangular frame drum that was once widespread in Jamaica but today survives in only a few communities (Bettelheim 1999, 3–11). Its unique design makes it easily recognizable: with four (or sometimes two) wooden legs protruding from a shallow, rectangular frame, the gumbay resembles nothing so much as a stool or bench whose seat has been removed and replaced with a goatskin. Historical sources show that prototypes or variants of this drum (as well as other kinds of drums with similar names) were used in many...

  43. Guyana
    (pp. 305-308)
    Frederick I. Case

    Although considered a part of the Caribbean, the Cooperative Republic of Guyana is situated on the northeastern part of the South American landmass. Guyana covers a vast territory that is rich in natural resources of water, forests, fauna, a great variety of minerals, and oil. With the Republic of Suriname and Guyane, Guyana is part of a trio of anomalous linguistic, religious, and political entities with a significant population of indigenous peoples of South America (see Indigenous Religions). In fact, Guyana presently has a population of twelve or thirteen distinct indigenous language groups (Gordon 2005). Although legal documents and common...

  44. Guyane
    (pp. 308-310)
    Frederick I. Case

    Guyane is still often mistakenly referred to as French Guiana, and this confusing legacy of colonialism is not surprising. Since 1946 Guyane, Martinique, and Guadeloupe (see Martinique and Guadeloupe) have been administratively and legally overseas departments of France, and since the 1980s these three territories have been granted regional status. Guyane elects two members of the National Assembly and one member of the Senate in Paris. Because of Guyane’s regional status, it has a certain degree of autonomy in its relationship with its neighbors, Brazil and Suriname.

    The six nations of indigenous people—Lokono (Arawak), Kalina (Carib), Emerillon, Palicur, Wayampi,...

  45. Gwoka
    (pp. 310-312)
    Lucie Pradel

    To broach the subject of religion through dance can appear paradoxical because of historical bias and the ambiguous and indeed antagonistic connections between dance and religion. But despite the paradox, it appears to be appropriate in the study of Caribbean spirituality. According to a principle typical of African religions that was conveyed to the Caribbean, dance is one of the many ways in which faith can be expressed (see African Caribbean Religions). Communication with the divine is established through many media, using among others words, instruments, songs, body movements, and choreography. This involves the physical as much as the psychological...

  46. Haiti
    (pp. 313-315)
    Laënnec Hurbon

    On December 5, 1492, Christopher Columbus planted a cross on the shores of the island of Haiti, which he named Hispanola (Hispaniola). It was only three centuries later, on January 1, 1804, when a portion of the country became independent, that it regained the name given by the Taínos: Haiti. The Spanish, in a very short time during their frantic search for gold, succeeded in wiping out almost all the indigenous population (see Indigenous Religions). For more than a century, the island was given over to pirates and buccaneers. But in 1697, through the Treaty of Ryswick, France took possession...

  47. Hinduism
    (pp. 315-366)
    Brinsley Samaroo, Ramcharan Gosine, Ramcharan Gosine, Patricia Mohammed, Tina K. Ramnarine, Brinsley Samaroo, Anantanand Rambachan, Ramcharan Gosine, Olivier Mounsamy, Roby Narayanan, Fred Négrit, Annick Raghouber, Michel Nankou, Gerry L’Etang, Gerry L’Etang, Hans Ramsoedh, Lucie Bloemberg and Latchman P. Kissoon

    Between 1838 and 1917, approximately 500,000 girmitya (agreement signers) were brought from colonial India to the British, French, and Dutch Caribbean. This diaspora created by the indenture of Indians in the Caribbean was part of a larger exodus of some 1.3 million Indians who were transported as “bound coolies” to British, French, and Dutch colonies around the world. Perhaps the most striking feature of this influx of Indians was their diversity. There were Indians from the north who spoke Sanskritic languages, and Indians from the south who spoke Dravidian languages; there were “tribals” or indigenous peoples from Chota Nagpur in...

  48. Hosay
    (pp. 366-368)
    Kelvin Singh

    Indians who had been contracted or indentured as plantation laborers in the Caribbean during the nineteenth century considered it their contractual right to practice their religious rituals and customs in the host society to which they had been transported. Among these many rituals and customs, the celebration of Hosay (also known as Muharram or Tadjah) began to attract large numbers of participants in the mid-1850s, and by the 1880s it had become the most popular Indian festival in the Caribbean. Its eventual decline was due in part to its repression by the colonial authorities, which culminated in the shooting of...

  49. Indigenous Religions
    (pp. 369-374)
    Patrick Taylor and Leah Stewart

    The religions of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean can be loosely grouped in terms of the three basic culture areas that characterized the region when Europeans arrived: the Taíno, based on large-scale organized settlements to be found mainly in the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola [see Dominican Republic; Haiti], and Puerto Rico) but also influencing the Bahamas and parts of the Leeward Islands; Arawakan- and Cariban-speaking peoples (see Arawak and Carib Religions), associated with smaller communal settlements stretching through the Lesser Antilles (including Antigua, Dominica, Martinique and Guadeloupe, Saint Vincent, Barbados, Grenada, Tobago, Trinidad, St. Martin, and Curaçao [see...

  50. International Society for Krishna Consciousness
    (pp. 374-376)
    Graham M. Schweig

    The Hindu devotional tradition of Hare Krishna was founded by a seventy-year-old renunciate, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, who lived in the northern part of India near Agra, Vrindaban, the sacred village of pilgrimage most dear to the tradition’s supreme lord, Lord Krishna (see Hinduism). Prabhupada arrived in New York City in 1965, and in 1966 the movement he had begun was formally incorporated under the name International Society for Krishna Consciousness (iskcon). Now commonly known as the Hare Krishna movement, it has its historical roots in the Vaishnava tradition that arose in the Bengal province of India during the...

  51. Islam
    (pp. 376-415)
    Nasser Mustapha, Kareemah Ali, Kareemah Ali, Fazeela Mollick, Kareemah Ali, Kareemah Ali, Patricia Mohammed, Patricia Mohammed, Fazeela Mollick, Nasser Mustapha, Zohorah Nazma Ali, Halima Kassim, Ataur Bacchus, Herman Snijders and Andrea Morales Mesa

    The word “Islam” is an Arabic term meaning “submission to the will of God.” The word “Allah” is used by Muslims as well as by Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to refer to God. The Prophet Muhammad, often described as the founder of Islam, was born in the sixth century ce (around the year 570). He did not start an altogether new mission but instead came to confirm the messages of earlier prophets, which in essence was to obey Allah by following his example. Muhammad was about forty years old when he received his first revelation. He related this unusual experience...

