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Getting Biodiversity Projects to Work

Getting Biodiversity Projects to Work: Towards More Effective Conservation and Development

Thomas O. McShane
Michael P. Wells
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  • Book Info
    Getting Biodiversity Projects to Work
    Book Description:

    This book explores both the theoretical and practical underpinnings of integrated conservation and development. It synthesizes existing experience to better inform conservationists and decision makers of the role ICDPs play in conservation and management and analyzes their successes and shortcomings.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-52972-3
    Subjects: Environmental Science, General Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-x)
    Claude Martin

    It is a simple truism that humans cannot exist without nature. We are all part of it and will forever depend on the natural environment for food, water, air, and innumerable goods. Planet Earth’s biosphere is essential for the survival of humanity, not the other way round. However, what is an incontestable fact at the planetary level may not be quite the same on a smaller scale. Local conditions are often influenced by economic and environmental factors emanating from afar. The livelihood, opportunities, and prospects of local communities are increasingly affected by global influences, whether through adverse trade effects or...

  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xvi)
    Thomas O. McShane and Michael P. Wells
  5. Contributors
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  6. Part One The Challenge of Linking Conservation and Development

    • 1 Integrated Conservation and Development?
      (pp. 3-9)
      Thomas O. McShane and Michael P. Wells

      Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have become one of the most widely implemented and yet controversial approaches to biodiversity conservation. The term itself emerged as a collective label for a new generation of projects that started to go outside park and reserve boundaries and pay particular attention to the welfare of local people (Wells and Brandon 1992). Most of these efforts took place in developing countries with international financial support. During the last two decades, ICDPs and their equivalents (comparable initiatives have used a variety of other labels) have exploded in popularity, rapidly metamorphosing from an untested idea attracting...

    • 2 Jack of All Trades, Master of None: Inherent Contradictions Among ICD Approaches
      (pp. 10-34)
      John G. Robinson and Kent H. Redford

      Integrated conservation and development (ICD) initiatives offer the opportunity to simultaneously address two major societal goals: the promotion of socioeconomic development and the conservation of nature. This paper will explore (a) the intellectual roots of ICD projects (ICDPs) and the consequent approaches adopted by these projects, (b) the relationship between these approaches and the outcomes of projects—and the ensuing need to decide between development and conservation goals—and (c) the conditions under which ICD initiatives are likely to be successful.

      The philosophy of ICD initiatives cannot be understood without an appreciation of the historical events that constrain and create...

    • 3 The Pathology of Projects
      (pp. 35-48)
      Jeffrey Sayer and Michael P. Wells

      In the early years of development assistance it was common for aid funds to be invested in “institutional support” for government agencies in developing countries. International advisers were sent to work within the host institutions. Later the drive for accountability and the need for international donors to be able to target their support more precisely led to the emergence of the “development project” as the main delivery mechanism. This meant that donors worked with their national counterparts to define discrete, time-bound packages of development assistance. These packages have allowed donors to apply their own accountability mechanisms and allowed development to...

    • 4 Expecting the Unattainable: The Assumptions Behind ICDPs
      (pp. 49-74)
      Thomas O. McShane and Suad A. Newby

      Almost two decades after the first integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) were implemented, results remain inconclusive and questions are being raised as to whether ICDPs have succeeded in achieving their joint conservation/development objectives and whether or not the approach is appropriate (Barrett and Arcese 1995; Wells 1995; Newby 1996; Wells et al. 1999). The ICDP experience has yielded few examples of protected areas generating adequate benefits to local communities to create sufficient incentives for conservation. Criticism of ICDPs has also focused on their lack of ability to address the underlying root causes of biodiversity loss, as well as the...

  7. Part Two Applications and Issues

    • 5 Fitting ICD Into a Project Framework: A CARE Perspective
      (pp. 77-97)
      Phil Franks and Thomas Blomley

      CARE International is one of the world’s largest relief and development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), with field programs in over seventy developing countries. Principal sectors of development programming include agriculture and natural resources (ANR), children’s health, reproductive health, small economic activities, basic and girls’ education, and water, sanitation, and environmental health.

