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Building the Links Between Funding and Quality in Higher Education

Building the Links Between Funding and Quality in Higher Education: India's Challenge

Copyright Date: 2013
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 72
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  • Book Info
    Building the Links Between Funding and Quality in Higher Education
    Book Description:

    India has joined a worldwide trend in which nations are seeking to improve the quality of their higher education systems by giving greater autonomy and accountability to higher education institutions. In this report, the authors review India’s and other countries’ higher education systems and suggest seven policy actions that the Indian national government and other stakeholders can take to improve higher education by linking funding to quality.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-8201-5
    Subjects: Education, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Figures and Table
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Summary
    (pp. ix-xvi)

    The higher education system in India enrolls the second largest number of students in the world after China—nearly 22 million. In the past two decades, enrollment grew by 7.7 percent per annum and more than quadrupled. The number of institutions has grown even more rapidly, from fewer than 6,000 in 1990–1991 to more than 46,000 today, the most of any country in the world.

    India’s spending for higher education has increased at the same time; it now spends at rates similar to other developing and developed countries as a percentage of gross domestic product, yet the growth has...

  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. xix-xx)
  8. CHAPTER ONE India’s Current System of Higher Education
    (pp. 1-8)

    The higher education system in India enrolls the second largest number of students in the world (after China), with nearly 22 million enrollees. The past two decades have been characterized by growth of 7.7 percent per annum, with enrollment numbers more than quadrupling over two decades, and the gross enrollment ratio (GER)¹ increasing from 12.3 to 18.1 percent in just the past five years (Agarwal, 2009; FYP, 2012). The 12th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets 25 percent GER as a goal for 2017, a target that would add ten million enrollees over the next five years (FYP, 2012), or an annualized...

  9. CHAPTER TWO India’s 12th Five-Year Plan: A Paradigm Shift
    (pp. 9-14)

    In December 2012, India released its 12th FYP. The 12th FYP will be the nation’s key policy document for higher education through 2017.¹ It highlights a number of challenges facing higher education in India and suggests reforms to address these challenges. A few of the reforms mentioned in the 12th FYP are already under way (e.g., streamlining national regulatory bodies), though most will be implemented over the next few years. To carry forward plans for increased expansion and to continue addressing issues of quality in the large and fragmented system, the 12th FYP calls for a shift in the governance...

  10. CHAPTER THREE International Experiences with Decentralized Governance and Policies That Link Funding of Higher Education with Quality
    (pp. 15-32)

    International trends in higher education mirror the trends in Indian higher education in many ways. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2008) identifies seven global trends in higher education:

    Expansion: Number of enrollees more than doubling between 1991 and 2004

    Diversification of offerings: Existence of many new institution types and delivery methods

    Heterogeneity in student bodies: Rise in access for women, older enrollees, individuals from minority racial/ethnic groups, and low-income individuals

    New funding arrangements: Diversification, targeting of resources, and increased student support systems

    Increased focus on accountability and performance: Growing focus on quality

    New forms of governance: Higher...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR Implementing the 12th FYP’s New Approach to Governance and Introducing Policies to Link Quality and Funding in India
    (pp. 33-48)

    Our review of other countries’ experiences suggests some lessons learned to make note of, and potential actions to take, for the national government of India and other stakeholders should they choose to implement policies linking quality and funding as part of their movement toward “steer and evaluate” governance. We first discuss these lessons learned for India as it moves toward a system of more autonomous institutions. We then describe how policies linking quality and funding may be implemented in India, with seven potential policies for connecting funding and quality.

    India’s large, complex higher education system with its patchwork governance requires...

  12. References
    (pp. 49-52)