  52. Iyessá
    (pp. 415-419)
    Israel Moliner

    People known in Cuba and other places in the Americas as Iyessá or Ileshas originate from the north of the Yoruba Empire in Nigeria, near the source of the Ochún and Ogún Rivers, at a latitude of between 8.5 degrees north and 3.5 degrees east. Constituting a Yoruba subgroup in Cuba as well as Brazil, they managed to refashion their ritual forms independently of other Yoruba and Lucumí cultures (see Santería) that were undergoing transculturation in those countries. According to oral traditions preserved by Iyessá practitioners from Matanzas and documents existing in that city’s Provincial Historical Archive, on June 24,...

  53. Jamaica
    (pp. 420-427)
    Patrick Taylor and Judith Soares

    Jamaica, the largest of the Anglophone Caribbean islands, is distinguished by its rich African religious traditions (see African Caribbean Religions), many of which have come into explosive contact with English- and American-based Protestant traditions (see Protestantism). As a result, Jamaica is in many respects the Haiti of the Anglophone Caribbean, despite the strong influence of the Roman Catholic Church in Haiti as compared to Jamaica. But to see Jamaica simply in terms of Africa, or even Africa and England, would be to miss other influential historical presences: Taíno (Arawak), Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu (see Judaism; Islam; Hinduism), among others, all...

  54. Japanese Religions in Cuba
    (pp. 427-430)
    Frank F. Scherer

    Unlike the well-documented histories of Chinese (Baltar Rodriguez 1997) and Korean (Ruiz and Lim Kim 2000) immigration to Cuba (see Chinese Caribbean Religions—Cuba; Korean Religions in Cuba), little is known about Japanese immigrants and their social integration, cultural traditions, and religious practices on the island. Although Alvarez Estévez and Gúzman (2002) offer detailed information on Japanese immigrants to Cuba, other contributions such as those presented by Masami Ropp and Chávez de Ropp (2002) and Yokota (2008) appear less orientalizing (see Scherer 2001). However, these materials say little or nothing about the religious practices of Japanese immigrants to Cuba. Generally...

  55. Javanism
    (pp. 430-437)
    Joop Vernooij

    Fifteen percent of the population of Suriname was Javanese in 2004, according to official government sources (Permanent Mission of the Republic of Suriname to the United Nations 2011). Coming predominantly from Central and East Java, the Javanese have their own distinct identity and in 1990, on the occasion of the centennial celebration of their presence in Suriname, preferred to call themselves Javanese Surinamese rather than Surinamese Javanese. The Javanese face of Suriname is an essential dimension of Suriname today, and traditional Javanese religion and culture, Kejawen (Kejawan), is a central aspect of Javanese identity. Although most Javanese were Muslims (see...

  56. Jege
    (pp. 437-438)
    Kenneth Bilby

    In the Kromanti Dance of the Windward Maroons of Jamaica, the term jege (jiggey) refers to a spiritually empowered object that forms one of the most important tools of the ritual specialist known as the fete-man or fete-uman. As part of his or her training, each such specialist receives at least one jege, either as a gift from a spirit or by purchasing it from another specialist. A jege can take several forms, ranging from a doll to a bundle of herbs or a vial containing an herbal mixture. The most common type of jege, however, consists of a small...

  57. Jehovah’s Witnesses
    (pp. 438-442)
    Patrick Taylor and Clemente Hugo Ramírez Friás

    In the 1870s Charles Taze Russell participated in a Bible study group in Pittsburgh and began sharing the millenarian interpretation of the Bible that would become the basis of the teachings of the Jehovah’s Witnesses (see also Fundamentalism). Russell started writing pamphlets on the Bible and publishing a magazine titled Zion’s Watch Tower and Herald of Christ’s Presence. As his ideas spread, congregations of loyal followers developed. In 1884 he founded Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society to print and circulate his ideas in different languages. Thousands of followers spread out to preach and distribute his work; by 1889 the Plan...

  58. Jonkonnu
    (pp. 442-443)
    Kenneth Bilby

    Jonkonnu (John Canoe, Jonkunu, Junkanoo) is a Christmas festival tradition centering on music, masked dancing, street parading, and, in former times, mumming. Variants of the tradition exist in several parts of the Anglophone Caribbean including Jamaica, the Bahamas, and Belize; related traditions known by the same name were once practiced in North and South Carolina. The core tradition appears to have originated in Jamaica, where we find the earliest eyewitness descriptions (Bettelheim 1979). From accounts published in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, it is apparent that Jonkonnu performances were a ubiquitous and important part of life during the...

  59. Judaism
    (pp. 443-467)
    Judah M. Cohen, Alan F. Benjamin, Judah M. Cohen, Alisa Siegel, Alisa Siegel, Judah M. Cohen, Alisa Siegel, Eugenia Farin Levy, Emma Farin Levy, Judah M. Cohen and Harry A. Ezratty

    Judaism maintains a complex place in the world of Caribbean religion. Although relatively few in the region profess Judaism as their primary religious faith, Judaism has nonetheless factored as a nearly constant presence partly due to its status as a progenitor of Western religious identity and partly due to its recognition as an alternative to Christianity in new or syncretic religious traditions. At different times and places, Judaism has been understood in the Caribbean as a religion, a culture, a nation, a race, and a mystique, often overlapping with the self-perceptions of populations identifying themselves as Jews. Understanding how these...

  60. Kabir Panth
    (pp. 468-471)
    Carolyn V. Prorok

    The Kabir Panth (School of Kabir) comprises all those who honor Kabir and his teachings, whether or not they belong to a formal organization. As such, the Kabir Panth continues to enjoy widespread recognition and practice in northern India, particularly in the regions between western Bihar and the Punjab. The exact number of adherents is difficult to determine, since Kabir Panthis (adherents of the Kabir Panth) are not enumerated separately from adherents of other Hindu schools or traditions. Many people who might be called Kabir Panthis may simultaneously practice some other religious traditions of northern India.

    Kabir was a poet-saint...

  61. Korean Religions in Cuba
    (pp. 471-475)
    Martha Lim Kim and Raúl R. Ruiz

    At the dawn of the twentieth century, the living conditions of ordinary Koreans left much to be desired. A backward agriculture, a weak industry, and a meager commerce did not provide sufficient employment. Hundreds of thousands of men were looking for work opportunities to sustain their families. It is in these conditions that trafficking entrepreneurs came up with a project to export local labor to other places in the world where it was needed.

