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How Deployments Affect Service Members

How Deployments Affect Service Members

James Hosek
Jennifer Kavanagh
Laura Miller
Copyright Date: 2006
Edition: 1
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 150
  • Book Info
    How Deployments Affect Service Members
    Book Description:

    To offer insights into the challenges faced by active-duty service members deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan and their families in coping with these challenges, and the adequacy of defense manpower policy in assisting members and families, this monograph draws on the perspectives of economics, sociology, and psychology; provides a formal model of deployment and retention; reviews published work; reports on the results of focus groups conducted in each of the services; and presents findings from an analysis of survey data.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4106-7
    Subjects: Management & Organizational Behavior

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  4. Figures
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Tables
    (pp. xi-xii)
  6. Summary
    (pp. xiii-xxiv)
  7. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxv-xxvi)
  8. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-4)

    The U.S. military is now deployed in a magnitude and duration never before sustained with an all-volunteer force. During the Gulf War (1990–1991), 697,000 U.S. troops served in the Persian Gulf, most for less than a year.¹ About 20,000 U.S. troops deployed to Bosnia (1995–1996), and about 7,000 deployed to Kosovo (1999). The use of the military in peace operations and small-scale contingencies, as in Haiti in 1994 and Somalia in 1993, was appreciably higher in the 1990s than during the Cold War, making deployment a more expected part of military life even during periods of nominal peace....

  9. CHAPTER TWO Research Approaches to Deployment and Retention
    (pp. 5-32)

    To answer the key question of this research, we took a multidisciplinary approach, drawing on economics, sociology, and psychology, then used the insights from these fields to help understand our findings from focus groups and the analysis of survey data.

    The expected-utility model shows how home time, deployed time, pay, and other factors can be portrayed in a cohesive framework describing service members’ satisfaction and willingness to stay in service. The model is a point of departure for our literature review, and we relate the literature to the model. We are aware that models based on sociology or psychology might...

  10. CHAPTER THREE Focus Group Findings: Stresses and Benefits of Deployments
    (pp. 33-58)

    One of the most intriguing contradictions between the attitudes of military personnel during deployment and their behavior afterward is that, despite complaints registered in-country, deployed troops have been found to be more likely to reenlist than have their nondeployed peers (Hosek and Totten, 2002). Reports from commanders in the field and studies based on interviews with deployed personnel have documented negative attitudes toward serving in overseas operations, particularly due to separation from family, harsh living conditions, and an unknown return date. During the 1990s’ operations other than war, some troops rejected policing or humanitarian missions as inappropriate for military units,...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR Analysis of Survey Data: Higher-Than-Usual Stress, Reenlistment Intention, and Deployments
    (pp. 59-86)

    To examine the extent to which we can generalize our qualitative findings from focus groups to the military population as a whole, we sought a large-scale survey of a randomly selected service population with questions related to our topic. The Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) Status of Forces Surveys of Active Duty Personnel for March 2003 and July 2003 contain the best survey data available. These periodic surveys are given to random samples of the active-duty population and aim to provide timely data on a range of personnel issues.

    DMDC weighted the respondents to be representative of the active-duty population....

  12. CHAPTER FIVE Conclusions
    (pp. 87-96)

    The findings and observations discussed in this monograph demonstrate that the effect of deployments on military personnel, their attitudes toward the military, and their reenlistment intentions must be considered in a multidimensional framework. Deployments not only have different, and even conflicting, effects across individuals, but also affect the same individual service member in multiple ways. Discussions with service members and analysis of survey data suggest that individuals have varying attitudes toward military life and find that military life includes aspects that are rewarding and challenging, as well as those that are frustrating and demoralizing. It is worth noting, however, that findings in...

  13. APPENDIX A Expected-Utility Model of Deployment with Quadratic Utility
    (pp. 97-98)
  14. APPENDIX B Means and Regressions
    (pp. 99-110)
  15. APPENDIX C Distribution of Number of Times Service Members Reported Working Longer Than the Usual Duty-Day
    (pp. 111-112)
  16. Bibliography
    (pp. 113-124)