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Reparable Harm

Reparable Harm: Assessing and Addressing Disparities Faced by Boys and Men of Color in California

Copyright Date: 2009
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 126
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  • Book Info
    Reparable Harm
    Book Description:

    The Los Angeles area has the most severe traffic congestion in the United States. Trends in many of the underlying causal factors suggest that congestion will continue to worsen in the coming years, absent significant policy intervention. Excessive traffic congestion detracts from quality of life, is economically wasteful and environmentally damaging, and exacerbates social-justice concerns. Finding efficient and equitable strategies for mitigating congestion will therefore serve many social goals. The authors recommend strategies for reducing congestion in Los Angeles County that could be implemented and produce significant improvements within about five years. To manage peak-hour auto travel, raise transportation revenue, improve alternative transportation options, and use existing capacity more efficiently, they recommend 10 primary strategies: improve signal control and timing; restrict curb parking on busy thoroughfares; implement paired one-way streets; promote ride-sharing, telecommuting, and flexible work schedules; develop a high-occupancy toll-lane network; vary curb-parking rates with demand, enforce the current parking cash-out law; promote deep-discount transit passes; expand bus rapid transit and bus-only lanes; and implement a regionally connected bicycle network. In addition, three recommendations may help, depending on the outcome of current events: evaluate arterial incident management, consider cordon congestion tolls, and levy local fuel taxes to raise transit revenue. Given that some of the recommendations may prove controversial, the authors also outline complementary strategies for building political consensus.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4686-4
    Subjects: Sociology, Education, Health Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-1)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 2-3)
  3. Tables
    (pp. 4-5)
  4. Figures
    (pp. 6-9)
  5. Summary
    (pp. 10-26)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 27-27)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. 28-29)
  8. CHAPTER 1: Introduction
    (pp. 30-35)

    This history and institutionalization of disadvantage has meant that ”inequities that exist at all levels of society have persistent, profound, and long-lasting effects” (King County Equity and Social Justice Initiative, 2008). Within this context, boys and men of color are particularly vulnerable. The literature has found that inequities exist for boys and men of color across multiple domains. For example, boys and men of color have lower high school graduation rates, greater likelihood of going to prison, and higher mortality rates from homicide (Dellums Commission, 2006).

    The California Endowment recently undertook a strategic planning process that focused on shifting its...

  9. CHAPTER 2: Disparities in a Social Determinant Context
    (pp. 36-39)

    While the focus of this report is individual-level outcomes, these outcomes are the manifestation of a spectrum of environmental, social, family and individual factors that operate together to influence individual development. In trying to understand where disparities come from and how to address them, we grounded our research in the context of a conceptual framework based on the Northridge, Sclar, and Biswas (2003) model which describes the contextual factors that interact to promote or inhibit individual health outcomes. This model highlights the multiple pathways by which factors in the physical, social, economic, and family domains contribute to individual well-being. We...

  10. CHAPTER 3: Addressing Disparities Faced by Boys and Men of Color in California
    (pp. 40-69)

    We wanted to select indicators that met several important standards for indicators of children’s well-being (Moore, 1997). This meant several things. First, we wanted the indicators to be comprehensive—that is, we wanted them to represent well-being across a range of outcomes and behaviors. Second, we wanted them to be cogent, so that readers would find them relevant and understandable. Third, we wanted to be able to track the indicators in the future, so we wanted to include indicators where the data were readily available to allow analysts, community planners and policymakers to assess progress over time.

    Given our desire...

  11. CHAPTER 4: Addressing Disparities Faced by Boys and Men of Color in California
    (pp. 70-85)

    Given this broader context, what can policymakers, government agencies, philanthropic foundations, community organizations and service providers do to improve the life chances of boys and men of color in California?

    Here, we present some examples of approaches for reducing the disparities, selected because they have research evidence demonstrating their effectiveness and because they illustrate some key points. We ground the discussion of those approaches in terms of the conceptual model we represented in Chapter Two, which entails putting the approaches within the context of the four levels of the framework: macro level, community level, interpersonal level, and individual level. Our...

  12. CHAPTER 5: Conclusions
    (pp. 86-91)

    Socioeconomic. Both Latino and African-American children are at increased risk forliving in poverty. Relative to whites, African Americans and Latinos are at increased risk forlow maternal education. African-American children are more likely than whites tolive in single-parent householdsand tolive in households where no parents are employed year-round full-time.

    Health. African Americans in California are at increased odds relative to whites forinfant mortality, very low birth weight, births to unmarried women, births to teen mothers, andbeing hospitalized for asthma. Latinos in California are at increased risk forbirths to unmarried women, births to teen...

  13. CHAPTER 6 Appendix: Summary of Other Outcome Indicators
    (pp. 92-111)

    We worked with The California Endowment to identify four broad outcome domains—socioeconomic, health, safety, and ready to learn—and to select specific indicators that are most commonly used to characterize each domain from a range of possibilities. While any disproportion in odds is a concern, we focused on those indicators where the odds aretwo times greater or morefor boys and men of color relative to their white peers.

    In this appendix, we present the results for indicators that did not meet the ”two times greater or more” threshold. In addition, there were a few indicators that did...

  14. References
    (pp. 112-123)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. None)