    In 1905 in Inchon (Jinsen or Chempulco) near Seoul, a contingent of 1,033 people, the majority adult males, were contracted to work in henequen (agave fiber)...

  62. Kromanti Dance
    (pp. 475-481)
    Kenneth Bilby

    The ceremony known as Kromanti Dance (also known as Kromanti Play, or simply Play) is at the center of the traditional religion of the Maroons of Jamaica (see also Suriname—Maroons; Ndyuka Spirituality and Life-Cycle Rites). The name is derived from Kormantin, an important fort on the Gold Coast (corresponding roughly to what is known today as Ghana), from which many of the ancestors of the present-day Maroons were shipped.

    The escaped slaves who founded Maroon communities in Jamaica during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries must have relied heavily on African cultural models in building their new societies. Located beyond...

  63. Kumina
    (pp. 481-497)
    Olive Lewin, Olive Lewin and Kenneth Bilby

    Kumina is rooted in beliefs and practices brought to Jamaica mainly by postemancipation indentured laborers from Central Africa. In Kumina, “songs, some with African language texts, complex drum rhythms and distinctive dance movements are used in closely knit form, mainly to honor, appease and evoke the help of ancestral and other spirits in solving problems and addressing human needs” (Lewin 2000, 215). Kumina first came to public attention in Jamaica in 1963 through exposure in the Jamaica National Festival of Arts. The event focused on the dimensions of Kumina relating to the performing arts and showed little, if any, evidence...

  64. Literature
    (pp. 498-540)
    Eugenio Matibag, Ileana Sanz Cabrera, Bernard Delpêche, Anny Dominique Curtius, Andrea Davis, Andrea Davis, Frank Birbalsingh and Frank Birbalsingh

    With implications for charting the region’s literary discourse on religion, Robert J. Stewart correctly observes that “the history of religion in the Caribbean is similar in many respects to the history of religions in all colonial systems in that it is a story of the imposition of, the resistance to, the competing claims of power” (1999, 14). This story of imposition and resistance is told not only in scripture and liturgical texts but in the poems, plays, and novels that address religious issues or make reference to religious belief and practice. Intertextually, literary works of the Hispanic Caribbean have addressed...

  65. Lutheran Church
    (pp. 540-542)
    Abrahim H. Khan

    Lutheranism in Guyana marks its formal inception in 1743 as a result of settlement and not mission work when the country was a Dutch colony. In that year Ebenezer Lutheran Church was founded at New Amsterdam, situated on the bank of the Berbice River, as a place of worship for Dutch planters and their families. The colony changed hands from Dutch to British in 1803, and when the links between the two were completely severed in 1841, Holland no longer provided pastors. The Dutch left the Lutheran Church large assets in land and money but made no provision for pastoral...

  66. [Illustrations]
    (pp. None)
  67. Middle Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  68. Table of Contents [Volume 2]
    (pp. v-viii)
  69. Editorial Board and Personnel
    (pp. ix-x)
  70. Mahikari
    (pp. 543-546)
    Carolyn V. Prorok

    Mahikari is true light. True light is the perpetual, powerful emanation of God in the universe. It is a purifying light that cleanses souls and any material form to which it is directed by kami-kumite, the practitioners of Mahikari. Mahikari has its roots in the early modernization of Japan as a millenarian and messianic new spiritual practice known for syncretizing different traditions. In Mahikari, elements of Japanese folk practices (e.g., spiritism and ancestor worship), Shintoism (e.g., nature of deities and purity), Buddhism (e.g., the nature of hell and reincarnation), Confucianism (e.g., ethical conduct) (see Japanese Religions in Cuba; Chinese Caribbean...

  71. Mandirs and Masjids in Trinidad
    (pp. 546-555)
    Carolyn V. Prorok

    In 1984, a friend’s sister assisted me on my first reconnaissance of the island of Trinidad. My friend and his family are Trinidadians with a rich multicultural heritage. As we made our way “south” on new highways and narrow offshoots passing through the villages, my friend’s sister gave me a running account of the many wonderful elements of Trinidad’s cultural landscape. Most intriguing, though, were her references to various religious structures. The phrase “Indian church” covered Hindu temples (mandirs), Muslim mosques (masjids), and Presbyterian churches alike (see Hinduism; Islam; Presbyterian Church; Christianity), while her description, “They do Shango there,” represented...

  72. Martinique and Guadeloupe
    (pp. 555-559)
    Anny Dominique Curtius

    Martinique and Guadeloupe are located at the center of the archipelago of the Lesser Antilles. According to the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (insee), in January 2008 the population of Guadeloupe was estimated at 401,784 inhabitants (insee 2011a). Guadeloupe forms a 1,702-square-kilometer (657-square-mile) archipelago north of the island of Dominica and south of the island of Montserrat. It includes two main islands, Grande-Terre and Basse-Terre, that make up Guadeloupe itself and several smaller islands: La Désirade, Marie-Galante, the archipelago of Les Saintes, Saint Barthélemy, and the French part of Saint Martin. Located north of Saint Lucia and...

  73. Maya
    (pp. 559-576)
    Angel Cal, Diego Bol and Pedro Kukul

    The Spaniards categorized the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean as Indians (see Indigenous Religions), subjects of the Crown and souls to be converted to the Roman Catholic Church. As subjects, while they were to be protected from the grossest forms of exploitation, the Crown delegated to royal officials the power to secure from the indigenous peoples tribute, initially as part of the “spoils” of the conquest and subsequently as royal policy aimed at advancing the interests of the Crown. While the identity of interests of the two institutions of state and church did not always echo perfectly in the unstable...

  74. Mennonite Church in Jamaica
    (pp. 576-580)
    Judith Soares

    When Menno Simons (1496–1561), a former Dutch Catholic priest, broke with the official church in sixteenth-century Europe he had no idea that the movement of Mennonites, of which he was an early prominent leader, would stretch across the continents of the world. This faith began in the period of the Protestant Reformation when a group of radical believers, known as Anabaptists, challenged the reforms of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli, among others, who the Anabaptists thought were not radical enough. Within Protestantism, Anabaptism, which means “rebaptize” or “baptize again,” had its own distinctive flavor as a reform...

