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The Insect Cookbook

The Insect Cookbook: Food for a Sustainable Planet

Arnold van Huis
Henk van Gurp
Marcel Dicke
Françoise Takken-Kaminker
Diane Blumenfeld-Schaap
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  • Book Info
    The Insect Cookbook
    Book Description:

    Insects will be appearing on our store shelves, menus, and plates within the decade. InThe Insect Cookbook, two entomologists and a chef make the case for insects as a sustainable source of protein for humans and a necessary part of our future diet. They provide consumers and chefs with the essential facts about insects for culinary use, with recipes simple enough to make at home yet boasting the international flair of the world's most chic dishes.

    Insects are delicious and healthy. A large proportion of the world's population eats them as a delicacy. In Mexico, roasted ants are considered a treat, and the Japanese adore wasps. Insects not only are a tasty and versatile ingredient in the kitchen, but also are full of protein. Furthermore, insect farming is much more sustainable than meat production. The Insect Cookbook contains delicious recipes; interviews with top chefs, insect farmers, political figures, and nutrition experts (including chef René Redzepi, whose establishment was elected three times as "best restaurant of the world"; Kofi Annan, former secretary-general of the United Nations; and Daniella Martin of Girl Meets Bug); and all you want to know about cooking with insects, teaching twenty-first-century consumers where to buy insects, which ones are edible, and how to store and prepare them at home and in commercial spaces.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-53621-9
    Subjects: Zoology, Environmental Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-IX)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. XI-XIII)

    The first time I ate an insect was somewhere in Burundi, in the 1980s. I was accompanying a farmer on her walk through an area that had been forested in the past, where now there were only old, poorly tended oil palm trees dating from the Belgian colonial days. One of the palm trees had been knocked down in a storm the previous night. When the farmer noticed this felled tree, she ran to it enthusiastically. Her eager fingers searched within the leaf axils just underneath the tree’s crown, and she triumphantly pulled out a handful of fat white grubs....

  4. Preface
    (pp. XV-XV)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. XVII-XX)
  6. 1 Insects:: Essential and Delicious

    • Six Legs and Other Features
      (pp. 2-5)

      “Show me your legs and I’ll tell you who you are.” Insects have six legs. Animals with eight legs are arachnids. Those with ten legs are likely some type of crustacean, whereas four legs usually means they are a vertebrate, such as a reptile or mammal. In addition to their six legs, insects can be recognized by their three body parts. The front part is the head-which includes the mouthparts (usually external); compound eyes made up of many small parts or facets, each having its own lens; and two antennae (often called feelers) that allow the insect both to feel...

    • Eating Insects: “A Question of Education”
      (pp. 6-11)

      The goals of the Kofi Annan Foundation include the promotion of sustainable development and food and nutrition security. Kofi Annan has had ample experience with the vast diversity of politicians around the world, and has discussed many urgent political issues with these leaders. During his travels to every corner of the globe, he has partaken of many special dishes. Surely, insects have been included from time to time: insects make up part of the diet of 2 billion people. Annan shares his experience: “When you travel around the world, you do not ask what people are feeding you; you join...

    • Cooking with Edible Insects
      (pp. 12-14)

      At first, Henk van Gurp, one of the authors of this cookbook, thought that cooking with insects was an exciting challenge. By now, however, it is no trouble at all for him to create delicious dishes and snacks that are enjoyed by many people.

      The authors of this book first got together in the 1990s to try to stir up Dutch public interest in eating insects. The Laboratory of Entomology at Wageningen University, in the Netherlands, where Arnold van Huis and Marcel Dicke work, was located very close to Rijn IJssel Vakschool, the hotel and tourism school in Wageningen, where...

    • “You Have to Eat Away the Fear”
      (pp. 15-18)

      Location: the studio of the children’s television program Z@ppLive. That “crazy chef, Pierre Wind” has arrived to cook, a weekly ritual. Once the kids have taken the “I don’t like that” oath in which they promise to try whatever Pierre serves them, they embark on a food adventure culminating in mealworm lollipops. Every child in the studio is eagerly licking and munching. “‘Icky doesn’t exist’; that’s my motto. You know what I mean?” Maybe Pierre Wind isn’t that crazy after all.

