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The Extent of Restrictions on the Service of Active-Component Military Women

The Extent of Restrictions on the Service of Active-Component Military Women

Laura L. Miller
Jennifer Kavanagh
Maria C. Lytell
Keith Jennings
Craig Martin
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 144
  • Book Info
    The Extent of Restrictions on the Service of Active-Component Military Women
    Book Description:

    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 mandated a review of gender-based assignment restrictions. To support this effort, RAND researchers analyzed service data to describe and quantify the military occupations that are closed to women, as well as occupations that are open with some positions that are closed.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-7966-4
    Subjects: History, Management & Organizational Behavior, Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  4. Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Summary
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  8. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-10)

    Women have long served in the U.S. military, although always as a minority.¹ During wartime, women’s level of participation has expanded to meet the demand for military personnel; this was particularly true during World War II (Godson, 2002; Holm, 1993; Moore, 1996; Poulos, 1996; Segal, 1995). The question of how women should be integrated into the U.S. military and, specifically, the role they should play in combat operations became particularly salient with the advent of the all-volunteer force in 1973. An unprecedented increase in women’s participation in the civilian labor force, the expected ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment, and...

  9. CHAPTER TWO Terms, Data, and Methods
    (pp. 11-20)

    This study analyzed authorization and personnel data for active-component personnel in the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. The restrictions described here do not capture limitations on military women in the reserve components. It was also beyond the scope of this effort to report on restrictions in temporary duty assignments, such as Air Force constraints on female Airmen filling temporary duty assignments in Kuwait, Oman, Afghanistan, and Saudi Arabia.

    This chapter outlines terms used commonly in this report and describes the data sets and other sources of information we used to determine the gender restrictions on women’s military...

  10. CHAPTER THREE Overview of Results
    (pp. 21-26)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the percentage of women serving in the armed forces, by service and rank group, and summarizes the degree to which fiscal year 2011 authorized positions are open to them. Subsequent chapters discuss closures by service and provide more information about the variation in restrictions by occupation and unit.

    Many factors influence the representation of men and women in the military, including eligibility, level of interest in joining and remaining in the military, preferences for particular jobs or services, service recruiting and retention efforts, ability to meet physical standards, compatibility of military service with...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR Air Force Positions Closed to Women
    (pp. 27-28)

    Ninety-nine percent of Air Force positions are open to female Airmen, and the description of closures is relatively straightforward. It describes the occupations in which all positions are closed to women and the occupations that have some gender-based restrictions. We provide alphanumeric AFSCs for the named occupations for those who wish to look up detailed data in Appendixes A and B.

    All of the 3,148 authorized positions in closed occupations in the Air Force are special operations positions. Closed Air Force officer occupations are 13DXA combat rescue officer and 13DXB special tactics officer; closed enlisted occupations are 1C2X1 combat controller,...

  12. CHAPTER FIVE Army Positions Closed to Women
    (pp. 29-36)

    In contrast to the Air Force, the number of Army gender restrictions is extensive due to the centrality of direct ground combat in its organizational mission. This chapter provides an overview of the occupations that are closed to Army women. A detailed list of those occupations and their authorized positions is provided in Table A.2 in Appendix A. This chapter also discusses occupations that are open but have some closed positions; detailed information on that even lengthier list is presented in Tables B.2–B.4 in Appendix B. An overview of the career field of military intelligence explores how the closures...

  13. CHAPTER SIX Marine Corps Positions Closed to Women
    (pp. 37-42)

    The Marine Corps also has a large number of positions closed to women. This chapter provides an overview of the occupations that are closed to Marine Corps women. Tabular data about those occupations are presented in Table A.3 in Appendix A. This chapter also discusses open occupations that have some closed positions. Details are presented in Tables B.5–B.7 in Appendix B. A discussion about the communications field illustrates how the closures vary across specialties and rank groups.

    As in the Army, the infantry career field accounts for the majority of the 38,909 positions in occupations closed to women in...

  14. CHAPTER SEVEN Navy Positions Closed to Women
    (pp. 43-50)

    Many of the Navy’s closures are a result of berthing and privacy restrictions on ships and submarines. Additionally, positions on the Navy’s riverine boat crews, in special warfare, and in Marine Corps ground combat elements are closed. Table A.4 in Appendix A and Tables B.8 and B.9 in Appendix B provide additional details on closed positions; Appendix D contains data about berthing availability on ships open to enlisted women (the assignment of officer women does not require berthing modifications). A spotlight on the field medical service technician specialty illustrates limitations on the assignment of female Sailors to Navy and Marine...

  15. CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusions and Recommendations
    (pp. 51-54)

    In support of the WISR, DoD requested that RAND describe—relative to gender restriction policies—the military occupations that are closed to women and the occupations that are open but have some positions that are closed. We were also asked to quantify the closed positions for the active components of each service.

    Across DoD active components in fiscal year 2011, 252,695 authorized positions, or 21 percent, of 1,220,118 are closed to military women.¹ All closed occupations in the Air Force are special operations occupations and equate to less than 1 percent of Air Force positions. Air Force personnel assigned to...

  16. APPENDIX A Military Occupations Closed to Women
    (pp. 55-64)
  17. APPENDIX B Open Military Occupations with Positions Closed to Women
    (pp. 65-108)
  18. APPENDIX C Army and Marine Corps Positions by Career Field
    (pp. 109-114)
  19. APPENDIX D Naval Vessel Limitations for Women
    (pp. 115-120)
  20. Bibliography
    (pp. 121-126)