  75. Methodist Church
    (pp. 580-586)
    George Mulrain, Charles-Poisset Romain and Juana Berges

    The Methodist Church in the Caribbean and the Americas (mcca) consists of eight districts from the Caribbean and Central and South America. They include the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands; Belize and Honduras; Guyana; the Republic of Haiti; Jamaica; the Leeward Islands (Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Curaçao [see Netherlands Antilles], Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, Saint Croix, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Sint Maarten/Saint Martin, Saint Thomas, and Saint John); Panama and Costa Rica; the islands of the South Caribbean (Saint Vincent, Barbados, Saint Lucia, Grenada, Trinidad, and Tobago). There are also mcca congregations in Holland,...

  76. Mita Congregation
    (pp. 586-592)
    Nélida Agosto Cintrón

    The Mita Congregation was born in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, in 1940 when its founder, Juanita García Peraza, separated from the Pentecostal Church she belonged to and started her own religious movement (see Pentecostal Churches—Puerto Rico). The emergence of this movement was part of the religious revivalism in Puerto Rico during the 1930s and World War II. In 1930 a new religious panorama took shape on the island. Mainstream Protestantism introduced by missions resulting from the 1898 u.s. occupation had already been adopted in Puerto Rican society, as had Pentecostalism, which began there in 1916. (See Puerto Rico—Roman Catholicism...

  77. Moravian Church
    (pp. 592-622)
    Oliver Maynard

    The Moravian Church was founded on the teachings of Jan Hus (John Huss, 1373–1415), an evangelical Czech priest, rector of the University of Prague, and preacher at the Bethlehem Roman Catholic Church. Hus believed that salvation was the free gift of God to all who believe in Jesus Christ as their Savior. And so, in 1411, when the forgiveness of sins became associated with the sale of slips of paper called “indulgences,” Hus protested. Although Hus knew that to challenge the pope would lead elements in the church to seek to silence him by putting him to death, he...

  78. Mother Elenita from the Holy Mountain
    (pp. 622-624)
    Nélida Agosto Cintrón

    The religious movement known as Madre Elenita de la Santa Montaña (Mother Elenita from the Holy Mountain) emerged as a result of the u.s. occupation of Puerto Rico. The 1898 invasion triggered a strange religious phenomenon when, from among the peasantry, evangelists spontaneously appeared uttering eschatological messages and warning the population about how Protestantism’s arrival on the island would threaten the Roman Catholic faith (see Puerto Rico—Roman Catholicism and Protestantism).

    Puerto Rico had been under Spanish rule for nearly four centuries, and it was this political system that had maintained Catholicism’s monopoly. Although Catholicism was the state’s official and...

  79. Nago
    (pp. 625-626)
    Maureen Warner-Lewis

    Some Yoruba-speaking peoples are known as Nago. In French historical sources, this word was spelt “Nagot,” the French having sourced the term from Dahomey, which became one of the main French slave-trading regions in West Africa. The term then became used in transatlantic locations, among them Brazil and Jamaica. The word is an abbreviation of Anago, an omnibus ascription for the Ipokiya, Ifonyin, and Awori/Ahori subgroups of Yoruba-speaking peoples in what was once known as the Abeokuta province of Yorubaland, in today’s southwestern Nigeria. As such, the Nago come from the southwesterly edges of the Yoruba-speaking area of West Africa,...

  80. Nation Dance
    (pp. 626-633)
    Lorna McDaniel, Donald R. Hill, J. D. Elder and Jervis Viechweg

    The core of the local religion in Carriacou is the Big Drum or Nation Dance. More highly structured than the rites of newer religions, the Big Drum of Carriacou represents an ancient African-type religion that is still practiced, adored, and protected by Carriacouans. Many aspects of the Big Drum, such as the “beg pardon,” sacrifice, saraka (ritual feast) (see Rada; Rada—Saraka Ceremony; Nago), libation, use of the bell, and avoidance of salt are found in other ancestral rituals on surrounding islands and establish basic tenets that bind the religions conceptually. The Big Drum, which preserves an age-old vocal music,...

  81. Ndyuka Spirituality and Life-Cycle Rites
    (pp. 633-639)
    Thomas Polimé

    The Ndyuka Maroons of Suriname see life as an eternal existence (see also Jamaica; Kromanti Dance). Life consists of the visible material world and the invisible world, where supernatural beings and the spirits live. The individual person exists in the invisible universe before coming into the material world. The most important characteristic of human life in the visible world is the life-cycle process. We see and hear how a child is born; we see the child’s development to adulthood. Then we see how the human race reproduces and procreates. There is a cycle of birth, development and growth, and finally...

  82. Netherlands Antilles and Aruba
    (pp. 639-641)
    Patrick Taylor

    The Netherlands Antilles consisted of the Dutch islands of Bonaire and Curaçao, which are situated off the coast of Venezuela, and three territories in the Leeward Islands, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten, the latter on an island shared with French Saint Martin. On October 10, 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten each became an independent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Formerly part of the Netherlands Antilles, Aruba seceded in 1986 and became a separate autonomous country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The estimated total population of the Netherlands Antilles in 2009 was 198,000 (United Nations Statistics Division...

  83. Obeah
    (pp. 642-646)
    J. D. Elder and Jean Besson

    Obeah is the term that Africans of Tobago employ to identify the power that some individuals are alleged to have over the natural laws. This power is used to command, through the means of certain formulas, such desired effects as the healing of diseases or the bringing of luck and good fortune to those who hold the power or to the persons who appeal to them. Some are clients with social and personal problems ranging from serious court cases to marriages on the brink of breakup to business failure. In the case of serious disease, so long as repeated visits...

  84. Orisha Tradition
    (pp. 646-655)
    Funso Aiyejina, Rawle Gibbons and Maarit Forde

    Notwithstanding the evidence in support of pre-Columbian economic and cultural contacts between Africa and the Americas (Van Sertima 1976), the Atlantic Slave Trade remains the first properly documented contact between the two worlds. Because of the nature of the Atlantic Slave Trade, it was also the case that its documentation is primarily from the perspective of those who coordinated the exploration and subsequent exploitation of both Africa and the Americas. However, while the Africans who were forcibly brought to the Americas might not have recorded themselves in the logbooks of written history, they ingeniously recorded themselves in many other ways....

