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Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military

Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Volume 1. Design of the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

Andrew R. Morral
Kristie L. Gore
Terry L. Schell
Copyright Date: 2014
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 222
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  • Book Info
    Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military
    Book Description:

    The Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office asked the RAND Corporation to conduct an independent assessment of sexual assault and sexual harassment in the US military. This volume documents the methodology used in the resulting RAND Military Workplace Study, which invited close to 560,000 service members to participate in a survey fielded in August and September of 2014.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-8925-0
    Subjects: Management & Organizational Behavior, Sociology, Law

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. The 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study Team
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Preface
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Exhibits and Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  6. Summary
    (pp. xi-xvi)
  7. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  8. Abbreviations
    (pp. xix-xx)
  9. CHAPTER ONE The 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study
    (pp. 1-6)
    Andrew R. Morral, Kayla Williams, Coreen Farris and Kristie L. Gore

    The Department of Defense (DoD) Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) released the results of the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Personnel (WGRA) in May 2013 (DMDC, 2013b). This report showed a sharp increase in the numbers of service members experiencing past-year unwanted sexual contacts in comparison to estimates last made in 2010. The 2012 estimate that 26,000 service members experienced unwanted sexual contacts in the past year were widely reported in the news media, discussed in the blogosphere, cited by members of Congress, and highlighted by advocacy organizations concerned with service members’ welfare.


  10. CHAPTER TWO Measurement of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault
    (pp. 7-26)
    Coreen Farris, Amy Street, Andrew R. Morral, Lisa Jaycox and Dean Kilpatrick

    After three decades of research on civilian and military sexual harassment and sexual assault, there continues to be uncertainty about the true percentage of members of the American civilian and military workforces who are sexually harassed. Likewise, estimates of the percentage of American men and women who are sexually assaulted each year or in their lifetimes vary substantially based on measurement differences across surveys. In many ways, this variation serves to illustrate the challenges faced in this research area and the careful decisionmaking that is required. To provide context to the RAND research team’s design and methodological decisions presented in...

  11. CHAPTER THREE Study Design
    (pp. 27-36)
    Terry L. Schell, Andrew R. Morral and Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar

    The 2014 RAND Military Workplace study (RMWS) was implemented as a confidential, web-based survey of active-duty, guard, and reserve service members. The survey was designed to meet the overarching project objectives of estimating the percentage of service members who experienced sexual assault and sexual harassment, as well as describing those experiences. Specifically, it was designed to accomplish the following:

    Maximize response rates subject to time and budget constraints by making the survey smartphone compatible, promoting it actively with the help of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the services, keeping it as short as possible for most...

  12. CHAPTER FOUR Questionnaire Development
    (pp. 37-56)
    Lisa H. Jaycox, Terry L. Schell, Coreen Farris, Amy Street, Dean Kilpatrick, Andrew R. Morral and Terri Tanielian

    The overarching objective for instrument development was to create questions that would yield valid estimates of respondents’ experiences of past-year sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination, as these are defined by law and Department of Defense (DoD) policies. The module assessing sexual assault was designed to use the definitions and criteria listed in the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) for Article 120 crimes. Our survey questions measuring sexual harassment and gender discrimination align closely with the definitions of those violations as described in DoD directives, which themselves are patterned on federal civil rights law.¹ In developing the instrument,...

  13. CHAPTER FIVE Analytic Methods
    (pp. 57-64)
    Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Terry L. Schell and Andrew R. Morral

    This chapter provides details of the steps necessary to produce population-representative estimates of the percentage of service members who experienced sexual assault or a sex-based military equal opportunity (MEO) violation in the past year. The key steps are as follows:

    Sampled individuals must be assigned a case disposition to reflect the status of their survey. This step involves determining who provided sufficient survey data to be counted as a respondent.

    Data collected from respondents will be weighted to produce population-representative estimates.

    Population estimates of the rates of sexual assault and other study outcomes are computed in a manner that correctly...

  14. CHAPTER SIX Summary of Major Improvements in the RMWS
    (pp. 65-76)
    Andrew R. Morral, Kristie L. Gore and Terry L. Schell

    Sexual harassment, gender discrimination, and sexual assault against service members are matters of intense concern within the Department of Defense (DoD), the Congress, and among members of the public. For this reason, prior efforts to quantify the extent of the problem have been closely reviewed and critiqued, as we expect our efforts will be. RAND researchers were given the opportunity to take a fresh look at this survey challenge to establish independent estimates of the number of service members experiencing sexual crimes and violations. Surveys can always be improved, and new approaches to measuring complex, sometimes hidden phenomena like sex-based...

  15. APPENDIX A Definitions of Measurement Constructs
    (pp. 77-80)
  16. APPENDIX B Correspondence Between the RMWS Measure of Sexual Assault and Title 10 USC § 920 (UCMJ Article 120)
    (pp. 81-90)
    Terry L. Schell, Coreen Farris, Lisa H. Jaycox, Dean G. Kilpatrick and Amy E. Street
  17. Notes
    (pp. 91-98)
  18. References
    (pp. 99-106)
  19. Survey Instrument
    (pp. 107-202)