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New Perspectives on International Migration and Development

New Perspectives on International Migration and Development

Jeronimo Cortina
Enrique Ochoa-Reza
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  • Book Info
    New Perspectives on International Migration and Development
    Book Description:

    With contributions from leading scholars in international development, economics, political science, and sociology, this collection draws attention to migration's developmental impacts on sending and receiving societies. Through current case studies, contributors examine the interplay among migration, development, culture, family reunification, human rights, and government, all with the aim of advancing more effective solutions to international migration issues.

    The volume's multidisciplinary perspective combines theoretical discussions with empirical applications, appealing to both academics and policymakers eager to maximize migration's developmental impacts. The collection begins with a discussion detailing when and why migration promotes growth and what kind of indicators beyond GDP should be considered. Challenging a number of misconceptions, such as the assumption that redressing poverty and alleviating underdevelopment in immigrant communities are solely economic pursuits, contributors acknowledge the inherent cultural dimension in the migration--development debate and define the contours of a research program that systematically and comparatively weighs the cultural dynamics of development and migration. They also emphasize the role of human rights in reinforcing positive developmental outcomes, how traditional social roles and its developmental impacts are reshaped by the international migration of women and children, and international migration's developmental impacts within specific geographic regions.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-52749-1
    Subjects: Business, Political Science, Economics, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Illustrations and Tables
    (pp. ix-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    (pp. xv-xxii)
    Joseph E. Stiglitz, Jeronimo Cortina and Enrique Ochoa-Reza

    The “age of mobility” is here to stay. Never before in human history have so many people been on the move. Today around 214 million people, or approximately 3 percent of the world’s population, live outside their country of birth. Women and girls account for half of international migrants, and 16 percent are under the age of 20 (UN/DESA 2011). South–south migration is now as frequent as south–north migration has been in the past, and while 97 percent of the world’s population does not move, migration is a global phenomenon that touches millions of lives, including many of...

  6. PART 1 Migration, Development, States, Culture, and Human Rights

    • [PART 1 Introduction]
      (pp. 1-4)

      This part introduces a mélange of topics that provide a new perspective on the migration-development nexus. The chapters presented here provide a conceptual discussion that seeks to push the migration-development dialogue beyond the traditional remittances-development dichotomy.

      In chapter 1, Josh DeWind and Damla Ergun provide a macro-structural, historical, and geographical framework for analyzing the migration-development nexus. Based on the European case, they argue that industrialization has long driven the relationship between development and migration through causal mechanisms that are embedded within four socio economic transitions: from agricultural to industrial economies, from rural to urban societies, from high to low levels...

      (pp. 5-42)
      Josh DeWind and Damla Ergun

      In recent years, scholars and policymakers have turned their attention to the relation between migration and development, largely due to the recognition that migrants send home remittances that total more than international development assistance (World Bank 2006). Remittances are private, individual funds, while development assistance is chiefly public. For policymakers, enhancing migrants’ contributions to development has been a major motivation behind the creation of the Global Forum on Migration and Development, whose member states now meet annually to enhance the contribution of migration to development.

      But among scholars there is a growing number of pessimists who doubt that migrants and...

    • CHAPTER 2 The Impact of Migration on Development: EXPLICATING THE ROLE OF THE STATE
      (pp. 43-66)
      Rodolfo O. de la Garza

      Dominant current analyses do not accurately conceptualize the role the state plays in linking migration and development. This is because dominant analytical modes define development in terms of increases in economic characteristics such as gross national income, gross domestic product, or family income. This approach understates or ignores other societal characteristics that influence overall societal well-being, i.e., levels of societal development.

      The argument developed here is that development should be understood as progress (Stiglitz 2009:27) and therefore should be defined in terms of changes in economic, social, cultural, and political arenas. The multidimensional perspective presented here argues that changes in...

      (pp. 67-92)
      Peggy Levitt and Deepak Lamba-Nieves

      The migration-development nexus, while long studied, is still not well understood. Migrants from the developing world can bring labor, skills, and know-how to the countries where they settle while they promote development in their countries of origin by sending remittances, investing in businesses, introducing knowledge and skills, and contributing to charity (de Haas 2007). But migration can also drive up economic dependency, institutionalize a standard of living that is unsustainable without remittances, and heighten conflicts between increasingly unequal groups. Clearly the impact of migration varies by country and group, over time, and according to whether remittances are used individually or...

    • CHAPTER 4 Protecting the Rights of Migrant Workers
      (pp. 93-108)
      Khalid Koser

      There is a comprehensive legal and normative framework for the protection of the rights of migrant workers and a wide variety of international, regional, and national organizations and institutions dedicated to safeguarding these rights. Yet around the world migrant workers continue to experience violence, abuse, and exploitation. A 2010 report by Human Rights Watch (HRW) documents the rising incidence of abuse of domestic workers in Kuwait. Maids are reported to have minimal protection from employers who withhold salaries, force them to work long hours with no days off, deprive them of adequate food, or abuse them physically or sexually. In...