  85. Palo Monte
    (pp. 656-669)
    Aníbal Argüelles Mederos, Joel James, Joel James, Aníbal Argüelles Mederos, Daisy Rubiera Castillo and Eric M. Miletti-González

    For a better understanding of African religious influence in the culture of Cuba, it is necessary to consider the religious contribution of enslaved Africans from the areas of present-day Congo and Angola (see African Caribbean Religions; Kumina). This contribution can be found in religious ideas, representations, practices, and objects; it includes faith in nature, belief in the ancestors and Nsambi (Sambi, Inzambi) (see Palo Monte—Nsambi), and the hosting of religious ceremonies as integral parts of religious systems. In Cuba these customs underwent a slow process of syncretism and transculturation with Catholicism (see Roman Catholic Church—Cuba) as a way...

  86. Pentecostal Churches
    (pp. 670-684)
    Ermina Osoba, Ermina Osoba, André Corten, Juana Berges, Rhode González, Jorge Luis Lora Moran and Franklin Guerrero

    The period following the Great Depression of 1928 and the collapse of sugar on the world market was a time of tremendous economic and social hardship for the peoples of the Caribbean region. The era of the 1930s ushered in a wave of protest actions, culminating in strikes, acts of sabotage, and mass riots. This era saw also the rise of trade unionism and party politics in the region, as leaders, thrown up from the masses, struggled to improve the conditions of workers in the sugar industry, the oilfields, and the docks. As so often happens in periods of great...

  87. Presbyterian Church
    (pp. 684-705)
    Jerome Teelucksingh, Winston B. Gopaul, Brinsley Samaroo, Jerome Teelucksingh, Juana Berges, María del Carmen Kouw Matamoros and Roberto Jui Delgado

    The Presbyterian Church emerged from the Protestant Reformation during the sixteenth century (see Protestantism). John Calvin was responsible for shaping a unique form of church administration that adhered to the New Testament notion of “presbyter” or elder to designate leadership. The Presbyterian Church with its presbyter-leadership could have either a “teaching presbyter” (teaching elder) who was an ordained minister or a “ruling presbyter” (ruling elder) who was a layman. One of the features of the Presbyterian, compared to other denominations in Christianity, was the belief that there were only two Sacraments—the Lord’s Supper (communion) and baptism.

    In 1835, the...

  88. Protestantism
    (pp. 705-726)
    Noel Titus, Juana Berges, Juana Berges, Charles-Poisset Romain and Neville Smith

    The understanding of Protestantism in this entry is limited to the perspective of the Christian groups outside the framework and jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church. The adoption of this title does not include any confessional affinity or affiliation. For example, the Anglican Church does not consider itself to be part of what is strictly described as Protestantism. The organizations here discussed are so diverse in their practices and sometimes their beliefs and so many in number that one is limited to dealing with the larger groups. This discussion will hopefully provide a fruitful basis for further discussion of Protestant...

  89. Puerto Rico
    (pp. 726-737)
    Patrick Taylor, Samuel Silva-Gotay, Samuel Silva-Gotay, Luis Rivera-Pagán, Ángel G. Quintero Rivera and Emanuel Dufrasne-González

    One of the main centers of the Taínos at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1493, Puerto Rico went from being a Spanish colony to an American colony following the Spanish-American War in 1898. Whereas the Spanish restricted the practice of religion to the Roman Catholic Church, under the Americans Puerto Rico came under the influence of a wide range of Protestant denominations (see Protestantism; Puerto Rico—Roman Catholicism and Protestantism) and other religious traditions including Judaism. As in nearby Hispaniola (see Haiti; Dominican Republic), the Taínos in Puerto Rico perished in massive numbers from mistreatment at the hands...

  90. Quimbois
    (pp. 738-741)
    Anny Dominique Curtius and Simonne Henry-Valmore

    In Martinique and Guadeloupe, Quimbois is a popular religious manifestation in which sets of magical, spiritual, and Roman Catholic practices are interwoven. Any discussion of this phenomenon calls for the examination of a certain number of sociohistorical elements. The heavy heritage left by the slave trade and its many ideological ramifications cannot be stressed enough: the territorial expansion of France and the growth of wealth in the metropole created through the enslavement of Africans and in the name of their evangelization, the ethnocentric discourses of Europeans that demonized and marginalized the cultural practices of Africans (see African Caribbean Religions), and...

  91. Rada
    (pp. 742-749)
    Emmanuel Kwaku Senah, Emmanuel Kwaku Senah and J. D. Elder

    The Ewe-Fon people of western Africa have been denoted by a multiplicity of terms in the West Indies and the Americas.¹ Some of these terms are Rada, Gege, Allada, Fon (Fond), Popo, Nago, Dahoman, and Slave Coast. Other terms applied to this group are more specific and are derived from popular Slave Coast place-names or subgroup names, such as Whidaw (Whydah), Mina, Amina (Awuna, Anlo), Mahi, Ardrah (Adjah), and Krepee.

    The most significant period in the history of the Ewe-Fons, in terms of their participation in the transatlantic slave trade, was from about the 1720s when the French obtained the...

  92. Ramayana
    (pp. 749-757)
    Sherry-Ann Singh

    The Ramayana, the most popular Hindu religious text in Trinidad (see Hinduism), tells the story of the mythological hero Rama who is banished from his rightful kingdom of Ayodhya and spends fourteen years in exile accompanied by his wife Sita and his brother Lakshman. During their exile Sita is abducted by Ravana, the demon king of Lanka. Enlisting the aid of the monkey king Sugriva, Rama and Lakshman wage war and kill Ravana. However, Rama does not accept Sita back as his wife until she proves her chastity by a test of fire. Rama, Sita, and Lakshman then return to...

  93. Rara
    (pp. 757-760)
    Guy Maximilien

    Every year during Lent, the period of the Rara begins in the countryside and on the outskirts of the towns of Haiti. Organized Rara bands, joined by crowds who are attracted to them, move along the roads at night to the light of Coleman lamps or small tèt gridap (tin lamps). They sing and dance as if carried along irresistibly by the monotonous and obsessive rhythm of the sound of stamping on the ground, the drums, the vaksins (sonorous pipes of bamboo, plastic, or metal pipe), or the bamboo or other wind instruments. The conductors of the band blow their...

