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Ballads of the Lords of New Spain

Ballads of the Lords of New Spain

Transcribed and translated from the Nahuatl by John Bierhorst
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  • Book Info
    Ballads of the Lords of New Spain
    Book Description:

    Compiled in 1582,Ballads of the Lords of New Spainis one of the two principal sources of Nahuatl song, as well as a poetical window into the mindset of the Aztec people some sixty years after the conquest of Mexico. Presented as acancionero, or anthology, in the mode of New Spain, the ballads show a reordering-but not an abandonment-of classic Aztec values. In the careful reading of John Bierhorst, the ballads reveal in no uncertain terms the pre-conquest Aztec belief in the warrior's paradise and in the virtue of sacrifice.

    This volume contains an exact transcription of the thirty-six Nahuatl song texts, accompanied by authoritative English translations. Bierhorst includes all the numerals (which give interpretive clues) in the Nahuatl texts and also differentiates the text from scribal glosses. His translations are thoroughly annotated to help readers understand the imagery and allusions in the texts. The volume also includes a helpful introduction and a larger essay, "On the Translation of Aztec Poetry," that discusses many relevant historical and literary issues.

    In Bierhorst's expert translation and interpretation,Ballads of the Lords of New Spainemerges as a song of resistance by a conquered people and the recollection of a glorious past.

    Announcing a New Digital Initiative

    UT Press, in a new collaboration with the University of Texas Libraries, will publish an interactive digital adaptation of theBalladsthat will expand the scholarly content beyond what is possible to publish in book form. The web site, to launch in conjunction with the book in July 2009, includes all of the printed book plus scans of the original codex, a normative transcription, and space to interact with the author and other scholars, as well as art, audio, a map, and other related material. The digitalBalladswill be open access, bringing one of the university's rare holdings to scholars around the world.

    eISBN: 978-0-292-79356-9
    Subjects: Music, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. A Note on Orthography
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Using the Online Edition
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. 1-23)

    TheRomances de los señores de la Nueva España, orRomances, as the codex has been called for short, is a hastily penned Nahuatl manuscript of fortytwo folios, undated, unsigned, and with a few stray comments in Spanish, jotted even more hastily, by an anonymous glossator. Evidently the work is a transcript of an original now lost, with numerous scribal lapses that betray imperfect copying.

    Preserved with theRelaciónof Juan Bautista de Pomar, composed March 9, 1582, as its author states, theRomancesmay have been intended as an adjunct to theRelaciónand therefore compiled about the same...

  7. On the Translation of Aztec Poetry
    (pp. 24-70)
  8. Guide to the Vocabulary
    (pp. 71-74)
  9. Guide to the Transcription
    (pp. 76-80)
  10. [I] Friends, let us sing
    (pp. 81-84)

    Friends, let us sing, let us go sing in the house of sun flowers.¹ And who will seek them, who will meet them here beside the drum?²

    “I grieve in sadness for these flowers,³ I, your poor friend,⁴ Chichimec Lord Tecayehuatzin. Who among us will fail to entertain,⁵ to gladden God Self Maker?” At flood’s edge yonder in Tlaxcala let him sing narcotic flower songs.⁶ Let Xicotencatl, Temilotzin, and Lord Cuitlizcatl sing narcotic songs. Let us hear “ohuaya ohuaya.”⁷

    In Eagle Tamoanchan, the home of jaguar bells,⁸ in Huexotzinco, where the dying is,⁹ there’s Dancer. It’s Tlacahuepan. His eagle flower...

  11. [II] “I’m coming, I, Yoyontzin, craving flowers”
    (pp. 85-87)

    “I’m coming,¹⁹ I, Yoyontzin, craving flowers, hatching flowers here on earth, hatching cacao flowers, hatching comrade flowers.”²⁰ And they’re your flesh, O prince, O Lord Nezahualcoyotl, O Yoyontzin.

    “I come bringing my good songs, bringing them down. We’re friends. May all be comrades, may all know friends.²¹

    “On earth I’m briefly pleasured. These hearts of mine—they briefly live in happiness,²² and I’m Yoyontzin, craving flowers, flower-chirping.

    “I’m desiring, craving friends, princes, comrades. I’m craving flowers, flower-chirping.

    ohu aca yuhqui teocuitlatl o ohuaye [6] acã yuhqui cozcãtli· ŷqçãli pâtlahuac [7] qn ipâ ye nicmatia yectli ya mocui[8]yc aya tontatzinni o...