      “From the moment the movement started, I’ve been working with insects,” the chef recalls. “At first out of cook’s...

    • Everyone Eats Insects
      (pp. 19-19)

      Insects are everywhere. They are found in all our food crops, despite the fact that farmers and growers do their best to protect them. At harvest time, the best apples are sent to markets and shops, and lesser-quality apples are used to produce apple juice and applesauce. Apples sometimes have an insect or two in them—and these just get ground up along with the apples and become part of the applesauce and juice. The same goes for tomatoes and ketchup, grains and bread, coffee beans and coffee, and a long list of other foods. Inspection authorities do enforce specific...

    • Shrimp or Grasshopper?
      (pp. 19-20)

      In the Western world, we have learned to eat many new things in the last few decades. For example, in northern Europe, culturedchampignonmushrooms were practically unknown before the 1960s; southern European vegetables, such as peppers and eggplant, became available only in the 1970s; and kiwis first appeared in the 1980s, whereas sushi is an even more recent import. It is clear that northern Europeans are no longer as attached to the standard diet of meat and potatoes as they once were. They eat mussels, oysters, snails, lobsters, and shrimps as delicacies, and pay good money for them. And...

    • “I Could Eat Insects Anytime, Day or Night”
      (pp. 21-25)

      “Actually, I had a date with a girlfriend yesterday, but I had to give this recipe a try. So I just combined the two, and we ducked into the kitchen together.” That happens quite often. Harmke Klunder’s friends have now gotten used to being served insects once in a while. “By now, most of them have no trouble popping a mealworm or grasshopper into their mouth. Some even try it out at home, and e-mail me to ask if I can come up with a recipe for their birthday party or something like that. But there are also people who...

    • Weaver Ants in Asia
      (pp. 26-26)

      Weaver ants are ants that build their nests in trees. They pull leaves together, attaching (weaving) them together with silk threads. Larvae and pupae of these weaver ants (of the genusOecophylla) are a very popular food in Asia. They are sometimes called ant eggs, as the pupae resemble eggs. People prefer to eat the larger larvae and pupae; these are the future ant queens that—if they escape being eaten—fly out to form new ant colonies.

      Weaver ant larvae and pupae can be found in the nests during a few months of the year. They are usually harvested...

    • Wasp Larvae in Japan
      (pp. 26-28)

      To us, wasps are nasty stinging beasts that annoy us when we sit outside having a drink in late summer. These are usually the wasps known as yellow jackets. In Japan, however, the same wasps are considered to be exquisite treats. Emperor Hirohito’s favorite dish was rice with wasp larvae cooked in sugar and soy sauce.

      Wasp larvae are eaten mostly in the central mountainous areas of Japan. The nests are found on the forested slopes. Men have made a sport of collecting wasps, and have thought up an ingenious method for it. Wasps are carnivorous and eat many other...

    • Termites: A Royal Meal
      (pp. 28-30)

      Termites are social insects that live in a nest; their colony consists of a king and queen and many soldiers and workers. Although an individual termite may weigh about 2 milligrams, the combined weight of all the termites in the world exceeds that of all the humans put together.

      Termites live predominantly in the tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Australia. They are known for their large nest hills, which can reach a height of 25 feet (8 m). Termites are considered pests, as they excavate wood from the inside, destroying buildings. Australians call termites white...

    • Lake Flies in East Africa
      (pp. 31-31)

      Many types of flies depend on water for their reproduction. The larvae of lake flies live in the water of the large East African lakes, including Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi, and Lake Victoria. At new moon, when the larvae have pupated, the pupae float to the lake surface and the flies emerge simultaneously, by the millions, forming huge clouds over the water. Arnold van Huis, one of the authors of this book, witnessed this fascinating spectacle once, while having breakfast at a hotel at the shore of Lake Malawi. He thought that a fire had broken out, because he saw...

    • “The Tortillas from Way Back When”
      (pp. 32-34)

      Edoardo Ramos Anaya recalls vividly how, as a boy, he used to picnic near his village, San Juan de Teotihuacán. “When you eat something, the flavor brings you back to the place where you first tasted it. I travel that way every day.” He tells this while his hand makes an indentation in a corn tortilla that he then fills with grasshoppers au gratin. The Mexican meal triggers in him both emotions and memories. “When I used to walk through the countryside with my grandfather’s sheep on the weekends, I had nothing to do, so I would just collect insects.”...