  94. Rastafari
    (pp. 760-808)
    Barry Chevannes, Robert A. Hill, John P. Homiak, John P. Homiak, John P. Homiak, Barry Chevannes, Maureen Rowe, Masani Montague, Kathy Ife Harris, Kenneth Bilby, Elliott Leib, Michael M. Cooper, Velma Pollard, Veerle Poupeye, Ikael Tafari, Philippe Alain Yerro and Samuel Furé Davis

    The Rastafari movement originated in Jamaica very soon after the elevation of Ras Prince Tafari Makonnen as emperor of Ethiopia on November 2, 1930 (see Ethiopianism). The emperor’s new name and titles were Haile Selassie I, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God, and Light of the World. “Haile Selassie” means “Power of the Trinity.” Several persons have claimed independent insight that Ras Tafari was the returned Messiah, among them Joseph Hibbert and Archibald Dunkley. However, the person universally recognized by scholars and by the Rastafari themselves as being the first...

  95. Reel Dance
    (pp. 808-810)
    J. D. Elder

    The Reel Dance, or Tobago Reel, was among the most significant evidences of the profound influence that the Scottish people—planters, engineers, soldiers, and indentured workers—have had upon the cultural life of Tobago, not to mention the preponderance of place-names and of surnames of families such as the McFarlanes, the McPhersons, and the McEwins who reside at Culloden Moor, Arnos Vale, Killiecrankie, and the Highlands and Lowlands. Tobago must have reminded Scotsmen of their own country and induced them to endow every little village with a name reminiscent of home. The Tobagonians, on the other hand, were very quick...

  96. Revivalism
    (pp. 810-817)
    Jean Besson

    Revivalism is an African Jamaican religion that can be contextualized within the wider framework of Caribbean societies, cultures, and religions (see Jamaica). It can be understood within the context of Caribbean capitalist class-race relations as part of the struggle of subaltern groups of African and Asian descent to re-create new ethnicities in the face of European colonization and the plantation system (including slavery and indenture) and Euro-American neocolonial land monopolization. Revivalism is a variant of those religions that have drawn on both African and European traditions to re-create a Creole or African Caribbean worldview through a dynamic process of Caribbean...

  97. Roman Catholic Church
    (pp. 817-885)
    Lynne Guitar, Denis Verdier, J. C. Lespinasse, William Smarth, William Smarth, William Smarth, William Smarth, Fabio Chiarelotto, Olga Portuondo Zúñiga, Gaston Jean-Michel, Anny Dominique Curtius, Patrick Taylor, Elizabeth Wilson, C. D. Ooft and Neville Smith

    Pick up any book, article, or report with statistics listing the religious affiliation of Dominicans and you will find them designated as overwhelmingly Roman Catholic. Yet very few receive the sacraments or go to Mass, and the religious beliefs and practices of the majority of Dominicans are very different from the beliefs and practices of most Roman Catholics in, for example, the United States and Western Europe. Why such a difference? Not only have Roman Catholic beliefs in the Dominican Republic been intermixed with indigenous and African beliefs (see Indigenous Religions; African Caribbean Religions), but the Spanish half of the...

  98. Saint Kitts and Nevis
    (pp. 886-895)
    Victoria Borg O’Flaherty

    In 1623 a group of English colonists led by Thomas Warner arrived in what is now known as Saint Kitts or Saint Christopher and were joined in 1625 by a French group led by Pierre Belain, Sieur D’Esnambuc; their agenda—to exploit the natural fertility of the island and become wealthy. They encountered on the island an indigenous Kalinago group (see Arawak and Carib Religions; Indigenous Religions) led by Tegreman, their ouboutou (leader). Tegreman allowed them to live on the island, but his earlier reception turned to suspicion and even resentment. Given the proximity of this early European settlement to...

  99. Saint Lucia
    (pp. 895-898)
    Patrick Taylor

    Saint Lucia shares the religious and cultural history of those eastern Caribbean islands that found themselves under both French and British colonizers. Unlike Barbados, whose gentle topography made possible a quick adaptation of the plantation system, Saint Lucia’s mountains, like those of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Dominica, provided, instead, a secure base from which the indigenous Island Carib or Kalinago population (see Arawak and Carib Religions; Indigenous Religions) could defend their island, which they called Hewanorra, against French and English invaders. When the French did finally make peace with the Kalinagos and introduce the plantation system of exploitation,...

  100. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
    (pp. 898-902)
    Maxine Wood

    The religious landscape of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is in some ways similar to the geographical landscape of this plural country, which is made up of more than thirty tiny islands that sit at the southern end of the Caribbean Sea and are at the mercy of the elements and outside influence from North America and elsewhere. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is dotted with a series of Christian or Christian-based churches (see Christianity) that exist in relative harmony, each vying not only to bring new members into their folds but to keep them there as well. Prior to...

  101. Sanatan Dharma
    (pp. 902-916)
    Anantanand Rambachan, Brinsley Samaroo, Shivan Maharaj and Rajnie Ramlakhan

    Sanatan Dharma is an expression commonly used by Hindus to designate their tradition (see Hinduism). The term sanatana dharma (eternal order) is an ancient one, and it appears, for example, in the Bhagavad Gita (1:40), where Arjuna argues that the destruction of the family results in the extinction of its sanatanah dharmah. Here the term appears, significantly, in the plural, to refer broadly to custom and tradition. In gracemore recent times, the term sanatana dharma has been used by Hindu interpreters to identify what they consider to be an essential core of teaching and practice, a sort of philosophia perennis,...

  102. Santería
    (pp. 916-929)
    Lázara Menéndez, Gladys Gutiérrez Rodriguez, Julián Mateo, Julián Mateo and Israel Moliner

    Santería is one of the Cuban religious forms with a polytheist orientation of African, specifically Yoruba, descent, deeply rooted in contemporary Cuban society and culture. (See African Caribbean Religions.) Its technical name is Regla Ocha-Ifa. Ocha and Ifa (Ifá) are liturgical segments with a differentiated function, and they are relatively independent from each other. The word ocha is used in Cuba as a diminutive form of the term oricha (orisha [see Orisha Tradition]) that designates a deity, who in some cases may be a deified ancestor. Pierre Verger states that the Brazilian term orixa refers also to “a pure, immaterial...

  103. Seventh-day Adventist Church
    (pp. 929-943)
    Bradley Niles, Claude Douglas, Charles-Poisset Romain, Juana Berges and Jorge Luis Lora Moran

    Toward the latter part of the nineteenth century, there was a religious awakening in the Caribbean in which the distinctive message of Adventism was proclaimed. This message emphasized the observance of all of God’s commandments including the seventh day as the day for corporate worship and fellowship. To Adventists it also heralded the return of Jesus Christ to this Earth to take the loyal, faithful saints to heaven.

