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Recruiting Minorities

Recruiting Minorities: What Explains Recent Trends in the Army and Navy?

Beth J. Asch
Paul Heaton
Bogdan Savych
Copyright Date: 2009
Edition: 1
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 118
  • Book Info
    Recruiting Minorities
    Book Description:

    Since 2000, black representation among high-quality recruits in the Army has decreased, while Hispanic representation has increased; in the Navy, black representation has remained stable and Hispanic representation has increased. The authors identify factors that explain these trends and consider which policies are likely to be most effective in increasing high-quality enlistments among black, Hispanic, and white youth.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4898-1
    Subjects: Management & Organizational Behavior

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  4. Figures
    (pp. ix-xii)
  5. Tables
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. Summary
    (pp. xv-xxii)
  7. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
  8. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxv-xxvi)
  9. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-4)

    It is well known among the policy community and general public that the Army has had recruiting challenges in recent years. Articles in the popular press have focused on the Army’s difficulty in meeting recruiting goals, as reported in theWashington Post(Tyson, 2005), and on the greater use of waivers, as reported in theNew York Times(Alvarez, 2007). While the causes of these challenges are multiple and complex, two key factors appear to be rising college attendance among recent high school graduates and the Iraq war’s negative effects on enlistment. Simon and Warner (2007) find that by 2005,...

  10. CHAPTER TWO Background on Recruiting
    (pp. 5-32)

    This chapter reports recent trends in Army and Navy enlistments, by market segment, as well as trends in factors that may affect enlistments, such as recruiting resources, economic trends, and demographic factors. The trends show the changes in minority representation among high-quality recruits in the Army and the Navy and the changes the Army and Navy made to recruiting resources in recent years. Past research shows that demographic and economic factors affect recruiting outcomes, so this chapter also shows changes in such factors as the unemployment rate and veterans’ population.

    Evidence demonstrating the recruiting challenges facing the Army is shown...

  11. CHAPTER THREE Methodology and Data
    (pp. 33-46)

    We are interested in estimating the relationship between high-quality contracts and recruiting resources, on the one hand, and demographic and other factors, on the other. To place our methodology and results into context, we first provide a brief overview of past literature on enlistment supply. Next, we present our methodology and describe the variables we include as well as the data we use. Readers more interested in the policy results can skip the discussion of the methodology in this chapter.

    A substantial literature has been devoted to studying enlistment supply. These studies begin with an economic model of occupational choice,...

  12. CHAPTER FOUR Army Results
    (pp. 47-70)

    In this chapter, we discuss the results of the estimation of the Army enlistment models by market segment, use them to decompose the recent trends in black and Hispanic representation in terms of exploratory variables, and provide marginal cost estimates. Our key result is that the decline in black representation among high-quality enlistments in the Army appears to be primarily due to (1) the larger negative effects of the Iraq war on black enlistments than on the enlistments of Hispanics and whites and (2) the success of the Army in enlisting Hispanics and whites as a result of pay and...

  13. CHAPTER FIVE Navy Results
    (pp. 71-82)

    In this chapter, we discuss the Navy results and use the parameter estimates to explain the factors affecting changes in the representation of blacks and Hispanics in recent years and to estimate marginal costs. In general, we find smaller differences across market segment in the effects of recruiting resources than we observed in the Army. Furthermore, the effects of the Iraq war on high-quality enlistment supply are positive for blacks and Hispanics, unlike the effects we find for the Army.

    The parameter estimates and standard errors of our Navy model are presented in Table 5.1 for each market segment.


  14. CHAPTER SIX Conclusions and Policy Implications
    (pp. 83-88)

    A key question motivating this report is what factors explain the large drop in black representation among Army enlistments in recent years and what policy measures might be taken to improve black enlistments. Similarly, the Navy has experienced an improvement in Hispanic representation, and a key question is what has explained this success and what measures might be taken to maintain this success. Minority representation among enlistments is an ongoing concern among policymakers who care about whether the all-volunteer force represents the society it defends. At the same time, steep declines in enlistments in a market segment for which the...

  15. Bibliography
    (pp. 89-92)