    • Spirited Caterpillars in Mexico
      (pp. 35-35)

      Almost everyone has heard of the Latin American hard liquor that features a 2-inch (5 cm) “worm”—actually, a caterpillar—at the bottom of the bottle. Every liquor store has this product on the shelf. The drink is calledmezcal; it is distilled from 100 percent Mexican agave plants and has an alcohol content of at least 45 percent.Mezcalis produced mainly in the state of Oaxaca, where thirty kinds of agave are used to make the various types. It should not be confused with tequila, which is only 51 percent agave and comes without a caterpillar. The caterpillars...

    • Long-Horned Grasshoppers in East Africa
      (pp. 35-37)

      Grasshoppers are such a coveted delicacy in Uganda that they cause traffic accidents. The insect in question is a green long-horned grasshopper, ornseneneas it is called in Luganda, the language of the largest Ugandan ethnic group. Grasshoppers are so plentiful in November, and this insect is so popular, that November is known as grasshopper month. Women and children collect the grasshoppers that are attracted to lampposts at night. Collecting grasshoppers along roads with traffic speeding by is perilous and results in accidents every year. Grasshoppers are a good source of income for the collectors; they are worth about...

    • “Insects are Buzzing All Around Me”
      (pp. 38-41)

      “During the twenty-four years that I have worked for Sodexo, the catering firm, I have always made food and product development my business.” The meat croquette that you can get at any Dutch company cafeteria, the pizza toppings, the soups: they are all a product of the chef’s ingenuity. And yes, they do carry a genuine Johan Verbon “signature”: “All my products are sustainable; if possible, organic; and preferably also produced locally.” This is true for the famous company cafeteria croquette, made with meat from humanely raised animals and 100 percent organic.

      It’s no surprise that Sodexo management came to...

      (pp. 42-52)
  7. 2 Is It Healthy?

    • Fish Friday, Meat Loaf Wednesday, Insect Tuesday
      (pp. 54-57)

      The origin of Kreca dates back thirty years. The farm actually started out as a hobby that got a little out of hand. Margot Calis explains: “I have always been interested in breeding birds, and Hans raised fish. He once built a ‘paludarium’: an aquarium combined with plants, for amphibians. We kept frogs and lizards in it. Back then, Hans began his biology studies and I took care of the animals. I would use a net to collect food for them in the fields. But when it rained, I couldn’t find any insects and had to get them elsewhere.”


    • “A World That Works”
      (pp. 58-63)

      It must have been in 2006 or 2007, on a cold winter morning, when Marian Peters first heard about insects that you could eat. “A hunter, Ruud Meertens, was sitting in my garden, talking about grasshoppers and locusts. He knew that there was already a restaurant in Den Bosch that had insects on the menu.” Peters and Meertens wondered about the potential for putting locusts on the market as a food-grade product for human consumption. Peters, who had worked on agricultural issues before, thought it would be economically feasible: “I thought: that could very well be a solution for all...

    • Eating Insects Safely
      (pp. 64-65)

      There are about 6 million insect species on Earth, of which at least 1,900 are eaten. Not all insects can be safely eaten, however. Many of them feed on plants, and quite a few plants produce toxic substances to defend themselves against enemies such as herbivorous insects. Insects that are resistant to the plant toxins can eat the plants without ill effects, and as they do, they may accumulate these toxins in their body. This often results in higher concentrations in the insects than in the plants themselves. Special care should be taken to render such insects safe for consumption....

    • What Kinds of Insects Can Be Eaten?
      (pp. 65-66)

      Most insects that are eaten belong to one of four major groups:


      Hymenoptera, such as ants, bees, and wasps


      Grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets

      Beetles make up the largest percentage of edible insects: about 31 percent of the more than 1,900 species eaten are beetles. This, of course, is not surprising, as about 40 percent of all insect species in the world are beetles. This group includes mealworms. In Europe, these beetle larvae are mostly grown for animal feed, but they are easy to grow and very suitable as a human food as well.

      Ants and wasps are another...