    Seventh-day Adventists (sdas) around the world today number more than 1 million, yet awareness of their history and their doctrinal beliefs is limited among the general population. Respondents to questions about sda...

  104. Sexuality and the Church
    (pp. 943-953)
    H. Nigel Thomas

    The following quotes, culled from statements made by a columnist, a former Jamaican prime minister of Jamaica, and a high school teacher, respectively, accurately and succinctly express the dire state of civil rights and the powerful hold of conservative religion in Jamaican society.

    Women fi get lick is a common place observation. . . . and given the recent events in the prisons we are well aware of the culture of homophobia which has led to the savage deaths of 16 men. . . . These deep-rooted cultural taboos raise serious human rights issues. . . . At the centre...

  105. Shakti Puja in Trinidad
    (pp. 953-960)
    Keith E. McNeal

    Shakti Puja (shakti, cosmic energy or power that activates the universe in its polymorphous complexity, associated with the devis, or female deities in Hinduism; puja, ritual worship directed toward a deity) in Trinidad has been transformed from an openly practiced ritual performance observed on behalf of entire communities to a marginalized, somewhat clandestine therapeutic ritual carried out weekly on behalf of individuals and families in heterodox temples dedicated primarily to Mother Kali (Kali Mata, Kali Mai) and her most important spiritual associates. To put it simply, Shakti Puja or Kali Puja has become something of an embarrassment to many “respectable”...

  106. Sikh Tradition
    (pp. 960-963)
    Carolyn V. Prorok

    The Sikh tradition reaches back more than half a millennium to northern India, where the bhakti movement, blending elements of Vaishnava Hinduism with Sufi Islam, was able to challenge the teaching and practice of both brahminical Hinduism and classical Islam. Bhakti refers to a spiritual movement that emphasizes pure love and personal devotion to God. The Sikh tradition was founded in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries by Guru Nanak Dev (1469–1539), who took his inspiration from the teachings of several sant (knowers of the truth), including Ramananda, Bhagat Namdev, Kabir Das, and Sheikh Farid, whose work forms...

  107. SIL International
    (pp. 963-965)
    Ken Decker

    sil International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) came into being in 1934 as a summer field linguistics training program in Arkansas. These summer sessions continued in Arkansas with ever increasing enrollment until 1942. That year sil was invited to hold its sessions at the University of Oklahoma. This cooperative agreement with the University of Oklahoma continued until 1987. Thousands of students over the years have been trained in various aspects of linguistics, literacy, translation, and other cross-cultural work. (The term sil International now refers to both the linguistic training programs and the various entities engaged in linguistic...

  108. Spiritism in Cuba
    (pp. 965-975)
    Ileana Hodge Limonta and José Millett

    Spiritism as practiced in Cuba has sociohistoric roots in the country and has evolved along with the society, until it has become one of the country’s most widespread religious expressions. Among the factors that have engendered its popularity and given it a place among Cuban religious traditions are its adaptability; its association, relation, or syncretism with other faiths introduced into the island (of Christian and of African origin; see Christianity; African Caribbean Religions); its near lack of regard for prohibitions and complex religious mechanisms; the absence of a clergy and an institutional hierarchy associated with a distinct ideological or political...

  109. Spiritual Baptist Faith
    (pp. 975-993)
    Carol B. Duncan, Hazel Ann Gibbs DePeza, Hazel Ann Gibbs DePeza, Maarit Forde, Editha Jacobs, Curtis Jacobs and Maarit Forde

    The Spiritual Baptist Faith has played a significant role as a Caribbean religion, particularly in countries such as Saint Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, and Barbados, but also in other areas such as Grenada, Carriacou, Guyana, and Venezuela. By using the term “indigenous,” in this instance, I am referring to religious and cultural expressions that developed through socioeconomic and political conditions in the Caribbean, thereby underscoring the significance of a Caribbean “originary moment” rooted explicitly in various European and later Euro-American colonialisms and neocolonialisms and the struggles against them. In Saint Vincent, although banned by the Shakerism Prohibition Ordinance from 1912...

  110. Sunni Islam
    (pp. 993-996)
    Zohorah Nazma Ali

    It is a common assumption that Islam was initially introduced to the Caribbean by Indian indentured laborers. Recently, however, scholars such as Sylvanie Diouf, Abdullah Hakim Quick, Brinsley Samaroo, and Clyde Ahmad Winters have shown that this aspect of Caribbean history needs to be rewritten—that in reality, the history of Islam and Muslims in the Caribbean “stretches back over one thousand years, predating European contact by over six centuries” (Quick 1990, 7). Quick has compiled evidence to prove that there existed Muslim adventurers, navigators, and traders who traveled to the Caribbean from as early as 800 ce (Quick 1990,...

  111. Suparee Mai/La Divina Pastora
    (pp. 996-1000)
    Martin Sirju

    Every year from November to April, the Roman Catholic Church of La Divina Pastora (The Divine Shepherdess) in Siparia, Trinidad, begins its devotion to “La Divin.” This is the affectionate title given to Mary, the Mother of Jesus, by the Catholic devotees at the church. Just as Lakshmi, the Hindu female deity of light and prosperity (see Hinduism), is known by countless other names, La Divina Pastora is also known by numerous titles, including La Buena Pastora (The Good Shepherdess) and the Black Madonna. However, the most loved title among the many Hindu devotees who visit the church is Suparee...

  112. Suriname
    (pp. 1000-1013)
    Joop Vernooij, André R. M. Pakosie, J. H. Adhin, J. H. Adhin and Henna Malmberg-Guicherit

    Suriname is part of the South American continent and one of the three Guianas (formerly Dutch, British, and French [see Guyana; Guyane]). With a land area of 63,040 square miles, the country has three natural regions: the low coastal area, the savannahs, and the highlands of the interior. When Alonso de Ojeda arrived in 1499, Suriname, with its many rivers and jungle, was unattractive to the Spaniards because it was not El Dorado. Dutch merchants established a trading center for wood, and English colonists from Barbados started a slave plantation. The Dutch (from the Province of Zealand) conquered the land...

