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Europe's Role in Nation-Building

Europe's Role in Nation-Building: From the Balkans to the Congo

James Dobbins
Seth G. Jones
Keith Crane
Christopher S. Chivvis
Andrew Radin
F. Stephen Larrabee
Nora Bensahel
Brooke K. Stearns
Benjamin W. Goldsmith
Copyright Date: 2008
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 342
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  • Book Info
    Europe's Role in Nation-Building
    Book Description:

    Two previous RAND volumes addressed the roles of the United States and the United Nations in nation-building, defined as the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to promote a durable peace and representative government. This volume presents six case studies of recent European-led nation-building missions: Albania, Sierra Leone, Macedonia, Ctte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Bosnia. It also reviews the Australian assistance mission to the Solomon Islands. Using quantitative and qualitative measures to compare inputs (such military levels, economic assistance and duration) and outcomes (such as levels of security, economic growth, refugee return, and democracy), the analysis concludes that these European-led missions have been competently managed and, within their sometimes quite limited scope, generally successful. Most helped achieve sustained peace, gross domestic product growth, and representative government. The EU has a wide array of civil competencies for nation-building, but it is sometimes slow to deploy them in support of its military operations, particularly when these are conducted far from Europe. The UN offers the most cost-effective means to address most postconflict stabilization requirements and NATO the better framework for large-scale force projection in cases in which the United States is ready to participate. But the EU now offers European governments a viable alternative to both these organizations in cases in which European interests are high, U.S. interests are low, and the UN is, for some reason, unsuitable or unavailable.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4530-0
    Subjects: Political Science, Technology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  4. Figures
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Tables
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. Summary
    (pp. xv-xxxvi)
  7. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxxvii-xxxviii)
  8. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxxix-xliv)
  9. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-6)

    In two prior volumes, RAND analyzed U.S. and United Nations (UN) performance in the field of nation-building, examining instances in which one or the other led such operations.¹ In this study, we looked at European performance, taking six instances in which European institutions or national governments have exercised such leadership. We have also included a chapter describing Australia’s nation-building operation in the Solomon Islands. This operation did not fit into either of our previous volumes, nor is it directly relevant to the main theme of this one, but the Australian example does contain valuable lessons from which the United States,...

  10. CHAPTER TWO Albania
    (pp. 7-24)

    In early 1997, economic and social conditions in Albania rapidly deteriorated, plunging the country into chaos. The immediate catalyst was the collapse of a series of pyramid schemes.¹ Numerous Albanians, lured by promises of high returns on their money, invested their life savings in these ventures. Despite warnings by the Bank of Albania (the country’s central bank) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) regarding the dangers posed by the pyramid schemes, Sali Berisha’s government—whose power base was in the north—did little to curb the ventures and was suspected of profiting from them. When the pyramid schemes collapsed in...

  11. CHAPTER THREE Sierra Leone
    (pp. 25-48)

    On May 6, 2000, the United Kingdom deployed troops to Sierra Leone to evacuate British nationals and secure Freetown airport, the only entry point for humanitarian assistance arriving to that country by air. The United Kingdom had helped to promote the Lomé Agreement in July 1999, which temporarily ended the fighting between the government and rebel groups led by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). In support of that peace agreement, the UN had deployed its largest peacekeeping force in decades, the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL). Despite this presence, the Lomé Agreement began to crumble in early 2000....

  12. CHAPTER FOUR Macedonia
    (pp. 49-72)

    In March 2001, a small band of ethnic Albanian rebels captured a police station in northern Macedonia. The event marked the start of a low-level rebellion that would last six months. In the wake of the Kosovo crisis and a decade of Balkan conflagrations, many feared that Macedonia would become the next Balkan disaster. From its outbreak in March 2001, the European Union took the lead in organizing the Western response to the crisis.¹ The political environment in both the United States and Europe was conducive to a European lead. In the United States, the new George W. Bush administration...

  13. CHAPTER FIVE Côte d’Ivoire
    (pp. 73-100)

    On September 22, 2002, France launched Operation Licorne in Côte d’Ivoire as that country spiraled into war. The initial 600-strong French force was quickly augmented by French troops stationed elsewhere in West Africa. The operation’s initial mandate focused on protecting and evacuating approximately 20,000 French nationals and other foreigners residing in the country. After the combatants, Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo and the Mouvement Patriotique de Côte d’Ivoire (MPCI), signed a peace agreement in October 2002, the French mission expanded to enforcing a cease-fire.

    The intervention was launched in response to an outbreak of violence that ended four decades of relative...

  14. CHAPTER SIX Democratic Republic of the Congo
    (pp. 101-138)

    In June 2003, the Council of the European Union launched a military operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The operation, Artemis, was conducted in accordance with UNSC Resolution 1484, and the Council of the European Union’s Joint Action adopted, on June 5, 2003.¹ Artemis aimed at stabilizing the security situation and improving the humanitarian conditions in the town of Bunia in the northeastern Ituri region. More broadly, the EU, in cooperation with the UN and other international actors, committed itself to working to build a functioning state in the DRC.²

    The EU involvement in Congo came in...

  15. CHAPTER SEVEN Bosnia
    (pp. 139-172)

    On December 2, 2004, EUFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina took over responsibility from NATO for enforcing the security provisions of the 1995 Dayton Peace Accords. The European Union thus became the lead international actor responsible for ensuring security in Bosnia and helping Bosnians to build a democratic society and a healthy market economy. Operation Althea, as it was called, was the culmination of the EU’s gradual assumption of leadership for nation-building in Bosnia. This transition from a dominant U.S. to European role had begun at least as early as 2002, when Paddy Ashdown became the first EU HR to also...

  16. CHAPTER EIGHT Solomon Islands
    (pp. 173-206)

    On July 24, 2003, the lead elements of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI) arrived in Honiara. RAMSI was an Australian-led mission that was invited by the government of the Solomon Islands to help halt several years of widespread violence among the country’s two largest ethnic groups. It signified a fundamental change in Australian foreign policy, which had long rejected direct intervention in the politics and conflicts of its small island neighbors. It also marked the beginning of an ambitious 10-year project to rebuild the country’s security, government, and economic institutions.

    The Solomon Islands is a small country...

  17. CHAPTER NINE Comparative Analysis
    (pp. 207-232)

    Although each nation-building mission takes place in a unique environment, most of the objectives and instruments remain the same from one operation to the next. In this chapter, we draw on the case studies from this and our previous two volumes to tabulate and compare levels of inputs provided by the international community (such as military personnel, police officers, aid, and time) and outcomes (such as improvements in security, economic growth, refugee returns, and progress in creating a democracy).

    The outcomes of nation-building operations are the result of much more than the quantity of inputs. Success depends on the wisdom...

  18. CHAPTER TEN Conclusions
    (pp. 233-238)

    European institutions for foreign, security, and defense policy have evolved over the period covered by these six cases. Throughout the 1990s, Europe, lacking a military organization of its own, could choose only among the UN-, NATO-, or nationally led coalitions for the management of expeditionary forces. In the current decade, another alternative emerged: EU-led missions. Initially, these were either very small or nationally led interventions with an EU flag. Both the second Congo operation and the Bosnian missions were larger and more truly multinational in management.

    Operating on its own periphery, within societies that regard themselves as European and aspire...

  19. APPENDIX Nation-Building Supporting Data
    (pp. 239-264)
  20. Bibliography
    (pp. 265-298)