    • Insect Consumption and Health
      (pp. 66-69)

      It is not easy to make generalizations on the nutritional value of insects, simply because there are so many different edible species. The taste and nutritional value of insects depend on their developmental stage (for example, larva or adult) and on what the insects themselves have eaten. As with most foods, the preparation and processing methods (drying, boiling, or frying, for example) preceding consumption will also influence the insects’ nutritional composition. The main nutritional components of insects are proteins, fats, and fibers.

      The nutritional value of proteins depends on their content, quality (essential or nonessential amino acids), and digestibility. Insect...

      (pp. 70-80)
  8. 3 Eating Insects:: Naturally!

    • “Some People Won’t Try Anything New”
      (pp. 82-85)
      JAN RUIG

      “Don’t forget that we are doing development work, though you could even call it missionary work.” Jan Ruig doesn’t mean to say that he is a dogooder. But then again . . . “Jan Ruig can’t make the world a better place, but I can help it along by bringing items that are eaten in other countries to the Western world, to the Netherlands. That benefits our gastronomic culture. I’m working on putting something new on the market, and on imparting my vision and philosophy regarding food. I don’t think that we have to be eating insects en masse, but...

      (pp. 86-107)
    • “Valuable, Abundant, and Available to Everybody”
      (pp. 108-112)

      In vermont, Daniella Martin studied cultural/medical anthropology at a small college. She was most interested in pre-Columbian nutrition and medicine. Her question in particular was: What vestiges of early Aztec/Mayan life still existed? So she went to the Yucatán in Mexico and conducted research with local Maya on the various types of food that they ate as well as the various types of botanicals they utilized. During her study she read a great deal about how—despite the scarcity of large game in seventeenth-century Mexico—the Aztecs still had plenty of protein. “I remember reading about an argument between different...

    • “Bonbon Sauterelle”
      (pp. 113-115)

      Robèrt van Beckhoven began as a bread-and-pastry baker, has won every prize awarded in his profession, and is, since last year, one of the two masterpâtissiersof the Netherlands. At important events, tennis tournaments, and large Joop van den Ende Stage Entertainment productions, van Beckhoven and his employees are the housepâtissiers.

      It is remarkable that someone with his credentials would make the move onto the experimental path. Or isn’t it? “Actually, I have always been involved in innovative things. Out-of-the-box thinking is very important to me. Above all, I want the products that I make to be inspiring....

    • Cochineal from Peru
      (pp. 116-117)

      Advertisements for strawberries bedazzle us with their bright red colors. Sometimes, however, these much-loved summer berries are just not red enough. Producers of strawberry yogurt, for example, regularly use an insect to color their product more convincingly. The scale insect cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces a red dye called carmine when it is crushed. Scale insects are sucking insects that are related to aphids and feed on plant juices. The cochineal lives exclusively onOpuntiacactuses, known as paddle cactuses because they grow as rounded overlapping paddles armed with spines. Colonies of cochineals grow on these paddles. To harvest them, the...

    • Maggot Cheese in Sardinia
      (pp. 117-118)

      The Netherlands has its Limburger cheese; France, its Roquefort; and Sardinia, itscasu marzu(literally, “rotten cheese”). This cheese is made from sheep’s milk, and it is left to ripen for so long that it starts to rot. The rotting process attracts cheese flies that then lay their eggs on the cheese. The fly larvae eat their way into the cheese, digesting fats along the way and making the hard cheese soft and runny on the inside. The cheese is eaten, larvae and all, just as Roquefort is eaten with its mold. The larvae are about ⅓ inch (8 mm)...

    • Palm Beetles in the Tropics
      (pp. 118-119)

      In the tropics, palm beetle larvae are considered a delicacy. Palm beetles belong to the weevil family: they are beetles with a long snout that allows them to bore into plants. The species of palm weevils eaten in Africa, Asia, and Latin America vary, but are all closely related.

      When a palm tree (coconut, oil or sago palm) is knocked or chopped down, the beetles are more likely to lay their eggs on them.

      The emerging larvae feed on the contents of the tree trunks.

      In Africa and Latin America, women have a technique for estimating when the larvae are...

    • Dragonfly Larvae in China
      (pp. 119-121)

      Dragonflies are usually found near water. Large colonies live around irrigated rice fields in Asia. The use of pesticides against rice pests, however, has caused a rapid decrease in their numbers.