  113. Taínos
    (pp. 1014-1029)
    Lynne Guitar, Lynne Guitar and Jorge Estevez

    For the Classic Taínos, every living thing in creation, not just people and animals, but also trees, rivers, and rocks, had a goeiz, a soul, that sought to live in reciprocal balance with all the other beings. When a living being of this world died, it became an opia (or hupia), a living being of the spirit realm, the realm of the night. Some opias became cemís (or zemis)—special spirit helpers, spirit doubles. The opias inhabited caves by day, while the Taínos stayed in their bohios (homes) by night. The Taínos and the spirits, then, each inhabited their own...

  114. Tobago
    (pp. 1030-1038)
    Maarit Forde, J. D. Elder, J. D. Elder and J. D. Elder

    Many religious traditions have coexisted in Tobago since its colonial invasion. While little of the indigenous culture survived the establishment of plantation society (see Arawak and Carib Religions), the various immigrants to the island brought with them a wide range of religious beliefs, institutions, and practices. Given the social stratification of the colony and contestations between colonial powers, certain ways of worshipping have enjoyed prestige whereas others have been marginalized and even criminalized. Laws, policies, and general attitudes toward religion reflected the hierarchical power relations of the colonial plantation society. This was most notable in the subjugation of African-derived religious...

  115. Trinidad
    (pp. 1038-1050)
    Patrick Taylor and Eintou Pearl Springer

    In religious terms, Trinidad is one of the most complex of the Anglophone Caribbean territories. Its proximity to the South American mainland has meant that from pre-Colombian times to today there has been a constant interchange of cultures with nearby Venezuela. As the southern point in the chain of islands that constitutes the Caribbean archipelago, Trinidad has also been in constant cultural interchange with its Caribbean island neighbors, beginning with its sister island Tobago, together with which it constitutes the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. If waves of indigenous peoples were the first to express the spirituality of the island...

  116. United Bible Societies
    (pp. 1051-1056)
    Gosnell L. O. R. Yorke

    The United Bible Societies (ubs) dates its official origin to May 9, 1946, in England and is the major Bible translation agency in the world. It now operates not only throughout the Caribbean but in more than two hundred countries and territories worldwide. Historically, its roots extend at least to the early nineteenth century with the formation in 1804 of the British and Foreign Bible Society (bfbs; now serving England and Wales) and in 1816 of the American Bible Society (Orlinsky and Bratcher 1991). Even earlier, one can point to the (German) Canstein Bible Institution of 1701 (ubs 2002, 372)....

  117. United Church in Jamaica and the Cayman Islands
    (pp. 1056-1057)
    Ashley Smith

    The consummation of the union between the United Church in Jamaica and Grand Cayman and the Disciples of Christ in Jamaica took place in December 1998, thirty-three years after the inaugural synod for the bringing together of the Congregational Union of Jamaica (see Congregationalism) and the Presbyterian Church in Jamaica and Grand Cayman (see Church of Scotland; Presbyterian Church).

    Presbyterians came to Jamaica in the early 1800s, when Scottish missionaries were commissioned to begin work in the British colony. The missionaries came to provide spiritual leadership for nationals of Scotland working on the island. Presbyterian work among ex-slaves began on...

  118. Vodou
    (pp. 1058-1106)
    Guy Maximilien, Guy Maximilien, Guy Maximilien, Carlo Sterlin, Vernet Larose, Michel S. Laguerre, Sophia Arredondo, Patrick Bellegarde-Smith, Laënnec Hurbon, Guérin C. Montilus and Eugenio Matibag

    It is estimated that between 1500 and 1900, nearly 10 million Africans were transported from Africa to America and reduced to slavery (Pétré-Grenouilleau 1997, 100). Like Candomblé in Brazil, Santería in Cuba, and Orisha Tradition (Shango) in Trinidad, Haitian Vodou is one example of the religions that Africans transplanted to America at the time of the slave trade, and which their descendants have built up from inherited African legacies, according to the sociohistorical circumstances of each of the colonies (see African Caribbean Religions). While in Brazil and Cuba the rites and the mythology seem to derive chiefly from the Yoruba,...

  119. Warner
    (pp. 1107-1107)
    Beverley Steele

    A warner is a religious figure who appears under various names in the life and culture of many Anglophone Caribbean countries. Also known as a “prophet,” “seer,” or “wayside preacher,” this person surfaces at times of social crisis or tension. Drawing heavily on Caribbean Baptist traditions, warners arm themselves with a bell and Bible (see Baptist Churches; Spiritual Baptist Faith). Using the bell to attract spectators, they proceed to give a commentary on the wickedness of the present society, sometimes denouncing public figures. They may then launch into prophesy, detailing the end of the society or regime, much suffering for...

  120. Winti
    (pp. 1107-1114)
    H. J. M. Stephen

    Winti is a socioreligious culture of African Surinamese origin. Its two main characteristics are its connection with the spirit world and its relationship with nature. Its many sacred rituals attempt to create and preserve a harmonious balance between human beings and the visible and invisible world. Winti has borrowed elements from the indigenous peoples of Suriname and has been influenced by the multicultural population of Suriname. Today strong residues of Winti culture pervade daily life in Suriname.

    During slavery, the master had complete power over the slave, both physically and spiritually. Escape was virtually impossible and was seen as serious...

  121. Women in Action
    (pp. 1114-1116)
    Judith Soares

    Women in Action (wia), a Christian fundamentalist women’s ministry with a neo-Pentecostal flavor, started its work in Barbados in May 1998 (see Christianity; Fundamentalism; Pentecostal Churches). The intention of this woman-centered ministry was to create a space in which women could provide for one another, through sharing and sisterhood, the means to (re)claim the power to control their own lives in a positive way. Women would be encouraged to eschew the individualism so characteristic of fundamentalism and embrace social comradeship. This approach was necessary if the gap between the spiritual and the material was to be bridged. It is in...

  122. Wycliffe Caribbean
    (pp. 1116-1118)
    Jo-Anne Ferreira and Jack D. Popjes

    Wycliffe Caribbean was founded in Trinidad and Tobago in January 1993 after several years of interest and initiative on the part of individuals, pastors, and other Christian leaders interested in foreign missions (see Christianity). Its purpose is to assist the Church in the Caribbean to mobilize its people to obey and be a part of the “Great Commission” to evangelize the world. As one of a worldwide family of mostly national Wycliffe Bible Translation organizations, its focus is on providing the word of God to people in the language they know best. In 1993 a board was formally appointed with...

  123. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 1119-1128)
  124. Index to Volumes 1–2
    (pp. 1129-1145)
  125. Back Matter
    (pp. 1146-1146)