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The Victims of Terrorism

The Victims of Terrorism: An Assessment of Their Influence and Growing Role in Policy, Legislation, and the Private Sector

Bruce Hoffman
Anna-Britt Kasupski
Copyright Date: 2007
Edition: 2
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 64
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  • Book Info
    The Victims of Terrorism
    Book Description:

    Organized groups of victims' families and friends have emerged since September 11, 2001, to become a powerful voice in U.S. counterterrorist policy and legislation. These groups were remarkably successful in getting the 9/11 Commission established and in getting the commission's most important recommendations enacted. This report documents these groups and compares them to groups formed in response to other terrorist attacks.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4438-9
    Subjects: Law, Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Center for Terrorism Risk Management Policy
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Summary
    (pp. ix-xii)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  8. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-2)

    Terrorism has long been described as “theater”: violence choreographed by groups or persons seeking to effect fundamental political change. The violence that terrorists perpetrate is therefore designed not only to attract attention to themselves and their cause, but also to coerce and intimidate, to create an atmosphere of fear and alarm that the terrorists can exploit. The deliberate targeting of innocent persons generally plays a central role in the terrorists’ ability to “terrorize.” Therefore, as the fictional vampire requires blood to survive, the real-life terrorist needs victims. Yet, obvious as this might be, to date, little attention has been focused...

  9. CHAPTER TWO 9/11: Power in Numbers
    (pp. 3-16)

    Within weeks of 9/11, one of the first victims’ groups was organized. In the search for answers and support, surviving family, friends, and coworkers had already begun gravitating toward one another, offering assistance, advice, information, and guidance. Carie and Danielle Lemack were some of the first to mount an organized effort to gather a group of bereaved together. Their mother, Judy Larocque, age 50, had been a passenger on American Airlines flight 11— the first of the two hijacked aircraft that were deliberately flown into New York City’s World Trade Center (WTC). In October 2001, Carie made a call to...

  10. CHAPTER THREE Pan Am 103: The Predecessor to 9/11
    (pp. 17-26)

    The achievements of 9/11 victims’ groups are due in part to the lessons their leaders learned from the victims’ groups that emerged 15 years earlier in response to the Pan Am 103 bombing (Sheehy, 2003). The Pan Am groups were the first effectively organized terrorism victims’ groups in the United States, and they essentially set the stage for those that would later form as a result of the 9/11 attacks. We begin this chapter by describing these groups, focusing on the four formed in the United States. (A fifth was formed in the UK.) At the end of the chapter,...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR An International Comparison: Israel, Northern Ireland, and Terrorist Spectaculars
    (pp. 27-38)

    In looking for precedents for the 9/11 victims’ groups, we examined groups that have formed outside the United States. Most of these are in Israel and Northern Ireland, two countries plagued by violence and conflict. We found that few of these groups originated in response to a specific terrorist attack.¹ Their missions—to seek justice and support those affected by local terrorist violence—are broad in their orientation and serve a dynamic constituency.² Elsewhere in the world, victims’ groups have been created in response to major terrorist attacks, such as the train bombings in Madrid in March 2004. These organizations...

  12. CHAPTER FIVE Conclusion
    (pp. 39-40)

    Nothing better represents the success of the 9/11 family groups than the release of the 9/11 Commission’s 567-page report. After dedicating themselves to the commission’s formation and its possession of full investigative powers, many victims took satisfaction in the thoroughness of the final product as a testimony of their achievement (Polgreen, 2004). Indeed, the 9/11 families’ status as victims, according toThe New York Times, made them “a rare force in Washington, with leverage that was not negotiable in ordinary political terms,” making it difficult, if not impossible, for the government to ignore their cause (Dwyer, 2004). This is exemplified...

  13. Bibliography
    (pp. 41-48)