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Reconstruction Under Fire

Reconstruction Under Fire: Case Studies and Further Analysis of Civil Requirements

Brooke Stearns Lawson
Terrence K. Kelly
Michelle Parker
Kimberly Colloton
Jessica Watkins
Copyright Date: 2010
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 174
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  • Book Info
    Reconstruction Under Fire
    Book Description:

    Building on a framework for integrating civil and military counterinsurgency (COIN) first presented in prior RAND research, this volume presents an approach to the civil component of counterinsurgency that builds on detailed background, context analysis, and threat analysis to identify and develop critical civil COIN activities and illustrates them with three case studies from Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-5076-2
    Subjects: Technology, Sociology, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  4. Figures
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Tables
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. Summary
    (pp. xv-xx)
  7. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
  8. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
  9. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-8)

    This monograph is a companion volume toReconstruction Under Fire: Unifying Civil and Military Counterinsurgency,¹ a RAND monograph published in 2009 that focused on methods for improving the security dimension of undertaking the civil aspects of counterinsurgency (COIN). That monograph summarized as succinctly as possible the materials presented here to provide an easily understandable presentation of concepts that could lead to a better integration of security and “civil COIN” measures. However, the details of how to do the civil COIN tasks discussed therein are important. This volume presents those details. Before doing so, however, we provide a brief overview of...

  10. CHAPTER TWO Civil COIN Analytic Framework: Assessing the Operating Environment
    (pp. 9-26)

    The analytic framework for identifying options for civil COIN measures consists of two processes. The first is to assess the operating environment, which will result in the identification of civil COIN focus areas. These areas are of particular importance for defeating an insurgency because properly addressing them would remove the popular grievances that underlie the insurgency or opportunities for insurgents to conduct their efforts. A second, highly detailed process then helps counterinsurgents assess each focus area and create and prioritize options for ameliorating problems within each (see Figure 2.1). The first process, assess the operating environment, is covered in this...

  11. CHAPTER THREE Civil COIN Analytic Framework: Assessing Focus-Area Needs and Capacity
    (pp. 27-50)

    Once the focus areas for a civil COIN campaign are identified, it is important to conduct a detailed needs assessment and a capacity assessment for each. The needs assessment should identify the gap between the expectations of the population and reality. Population expectations will vary based on the norms in a given area. The capacity assessment should identify the government’s ability to meet the population’s expectations and any local coping mechanisms that communities have developed in lieu of government support. The reality requires an understanding of the current status of the population and the current capacity and efforts of the...

  12. CHAPTER FOUR Nangarhar Case Study
    (pp. 51-80)

    Nangarhar province is located in eastern Afghanistan and serves as a regional hub of trade and commerce—both legal and illegal—due to its strategic location between Kabul and Pakistan. It provides the only regional platform for higher education, vocational training, and advanced health care in the east. Its population’s historic support for insurgent actors ranging from Osama bin Laden to mujahedin groups fighting the Soviets makes it noteworthy from a security perspective. Additionally, its location as a key supply route from Pakistan to Kabul has made it a desirable military target for any group seeking power in Afghanistan. The population’s option...

  13. CHAPTER FIVE Nord-Kivu Case Study
    (pp. 81-102)

    The land now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, or DRC, has seen multiple incarnations over the past 125 years as the Congo Free State, the Belgian Congo, and Zaire before being renamed the DRC in 1997. Throughout, the country has been the site of almost uninterrupted internal conflict, or proxy warfare between imperial powers or neighboring states.¹

    Infamous as the setting forHeart of Darkness,² the DRC is a textbook case of a failed state in terms of corruption, ethnic tensions, persistent conflict, abusive security forces, and abject poverty. This environment has both fostered and been perpetuated...

  14. CHAPTER SIX Al Anbar Case Study
    (pp. 103-132)

    Al Anbar, located in western Iraq, is the largest of the country’s 18 provinces. The area, because of its Sunni majority and porous borders with Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, became a convenient safe haven for Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and its supporters. Until late 2006, AQI had terrorized the civilian population by enforcing strict adherence to sharia law until the Anbar Awakening occurred and local Sunni tribes banded together to reject Al Qaeda. The expansive border of Al Anbar has presented problems for securing Iraq and has made the province a gateway for terrorists and weapons flowing in...

  15. CHAPTER SEVEN Concluding Remarks
    (pp. 133-140)

    Successful counterinsurgency requires the integration of security and civil COIN to create the conditions in which the population can choose between the government and insurgents, eliminate the grievances that gave rise to the insurgency in the first place, and present the population with choices that are more attractive than what the insurgents can offer. To do this, it is first necessary to understand the history and context of the country and conflict, conduct good analysis of the underlying issues, and design approaches to win. The goal of both the military and civil effort should be to increase the effectiveness, legitimacy,...

  16. APPENDIX Assessment Techniques
    (pp. 141-142)
  17. Bibliography
    (pp. 143-149)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 150-150)