  12. III Again they make music
    (pp. 87-89)

    Again they make music, and they will arrive. Our flowers, our songs are created.²⁵

    Brothers, let them appear. And here they are, the princes!²⁶ O Nezahualcoyotzin! O singer! O Tzontecochatzin!

    Pick up your flowers, your fans, and dance with these, my prince Yoyontzin.

    Pick up this cacao, these cacao flowers, and let them be sent away.²⁷ Let there be dancing and music. Our home is not here. We’re not to live here. You are off to that place.

    maçâ tlatoliya maçân itoloni cui[13]catl yn ma no nehuatl y niquino[14]notzã yn tepilhuan i çintlalcohuâ[15]tzinn i cahualtzin motecuiçôma[16]tzin netzahualcotla ohuaya ohuãya


  13. [IV] God Self Maker’s home is nowhere
    (pp. 89-91)

    God Self Maker’s home is nowhere.³¹ Prayers and services to him are everywhere. His fame and glory are sought on earth.³²

    God Self Maker makes ohuaya.³³ Prayers and services to him are everywhere. His fame and glory are sought on earth.

    “No one, no one can be Life Giver’s friend. Where there are prayers to him, near him and in his presence, can there be life here on earth?”

    What does he enjoy? Where there are prayers to him, near him and in his presence, there can be life here on earth.

    “O Life Giver, really no one is your...

  14. [V] Friends, listen to this
    (pp. 91-94)

    Friends, listen to this: “Let’s have no more lordly marching.³⁷ Let’s forget war and conflict.³⁸ Let those things be done with here in this good world.”

    Even me. They talk about me, too.³⁹ Yesterday there was the ball court.⁴⁰

    This is what they were saying, what they were telling each other: “How can he be human? How can he be sane?”⁴¹ Who knows all that they say? But is it not true that I speak on earth?

    ayahuiztli moteca õhuaye ma [2] quiquiztlã yncahuãcan nopan [3] pani tlalticpac huiya çeçelihui [4] mimilihui yahualihui xochitli [5] ahuiyaztihuiz yn tlalticpac â o[6]huaya...

  15. [VI] “I come to guard the city”
    (pp. 95-97)

    “I come to guard the city, [in that] somewhere I am uttered.”⁵² With flowers God is making paintings: they’re companions! You’ve been left in your haven, O Tlaltecatzin, and you’re sighing, you’re warbling.

    Together with him you sing—he is my spirit, he is God. You’re sighing, you’re warbling.

    The roseate swan is reviving. Flowers of your crown, O mother,⁵⁴ O fragrant woman, are foaming abroad. O narcotic popcorn flowers! You are merely borrowed. You will be forsaken, you will pass away, [for] all that are here will be shorn.⁵⁴

    You’ve arrived among the princes, O honored creation. You’ve made...

  16. [VII] The flower lords, the song bells
    (pp. 97-99)

    The flower lords,⁶⁷ the song bells, are in Water Face,⁶⁸ this house of flowers!

    Life Giver is entertained with flowers, O princes. Let there be dancing in this house of flowers.

    Cacao flowers, popcorn flowers are sprouting in Mexico. They’re budding, they’re blossoming.

    Lords, eagles, jaguars are standing as a multitude.⁶⁹ They’re forming buds, they blossom.

    And so these shield flowers are to wither in Anahuac, in the fields.⁷⁰

    Shield flowers are spinning. Plume popcorn flowers lie in our hands. In Anahuac, in the fields.

    ¶ qtza/çãlaxochitl oo / tlachinolxochi[19]tli / canyyo y 56 tonequimilol - yaom[1]

    [1]xochitla omhuaya ohuaya...

  17. [VIII] Chalco’s come to fight
    (pp. 99-99)

    Chalco’s come to fight. The spears have been scattered,⁷² the chalk and the plumes, where this house of pictures lies. But briefly in God’s home.⁷³

    Flowers descend, his songs descend: O God, he speaks in your home, here!⁷⁴ and he’s a quetzal, a spirit-owner lord. ⁷⁵Your flowers have opened.

    In the flower court he strikes it up, in the mist court he sounds the whistle cry.⁷⁶ God is cheered by your songs.⁷⁷...

  18. [IX] Let’s drink
    (pp. 99-101)

    Let’s drink—let’s eat—cacao flowers. Let’s entertain ourselves with these. Your flowers are opening.

