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Evolutionary Biogeography

Evolutionary Biogeography: An Integrative Approach with Case Studies

Juan J. Morrone
Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 304
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  • Book Info
    Evolutionary Biogeography
    Book Description:

    Rather than favoring only one approach, Juan J. Morrone proposes a comprehensive treatment of the developments and theories of evolutionary biogeography. Evolutionary biogeography uses distributional, phylogenetic, molecular, and fossil data to assess the historical changes that have produced current biotic patterns. Panbiogeography, parsimony analysis of endemicity, cladistic biogeography, and phylogeography are the four recent and most common approaches. Many conceive of these methods as representing different "schools," but Morrone shows how each addresses different questions in the various steps of an evolutionary biogeographical analysis.

    Panbiogeography and parsimony analysis of endemicity are useful for identifying biotic components or areas of endemism. Cladistic biogeography uses phylogenetic data to determine the relationships between these biotic components. Further information on fossils, phylogeographic patterns, and molecular clocks can be incorporated to identify different cenocrons. Finally, available geological knowledge can help construct a geobiotic scenario that may explain how analyzed areas were put into contact and how the biotic components and cenocrons inhabiting them evolved. Morrone compares these methods and employs case studies to make it clear which is best for the question at hand. Set problems, discussion sections, and glossaries further enhance classroom use.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-51283-1
    Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Biological Sciences, Anthropology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-xiv)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xv-xviii)
  4. CHAPTER 1 Introducing Evolutionary Biogeography
    (pp. 1-6)

    Biotas are complex mosaics originated by dispersal and vicariance, having reticulate histories, which should be studied through different methods. Evolutionary biogeography integrates distributional, phylogenetic, molecular, and paleontological data in order to discover biogeographic patterns and assess the historical changes that have shaped them, following a stepwise approach. In this chapter I briefly introduce the steps of this approach.

    One hundred fifty years ago, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species. The geographic distribution of plant and animal taxa was among the evidence he provided to support evolution. Although the fact that continents have their own distinctive biotas has been...

  5. CHAPTER 2 Basic Concepts
    (pp. 7-22)

    Evolutionary biogeography integrates distributional, phylogenetic, molecular, and paleontological data in order to discover biogeographic patterns and assess the historical changes that shaped them. To elucidate the ontology of evolutionary biogeography, several complex issues should be understood. In this chapter I discuss the relationship between ecology and history, the relevance of the genealogical and ecological hierarchies, biogeographic patterns and processes, biotic components, and cenocrons. I also provide a general introduction to the available biogeographic methods of evolutionary biogeography.

    Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of taxa and their attributes in space and time (Hausdorf and Hennig 2007). In addition...

  6. CHAPTER 3 A Brief History of Evolutionary Biogeography
    (pp. 23-56)

    Biogeography has had a long history woven into natural history, evolutionary biology, systematics, geology, and ecology. In this chapter I highlight some authors whose works focus on evolutionary aspects of biogeography. Many works that might have been included have been omitted because this chapter is not intended to be an exhaustive historical treatment. For historical accounts of biogeography, see Hofsten (1916), George (1964), Browne (1983), Larson (1986), Papavero and Balsa (1985), Bowler (1989, 1996), Papavero (1990, 1991), Papavero et al. (1997), and Lomolino et al. (2004). My approach is largely archaeological (in the sense of Foucault 1966, 1969), trying to...

  7. CHAPTER 4 Identification of Biotic Components
    (pp. 57-112)

    Biotic components are sets of spatiotemporally integrated taxa that coexist in given areas. Their unity is due to their common history, although they may not represent monophyletic entities because of reticulation due to geodispersal and biogeographic convergence. Each biotic component usually consists of a particular set of cenocrons that have been integrated at different times. If taxa studied have a wide distribution in the fossil record or a molecular clock can be calibrated, it would be possible to recognize these cenocrons according to their geological age. The identification of biotic components, the basic biogeographic units, is the first stage of...

  8. CHAPTER 5 Testing Relationships Between Biotic Components
    (pp. 113-170)

    Because the generalized tracks that result from panbiogeographic analyses are unrooted, they connect geographic areas but do not specify a precise sequence of fragmentation. For example, given a generalized track joining Australia, New Zealand, and Chile, which of the three areas first separated from the others? In order to determine this sequence, phylogenetic data must be incorporated. In this chapter I present the basic approach of cladistic biogeography, introduce some methods, and provide case studies.

    This approach assumes a correspondence between the phylogenetic relationships of the taxa and the relationships between the areas they inhabit (Nelson and Platnick 1980, 1981;...

  9. CHAPTER 6 Regionalization
    (pp. 171-186)

    One of the most striking facts about the geographic distributions of taxa is that they have limits. Because these limits are repeated for different taxa, they allow the recognition of biotic components. Biotic components are nested within other larger components, so they can be ordered hierarchically in a system of realms, regions, dominions, provinces, and districts. In this chapter I discuss biogeographic regionalization and present a case study from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Once biotic components have been identified, they may be ordered hierarchically and used to provide a biogeographic classification. Given the historical and logical primacy of classification...

  10. CHAPTER 7 Identification of Cenocrons
    (pp. 187-217)

    Dispersal explanations traditionally have rested on narrative frameworks, lacking a general theory to explain distributional patterns, so they have been rejected by panbiogeographers and cladistic biogeographers as ad hoc explanations. After establishing biogeographic homology patterns, however, dispersal explanations can help establish when the cenocrons assembled in the identified components, incorporating a time perspective in the study of biotic evolution. In this chapter I explore how time slicing, intraspecific phylogeography, and molecular clocks may be used to incorporate temporal information in the biotic components recognized previously, helping identify the cenocrons that they comprise and how they dispersed and integrated.

    Hunn and...

  11. CHAPTER 8 Construction of a Geobiotic Scenario
    (pp. 218-223)

    Once we have identified the biotic components and cenocrons, we may be able to construct a geobiotic scenario. By compiling biological data (e.g., means of dispersal) and nonbiological data (e.g., past continental configurations) we can integrate a plausible scenario to help explain the episodes of vicariance or biotic divergence and dispersal or biotic convergence that have shaped the biotic evolution of the biotic components analyzed. In this chapter I discuss some basic concepts that are considered in the construction of geobiotic scenarios, with a brief account of plate tectonics.

    Both panbiogeographers and cladistic biogeographers have shown interest in geology, geophysics,...

  12. CHAPTER 9 Toward an Integrative Biogeography
    (pp. 224-226)

    The enormous methodological diversity in biogeography has led to extreme views. Keast (1991), Tassy and Deleporte (1999), and Vuilleumier (1999) suggested that the existence of multiple methods indicates that biogeography is far from coherent as a discipline. Morrone and Crisci (1995) and Riddle and Hafner (2004) found that this attests to the vitality of the field. Ebach and Humphries (2003:959) stated that “the present plethora of techniques reflect a lack of scientific debate and agreement as to what constitutes the ontology (specification of conceptualization) of biogeography.” Brown (2004:32) found “this explosion both exciting and intimidating.” Walter (2004:907) stated that “the...

  13. Glossary
    (pp. 227-234)
  14. References
    (pp. 235-286)
  15. Author Index
    (pp. 287-292)
  16. Subject Index
    (pp. 293-301)