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Implementation of School-Based Management in Indonesia

Implementation of School-Based Management in Indonesia

Georges Vernez
Rita Karam
Jeffery H. Marshall
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 242
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  • Book Info
    Implementation of School-Based Management in Indonesia
    Book Description:

    This study provides a quantitative and qualitative status report on the implementation of school-based management (SBM) in Indonesia, identifies factors associated with the successful practices of SBM, and assesses SBM effects on student achievement eight years after inception. They found that the implementation so far has produced limited success and provide recommendations to strengthen the nation’s SBM practices.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-7971-8
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. Figures
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  4. Tables
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  5. Summary
    (pp. xvii-xxx)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxxi-xxxii)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxxiii-xxxiv)
  8. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-18)

    In 2003, the Indonesian government began to decentralize the governance of its primary and secondary education system as part of its decentralization of responsibilities to regional governments (regencies) to strengthen its democratic processes. In addition to education, other areas of decentralization of authority included public work, health, agriculture, and communications (Bandur, 2007). Before this change, Indonesia was one of the most centralized nations in the world (Bjork, 2003).

    With decentralization, schools were given the autonomy to manage their operations independently according to the local needs of their students and community to improve the quality of education. This fundamental restructuring of...

  9. CHAPTER TWO Study Design
    (pp. 19-38)

    To provide a nationwide overview of the implementation of SBM practices in Indonesia, we surveyed principals, teachers, SC members, and parents in a nationwide random sample of 54 school districts and 400 public elementary schools. In the 54 education districts (Dinas Pendidikan), we surveyed the head of the district office, the head of supervisors, the chair of the district’s education board, and the head of one subdistrict to provide information on the role districts played in the implementation of SBM. The surveys were complemented with case studies of a subset of 40 schools in which we conducted face-to-face interviews with...

  10. CHAPTER THREE Status of School-Based Management Implementation
    (pp. 39-78)

    This chapter describes how SBM is currently practiced in Indonesia. The chapter draws on data from the surveys and case studies. The first section discusses the extent to which schools have put in place the committee managerial structure required by central government directives. The extent to which schools perceive that they actually have the autonomy that was intended to be devolved to them is discussed in the second section. The third section focuses on whether the various local stakeholders fully participate in school decisions and the influence they have on these decisions. The next section assesses parental participation and voice...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR Capacity of Schools to Implement SBM
    (pp. 79-100)

    School and staff capacity, including monetary resources and principal, teacher, and other stakeholder knowledge and know-how, can be expected to affect the way SBM is implemented, the extent to which it is participatory, and how school academic and other decisions are made. In this chapter, we look at the resources available to schools to support SBM. We also discuss school stakeholders’ understanding of SBM and the preparedness of principals, teachers, and SC members to implement SBM and make independent decisions.

    In addition to funds received under the central government, schools may receive BOS funds or aid from their provincial, district,...

  12. CHAPTER FIVE District Support of SBM Implementation
    (pp. 101-118)

    Research suggests that how districts support schools in their implementation of SBM, by providing information, guidelines, training, and on-site technical assistance and mentoring, is likely to affect how SBM is actually implemented as intended (Fullan, 2001; Caldwell and Wood, 1988; USAID, 2011). In this chapter, we explore how the Indonesian education districts provided support for SBM implementation. This support may have come in various forms. It may include the provision of training or socialization, sharing of information, or guidance to school leaders and other school stakeholders, including SC members, for the purpose of expanding their knowledge and skills on how...

  13. CHAPTER SIX Intermediate Outcomes
    (pp. 119-136)

    The theory of SBM suggests that providing schools and local stakeholders with more flexibility to allocate their budget and select staff, curriculum, and classroom instruction may lead to a better learning environment for students and staff and instructional innovations and academic programs more suited to local student populations. In turn, the combination of these changes is expected to be reflected in increased student achievement. In this chapter, we discuss selected intermediate outcomes of SBM, including how schools spent their disposable resources, the perceived effects of SBM and BOS on a number of education access and quality outcomes, monetary and in-kind...

  14. CHAPTER SEVEN Factors Associated with SBM Implementation and Outcomes
    (pp. 137-154)

    In this chapter, we examine the relationships between school capacity and district support to implement SBM, and SBM level of implementation and outcomes. Because we expected different factors to be related to different dimensions of SBM implementation and outcomes, unique statistical models were developed to explore these relationships. We begin our discussion by describing the overall approach to our analyses and its limitations. Second, we discuss the factors associated with various measures of the level of SBM implementation. The factors found to be associated with two intermediate outcomes—the share of discretionary budget schools allocated to instruction and teacher attendance—...

  15. CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusions and Recommendations
    (pp. 155-170)

    This study describes the nationwide status of SBM implementation in Indonesia and explores its effects on selected school intermediate and student performance outcomes. In this chapter, we outline our main conclusions and our recommendations for improving both. In reaching our conclusions, we had to weigh responses to questions that were inconsistent across different respondents. In these cases, we considered the likelihood that the various respondents might have provided socially desirable answers. We generally gave more weight to respondents who were less likely to do so. For instance, when considering quantity of principal and teacher training, we gave more weight to...

  16. APPENDIX A. Sampled Districts
    (pp. 171-176)
  17. APPENDIX B. Memo on Specifications for Grade 5 Student Tests in Bahasa and Mathematics
    (pp. 177-180)
  18. APPENDIX C. Characteristics of PNS and Non-PNS Teachers
    (pp. 181-182)
  19. APPENDIX D. Definitions of Variables Used to Analyze Factors Associated with SBM Implementation and Outcomes
    (pp. 183-190)
  20. APPENDIX E. Factors Associated with Intermediate SBM and Student Outcomes
    (pp. 191-198)
  21. Bibliography
    (pp. 199-206)