      Within CARE’s ANR sector there are currently twenty-two site-based projects that in one way or another seek to promote a link between biodiversity conservation and the socioeconomic development of local communities, and thus conform to the classic definition of integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects (Wells and Brandon 1992). CARE...

    • 6 Making Biodiversity Conservation a Land-Use Priority
      (pp. 98-123)
      Agnes Kiss

      Since 1990, the World Bank has supported 226 conservation-related projects around the world, involving over U.S. $1 billion of IBRD/IDA¹ resources and U.S. $450 million of GEF² funds, as well as an additional U.S. $1.2 billion in cofunding from other national and multilateral donors, governments, NGOs, foundations, and private companies. More broadly, Conservation International estimates that the international community (governments, multilateral development banks, and conservation groups) spends at least half a billion dollars each year on conserving biodiversity in the tropics (Hardner and Rice 2002). Satchell (2000) reported that about U.S. $4 billion has been spent on conservation over the...

    • 7 Yellowstone: A 130-Year Experiment in Integrated Conservation and Development
      (pp. 124-153)
      Dennis Glick and Curtis Freese

      Yellowstone National Park, created by an act of the U.S. Congress in 1872, is generally recognized as the world’s first national park. Its incredible collection of geothermal features inspired early explorers, politicians, and officials of the Northern Pacific Railroad to seek the permanent protection of the Yellowstone Plateau, an act that has inspired conservationists throughout the world.

      Yellowstone may be not only the world’s first national park, but also the first integrated conservation and development project (ICDP). As with many ICDPs, nature tourism was promoted as the economic engine for park establishment and maintenance. Recognizing the economic potential the region...

    • 8 Parks, Projects, and Policies: A Review of Three Costa Rican ICDPs
      (pp. 154-180)
      Katrina Brandon and Michelle O’Herron

      Costa Rica is frequently cited as embracing policies that promote “sustainable” or “compatible” development. This paper traces activities that fall under the broad heading of integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) in three regions of Costa Rica to see the extent to which the national policy context has shaped project outcomes. Each region has had activities under way for at least fifteen years, with improved conservation in one or more adjacent protected areas as an important and stated project goal. There are a number of differences among the three sites in terms of biological, social, and organizational criteria. The three...

    • 9 Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas: The Case of the Sibuyan Mangyan Tagabukid, Philippines
      (pp. 181-207)
      Edgardo Tongson and Marisel Dino

      This paper describes the experience of Kabang-Kalikasan ng Pilipinas (KKP; WWF–Philippines) in assisting the island’s indigenous peoples in obtaining tenure and seeking recognition of their ancestral domain. A summary of the history and past interventions with the Sibuyan indigenous people is presented. The legal framework governing indigenous people’s rights and protected areas is briefly discussed. This is followed by a description of project objectives, assumptions, and the methodology undertaken. Intervention results, issues, and obstacles encountered, as well as opportunities and challenges for the future, are presented. Finally, the lessons learned and recommendations are discussed.

      Located at 12°21’ north latitude...

    • 10 Land Tenure and State Property: A Comparison of the Korup and Kilum ICDPs in Cameroon
      (pp. 208-231)
      Steve Gartlan

      This paper compares and contrasts two projects in western Cameroon that have specifically adopted the integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) philosophy (figure 10.1). Both of the projects have been in existence for some fifteen years. While the two have elements in common (both were initiated by international conservation NGOs, and both are located in the forest zone), there are also major differences, including scale, biological scope, legal status of the project areas, social structure of the people of the area, and ecological status of the local environment. This paper examines these differences together with the historical factors that have...

    • 11 Trade-off Analysis for Integrated Conservation and Development
      (pp. 232-255)
      Katrina Brown

      The experience of integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) in the last two decades has demonstrated that there are very few win-win solutions. In integrating conservation and development, there are winners and losers. The relationship between conservation and development is clearly more complex than either the direct conflicts perceived by the protectionist conservation lobby or the overoptimistic assumptions of synergy or win-win held by early proponents of ICDPs and community-based conservation. As reviews of ICDPs have shown, the interactions between conservation and development are more complicated and more fragile than often assumed (see McShane and Newby this volume). This relationship...

