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Making Out-of-School-Time Matter

Making Out-of-School-Time Matter: Evidence for an Action Agenda

Susan Bodilly
Megan K. Beckett
Copyright Date: 2005
Edition: 1
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 152
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  • Book Info
    Making Out-of-School-Time Matter
    Book Description:

    Presents the findings of a broad-ranging literature review intended to identify, frame, and assess relevant issues concerning effective out-of-school-time (OST) programs. Drawing on recent studies the authors identify and address the level of demand for OST services, the effectiveness of offerings, what constitutes quality in OST programs, how to encourage participation, and how to build further community capacity. They make recommendations for improving the information used in policy making.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4064-0
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  4. Figures and Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Summary
    (pp. xi-xx)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
  8. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-10)

    Significant public attention, in the press, on Web sites, and by political candidates is focused on whether and how to provide group-based programs for youth during their non-school time. Out-of-school-time (OST) programs have existed in America since at least the 1880s, and although the discussion around providing improved or more accessible programs oftentimes seems new and urgent, such concerns have been part of a decades-long debate that has ebbed and flowed with little resolution.

    Group-based OST programs that offer supervision or services to youth can be found in every state and locale, some existing for decades. They include programs intended...

  9. CHAPTER TWO Historical Context
    (pp. 11-30)

    OST programs have a long tradition in the United States, dating back at least to the 1880s. Although it might seem that how children and youth spend their nonschool time is more of a public policy debate that ever before, in reality concern about OST programming has waxed and waned for decades. In this chapter we provide the context for current calls for change by summarizing the history of this field and providing the present context. In doing so, we have relied heavily on the work of Robert Halpern, who has written extensively about the progression and history of this...

  10. CHAPTER THREE Unmet Demand for Out-of-School-Time Services
    (pp. 31-40)

    The level of unmet demand for services, or lack of supply of quality services, has become a subject of debate because of claims, especially among after-school-program advocates, that many children go without services, much less high-quality services. Many proponents of OST programs claim that the demand for OST programs outstrips the supply of such programs by a factor of two to one. (See, for example, DOEd and DOJ, 2000.)The Afterschool Alliance (2004), a nonprofit national advocacy organization for after-school programs, has a stated goal of "ensuring that all children have access to afterschool programs by 2010."

    If there is significant...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR Potential Effectiveness OST Programs
    (pp. 41-60)

    OST advocates have made multiple claims about what these programs, especially after-school programs, can accomplish for youth participants. The breadth of outcomes claimed for OST programs that California's 2002 Proposition 49 would support included reduced crime, improved grades and test scores, reduced course repetition, reduced school dropouts, and reduced need for remedial education (Attorney General of the State of California, 2002). The appeal of these claims is apparent in the fact that this proposition, which adds approximately a half billion dollars annually to the existing state after-school programs, was easily passed during a time when the state of California faced...

  12. CHAPTER FIVE Assessment of Quality in OST Programs
    (pp. 61-74)

    In Chapter Four, we reviewed the most rigorously evaluated group-based OST programs to assess what OST programs can potentially expect to accomplish. With the exception of the 21st CCLC programs, most of the programs that were rigorously evaluated could be considered model programs (e.g., the Carrera-Model Teen Program). Providers who hope to improve their programs have two options. They can replicate a model program that has been proven to be effective at attaining desired outcomes, or they can work to ensure that the program components, management, and environment comply with what is known or believed to constitute "quality" in the...

  13. CHAPTER SIX Improving Participation in OST Programs
    (pp. 75-88)

    In Chapter Three we noted that the supply of OST programs exceeds demand. Chapters Four and Five highlight some of the potential reasons why—a paucity of effective programs and a fledgling understanding of what constitutes quality. If one is optimistic and assumes that the field can move forward in developing and delivering effective, quality programming, then decision makers and providers would want to turn their attention to attracting participants to programs. To ensure this long-term goal, programs need to be both effective at achieving desired objectives and attractive and available to target participants.

    In this chapter, we examine what...

  14. CHAPTER SEVEN Capacity Building
    (pp. 89-102)

    In the last chapter we discussed how the field could work to build participation in programs, should that prove to be a worthwhile goal. In this chapter, we address what is known about how to build the capacity in the provider community to provide quality programming. While the exact nature of demand for OST services remains uncertain at all levels, how to build the capacity to provide better and more complete service-delivery systems is of interest to policymakers in the arena.

    Linnell definescapacityas "an organization's ability to achieve its mission effectively and to sustain itself over the long-term....

  15. CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusions
    (pp. 103-110)

    The purpose of this report was to systematically examine the research base for evidence that could help inform the growing public debate around subsidized, group-based OST programs. Specifically, we examined level of demand, program effectiveness, factors that might impact quality, determinants of participation, and possible practice to build capacity.

    Our review of the literature in each of these areas resulted in the following findings and implications.

    Given the belief that demand outstrips supply, the current trend in the field is to push for capacity expansion, seeking to fund and provide more slots to meet the excess demand that has been...

  16. Appendix A
    (pp. 111-114)
  17. References
    (pp. 115-127)