      A dragonfly’s head is composed mainly of large, bulging eyes which they need to catch other insects on the wing. For that, they also have to be expert aviators: they are able to perform agile aerobatics. Their excellent eyes keep track of everything, and although these insects are difficult to catch because of their flight maneuvers, children in China are excellent dragonfly catchers. The children spread a sticky sap...

      (pp. 122-131)
    • “An Exploration of Deliciousness”
      (pp. 132-137)

      René Redzepi’s interest in insects as food originates from an event that Noma organizes each year: the MAD symposium. This meeting brings together in Copenhagen the food world’s brightest and most inventive minds—from chefs to farmers, from journalists to politicians. At the first symposium, in 2011, the theme was vegetation. A chef from Brazil, Alex Atala,³ was there to speak. He said, “We are all talking about vegetation and vegetables as a delicious alternative to food, and what is good for us and what is good for the planet. But we never talk about insects, and in my part...

    • “The Next Generation’s Shrimp Cocktail”
      (pp. 138-140)

      That shrimp cocktail is a fascination. “Who didn’t grow up with that? We were bombarded with them in our youth. Even though shrimps resemble insects, we consider a grasshopper salad strange.” Why is that? “I’ve eaten grasshoppers myself. It’s very ordinary in Thailand.” And to Katja Gruijters, actually, eating insects is indeed very ordinary. How can you get people to see eating insects as normal as eating shrimp is? In other words: How do you make them appealing to a large audience?

      “If I were to give you a grasshopper right now, you would not say, ‘Oh, yummy.’ A great...

    • Spiders in Cambodia
      (pp. 141-142)

      Tarantulas are found mainly in the tropics. Most of these spiders are 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 cm) long or 7 inches (18 cm) including legs, though a few species can reach 1 foot (30 cm) in length. Tarantulas are covered with hairs that can irritate our eyes and mucous membranes. Although their bites can be very painful, most tarantulas are not dangerous for humans unless people happen to be allergic: only about 1 percent of tarantula species produce a venom harmful to humans.

      The city of Skuon, about 45 miles (75 km) from Cambodia’s capital, Phnom Penh,...

    • Moths in Italy and Australia
      (pp. 142-143)

      When people say, “I have butterflies in my stomach,” we never ask how those insects tasted. Yet butterflies and moths are eaten, albeit less often than caterpillars. In Carnia, in the north of Italy, until the mid-twentieth century, children were known to eat moths during the summer. More specifically, they ate the sweet contents of the crop ofZygaenamoths. The crop, present in some insects and in birds, functions as a temporary reservoir within the insect’s digestive system.

      Zygaenaare brightly colored insects, and that is normally a signal to predators that they are poisonous. This species indeed has...

      (pp. 144-154)
  9. 4 On the Future and Sustainability

    • Mopane Caterpillars in Southern Africa
      (pp. 156-158)

      About 20 percent of all edible insects are caterpillars. Especially popular in southern and central Africa, one caterpillar species stands out among all the others. In southern Africa (Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa), in a 7,700-square-mile (20,000 sq. km) area—about the size of New Jersey or Wales—9.5 billion saturniid moth caterpillars are collected each year: more caterpillars than there are people on Earth! Their market value is approximately $8.5 million. The caterpillar feeds mainly on the mopane tree, which is why it is known as the mopane caterpillar.

      The caterpillars are harvested when they are full grown...

    • Silk Moth Pupae in China
      (pp. 158-160)

      The story goes that silk was discovered by the Chinese empress Xi Ling-Shi (Leizu) 5,000 years ago. She found a silk moth cocoon on the mulberry tree in her garden and was able to pull a thread out of the cocoon and wind it around her finger, and then used this thread to weave cloth. For centuries, silk clothing was worn exclusively at the imperial court, and the Chinese were able to keep the exclusive secret of silk until about the year 600 C.E. Even the Roman historian Pliny the Elder got it wrong: in the year 78 C.E., he...