  7. PART 2 Migration, Development, Children, and Women

    • [PART 2 Introduction]
      (pp. 109-110)

      The next two chapters focus on migration, children, and women. Escobar García and Álvarez Velasco explore in greater detail what Levitt and Lamba-Nieves refer to as “cultural fluidity,” that is, the exchanges in the form of social and monetary remittances and practices that occur between migrant-sending and-destination countries. By focusing on two communities in the Ecuadorian highlands, Escobar García and Álvarez Velasco are able to trace both the creation of these transnational communities and its impacts on basic social structures such as the family and the school. The formation of these transnational communities reconfigures many of the communities’ social practices...

      (pp. 111-138)
      Alexandra Escobar García and Soledad Álvarez Velasco

      One of the main consequences of globalization is the increase in the quantity and complexity of international migration. As noted by Levitt and Lamba-Nieves (this volume), the movement of millions of men and women across international borders has caused significant social, economic, political, and cultural transformations that have affected the micro- and macrosocial aspects of life in countries of origin, transit, and destination (Sassen 2008).

      In flux with this global process, the reality of Ecuadorian migration at the end of the twentieth century has been altered, and its social and economic complexity has increased dramatically during the first decade of...

    • CHAPTER 6 Women, Children, and Migration: DEVELOPMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      (pp. 139-164)
      Jeronimo Cortina and Enrique Ochoa-Reza

      This chapter addresses the question, what are the potential developmental consequences of the international migration of women? Our specific aim is to analyze the relationship between female migration and development by paying attention to emigration originating in developing countries. After introducing some empirical and theoretical elements related to migration and development, we will discuss some of the impacts of female migration on development. This is followed by two case studies on Mexican migration to the United States and on Turkish and Polish migration to Germany.

      Women have been no strangers to international migration. At the global level, female migrants have...

  8. PART 3 Migration and Development:: Country Experiences

    • [PART 3 Introduction]
      (pp. 165-168)

      The five chapters in this last part of the book, while focusing on different migration corridors, clearly highlight the multidimensional and complex relationship between migration and development. The common denominator of these chapters is nuance, subtle differences in geography, economic development, and migration flows, all of which mediate the relationship between migration and development.

      In his contribution, Hein de Haas raises a fundamental question: Does the shift toward optimistic views that migration will speed development reflect a real change or a general paradigm shift from dependency and state-centrist to neoclassical and neoliberal views? De Haas uses the case of Morocco...

      (pp. 169-195)
      Hein de Haas

      After decades of pessimism and concerns about brain drain and disbelief in the development role of remittances, since 2000 there has been a truly remarkable renaissance in optimism and the overall interest in the issue of migration and development among governments, development agencies such as the U. K. Department for International Development, and international financial institutions such as the World Bank. Also, governments of developing countries have put renewed hopes on migrants as potential investors and actors of development. Surging remittances in particular are often believed to be a more effective instrument for income redistribution, poverty reduction, and economic growth...

      (pp. 196-228)
      Loren B. Landau and Aurelia Segatti

      South Africa and its urban centers are primary nodes in a regional migration system. Unlike countries in the Maghreb or West Africa, South Africa is neither a major source nor a transit country for low-skilled labor en route to the European Union or North America. Rather, the country’s wealth and relative stability attracts people, cash, goods, and information from neighboring countries—Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and especially Lesotho—and from those as far away as Cameroon, Nigeria, Somalia, and increasingly China and South Asia. In many instances these ties build on decades of carefully orchestrated guest worker programs (see, e.g., Harries 1994)....

    • CHAPTER 9 Migration Between the Asia-Pacific and Australia: A DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE
      (pp. 229-275)
      Graeme Hugo

      Of all the economic, social, and demographic changes that have swept across Asia and the Pacific in the past three decades, none has been as significant as the increase in personal mobility, which has been both a cause and a consequence of wider economic, social, and political transformation. In the past decade there has been heightened awareness of the complex relationship between mobility and two areas of key importance in the region: economic and social development on the one hand, and national and regional security on the other. This interest has been sharpened in the case of the latter by...

    • CHAPTER 10 Asian Migration to the United States: DEVELOPMENT IMPLICATIONS FOR ASIA
      (pp. 276-302)
      Philip Martin

      This chapter reviews the consequences of Asian migration to the United States for the development of the migrants’ countries of origin. There are three distinct types of Asian migrants: students and professionals with temporary and immigrant visas in North America, Europe, and Oceania; low-skilled migrant workers, most of whom remain in Asia; and a diverse mix of family unification, economic, refugee, and other migrants, some of whom remain in Asia and some of whom leave the region.

      China, India, the Philippines, and Vietnam are the most important Asian sources of migrants and immigrants for the United States and Canada. Each...

    • CHAPTER 11 Indian Migrants to the Gulf: THE KERALA EXPERIENCE
      (pp. 303-324)
      S. Irudaya Rajan and K. C. Zachariah

      “Migration is a product not of discrete and unconnected factors in the sending and the receiving countries, but of historical connections between the countries. It is not fortuitous; it is systematic” (Cheng and Bonacich 1984:41). Indian emigration has been taking place since the beginning of modern India, but never has the country witnessed such massive movements of people to other parts of the world as in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Tinker 1974; Cohen 1995). In one of our recent works, we reviewed the historical patterns of Indian emigrants over a long period of time (Irudaya Rajan and Kumar 2010)....

  9. NOTES
    (pp. 325-332)
  10. INDEX
    (pp. 333-346)