    • 12 Transforming Approaches to CBNRM: Learning from the Luangwa Experience in Zambia
      (pp. 256-289)
      Brian Child and Barry Dalal-Clayton

      This paper provides a brief description of the Luangwa Integrated Resource Development Project (LIRDP). It uses background and data from the project to emphasize several principles that make for effective community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) (cf. Dalal-Clayton and Child 2003). It also discusses some of the linkages between conservation, development, donor financing, and political economics.

      The LIRDP was one of the first programs to recognize the linkages between poverty and wildlife conservation. Initiated in the early 1980s, it tackled the serious elephant and rhino poaching in the southern Luangwa Valley, Zambia, directly through improved law enforcement, but it was primarily...

    • 13 Ecodevelopment in India
      (pp. 290-320)
      Shekhar Singh and Arpan Sharma

      Ecodevelopment, as a conservation strategy, is very much like the integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) approach prevalent in many parts of the world. This paper describes ecodevelopment, its rationale, some of the issues that it raises, and traces its genesis and progress. The experience of ecodevelopment in India is discussed in the context of the wider global debate on ICDPs.

      In India, ecodevelopment is defined as a strategy for protecting ecologically valuable areas (protected areas) from unsustainable or otherwise unacceptable pressures resulting from the needs and activities of people living in and around such areas (Singh 1994a).

      It attempts...

    • 14 Conservation Landscapes: Whose Landscapes? Whose Trade-Offs?
      (pp. 321-339)
      Stewart Maginnis, William Jackson and Nigel Dudley

      A common approach to dealing with a complex problem is to break it down into a suite of small, easy-to-understand elements; this approach is called the problem-isolation paradigm. In theory, each element of a problem can be examined, tested, and solved as necessary so that when the constituent parts are reassembled—be it in a computer program or assembly line—the whole unit functions seamlessly. While this approach has been central to the philosophy of industrial economies, being used to help companies optimize productivity and nations collaborate successfully on highly complex projects such as the international space station, its application...

    • 15 Poverty and Forests: Sustaining Livelihoods in Integrated Conservation and Development
      (pp. 340-371)
      Gill Shepherd

      This paper focuses on how integrated conservation and development programs and projects (ICDPs) could do more to address poverty issues, and the potential benefits to them of doing so. Because of the abundance of data on which to draw, I concentrate on forests, ICDPs, and poverty.

      There are probably two main reasons why conservationists should care about local livelihoods. First, there is the moral argument—that conservation efforts have often harmed people, and that those being harmed are not those who do the most damage. Conservation measures often impose grave livelihood costs on those least able to bear them, and...

    • 16 Using Adaptive Management to Improve ICDPs
      (pp. 372-394)
      Nick Salafsky and Richard Margoluis

      One of the main questions of this book is:

      “Do integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) work?”

      At first glance, this seems to be a straightforward question about a conservation tool that should have a straightforward answer. But let’s consider an analogous question about an actual tool:

      “Do hammers work?”

      If you think about trying to answer this question, at least three problems emerge:

      1. What is ahammer” ? The first problem is with the word hammer. If you consider it, there is no single tool that is a hammer. Instead, there are small claw hammers, large sledgehammers, and...

  8. Part Three Conclusion

    • 17 The Future of Integrated Conservation and Development Projects: Building on What Works
      (pp. 397-422)
      Michael P. Wells, Thomas O. McShane, Holly T. Dublin, Sheila O’ Connor and Kent H. Redford

      Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) moved from an untested concept in biodiversity conservation to conventional wisdom in a handful of years, despite a lack of convincing evidence that they were working effectively. Now, barely a decade after gathering momentum, ICDPs have been widely criticized for failing to meet expectations, and there are signs of their abandonment in favor of other, even less tested approaches.

      Some conservation staff from the very same organizations that led the charge into ICDPs now claim to have turned away from this approach. While even a cursory examination of current field activities undermines these claims,...

  9. Index
    (pp. 423-442)