    • Food for Astronauts
      (pp. 160-161)

      How can you feed yourself on another planet, where nothing grows, or while traveling through space to get there? There is limited room inside a spacecraft, especially if you also need to produce food there. Some crops can be grown in small spaces, but producing meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products is more problematic. Japanese, Chinese, and Canadian scientists suggest using edible insects. Insects can convert plant material into high-quality food. This is possible in a small space, with robots handling the rearing process. Waste products, such as insect excretions as well as dead eggs, larvae, or pupae, can serve...

    • “I’ve Always Put Everything in My Mouth”
      (pp. 162-165)

      Apparently, that insect fascination runs in the family. Belgian artist Jan Fabre is a distant relative of famous French entomologist Jean-Henri Fabre. Yet, whereas the scientist was interested in only absolute truths, the artist dedicates his life to beauty in the broadest sense of the word. And in that pursuit, he often makes use of insects.

      “As a youngster, a seven-year-old little kid, I was fascinated by things that crept around, such as spiders.” He laughs at the memory. “I studied them without a scientific method: grabbed the spider, pulled out a leg, and another leg, and another, to see...

    • Shellac from India
      (pp. 166-166)

      First, we eat with our eyes. When shopping, we select fruits and other foods that look unblemished and glossy. Just take a look in a store at how many foods sparkle at us. Shiny things are attractive; the implication is that they are pure and wholesome. The food and candy industry makes clever use of this. Fruits are usually treated to make them shine, and candies and chocolates are often coated with a special finish as well.

      Shellac (food additive number E904) is an important glazing agent used in the food industry. It is a natural product that comes from...

    • Jumping Plant Lice in South Africa and Australia
      (pp. 166-167)

      Both the Bible and the Qur’an refer to manna: the heavenly bread that would rain down from the sky, and that could be gathered up from the ground but not kept for very long. Manna was perceived as a gift from God. Biologically speaking, manna is the sweet substance also known as honeydew, which comes from plants and is exuded as a sticky residue by aphids, and also by jumping plant lice.

      There are examples of this honeydew manna in South Africa and in Australia. It is called mopane bread in South Africa, because the honeydew is produced by jumping...

    • Insects: A Sustainable Alternative to Meat
      (pp. 168-170)

      The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that livestock is responsible for 18 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions, and is, as such, an important contributor to global warming. Greenhouse gas emissions include methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O). Simply by burping and passing gas, cattle release more than one-third of all methane emissions worldwide. Methane contributes twenty-three times more to global warming than does carbon dioxide (CO₂), the most important greenhouse gas emitted by cars. Livestock generates close to two-thirds of all nitrous oxide released; this gas is 289 times more damaging than CO₂. Some...

    • “A New Episode in the History of Our Civilization”
      (pp. 171-174)

      Eating insects is not only exciting or delicious—it’s also necessary. Maybe even inevitable. To understand why, Herman Wijffels goes back to the basis of our economic system. In any case, the way we produce food right now can’t go on for long. “We are running up against physical limitations. It hasn’t quite gotten through to us yet, but for the first time in the history of humanity, we are in the predicament of exhausting our natural resources. We call it overshoot: we are overtaxing our fresh water sources, our agricultural land, and the ocean’s fish supplies.” As a former...

    • Insect Consumption: A Global Perspective
      (pp. 175-176)

      Our current food production methods will have to become more efficient. Furthermore, “new” foods, such as algae, seaweeds, or insects, will need to be developed. Our production, processing, and distribution systems will also have to become more sustainable. We will have to take into account the changing growing conditions related to climate change and water scarcity. These are reasons why the FAO is studying how insects can play a part in food security.

      Insects are already a delicacy for some 2 billion people. The majority of insects that are now eaten worldwide are harvested in the wild. For the most...

    • Insect Consumption: The Future
      (pp. 177-178)

      Since 1997, we at Wageningen University have been drawing attention to the fantastic new possibilities that eating insects can bring. At first, the reactions were characterized—understandably—by disbelief. As the years have gone by, however, it has become clear that the future looks bright for insect consumption; people have been increasingly positive and interested. One example is an article that appeared in the Dutch Railways magazineTussen de rails(Between the Rails) around the turn of this century, about trends we would be seeing in the new century—one new phenomenon was described per year. For 2016, the prediction...

    (pp. 179-182)
  11. Index
    (pp. 183-192)
  12. Back Matter
    (pp. 193-196)