    Cacao flowers make my heart drunk, ah, my heart drunk. Adorned with these, let me pass away to that place [beyond]. Let my heart go with them. May these flowers not wither.⁷⁸

    ¶ ma yuh niyahuin iuhcâ ma nocpac[11]xochihui mâ yuh niyahuin iuhca ma [12] nocpacxochihui ma noxochicozq ma [13] yca malintiuh ye omco xochitli [14] ma y cuetlahuiya xochitla ohua[15]ya ohuaya

    ¶ ytech onenemiya oohuaye - yn itla[17]tol - yehua yn dios çã cohuatecatli [18] ya oohuaye yzta coyotla ohuaya o[19]huaya

    ¶ quihualtemohuiya - ynhuiti xo[1]...

  19. [X] For a moment God’s drums come forth
    (pp. 101-104)

    For a moment God’s drums come forth.⁸⁷ Play them beautifully, Prince Yoyontzin. For a moment take pleasure, you princes.

    So let yourselves be pleasured, you princes of Huexotzinco: Xayacamach, Calmecahua, Matzin,⁸⁸ and Temaxahuitzin.⁸⁹ Here are your flowers, our songs. Let us sing them, let us take pleasure.

    oçelocal imacã tzihuacpetlatli [19] yonoca ayyahue cuauhquiya[20]hua[1]

    [1]qui toniyaycaq chichimecaltecuitli [2] y huexotzinco teomxiuh·tiçãyo [3] y monesconol tocoyeyecohuã y mo[4]tzihuãquimiuh yca titemoc y hue[5]xotzinco ya ohuaya ohuaya

    ¶ matlahuâcaltica nemamana[7]lotoc yyeehuâya yn iyahuia ye[8]huân i diosa yn tenmayahuitzin [9] viya xayacamachaam oya mizqui[10]octica onequimiloloya ohuaya ohua[11]ya

    ¶ xochitla yyhuiya / y toyoooloc haya...

  20. [XI] May your flesh, your hearts be leafy green
    (pp. 105-107)

    May your flesh, your hearts be leafy green,⁹⁹ O Chichimec,¹⁰⁰ O Tenitl!¹⁰⁰ These are jades, these are popcorn flowers, cacao flowers, your hearts. And let’s be pleasured.

    “I come as a flower tree from Tamoanchan, the flower seat, come whirling these, these laughing ones, these flowers, burgeoned flowers, song-root flowers.”¹⁰² From within these plumes you sing, O Arbiter.¹⁰³ You’re whirled! And let’s be pleasured.

    “I am created in Tamoanchan.”¹⁰⁴ As a multitude of flowers, golden flowers, you’re whirled. Our drums, our rattles! Here [on earth and here] alone! O friends!

    ¶ y çâ tictlanehuico - y tlalticpacqui [13] çee /...

  21. [XII] The flower trees are whirling
    (pp. 107-109)

    The flower trees are whirling, blossoming in your home, O God.¹¹³

    All the birds are coming out, inhaling, singing in your home, O God.¹¹⁴

    ¶ chalchiuhcoyoli câcahuâcatima[11]mi mahui y motepeuh / y yehuâ[12]ya dios e [superscript:]totecoyo[line script:] - ypalnemohuani - ŷpâ [13] chachalacatoc / çãcuatototla - zi[14]nizcã tlauhqchol ompãpatla[15]tinemi yn tepilhuãni / oo / aya[16]hui / ya oaya a / ohuaya ohuaya

    ¶ at oc achitzincã nicâ / at otlahuelma[18]tia / acã quiyocoya / yehuaya diosi [superscript:]totecoyo[line script:] / [19] oo / ayahuiya õayaa / ovaya ohua[20]ya

    ¶ nicçâcuamoyahuaya omo huaye [2] chalchihuixelihui tomãc omani[3]ya -...

  22. [XIII] In this flower house
    (pp. 109-111)

    In this flower house they stand as flowers. It’s where they’re all assembled, and they’re comrades, they’re companions, they’re noble ones. And ah, their words are good heart pleasers. The princes are entertained.

    There’s mutual embracing among these flowers. As songs they’ve been twirled.¹¹⁸ And ah, their words are good heart pleasers. The princes are entertained.

    ¶ xochimecatl oo / yhuã momamali / [15] yn amoxochihui / y yectlin âmo[16]tlatol antepilhuãno / yn anconito[17]huã om / antepilhuan ã ohuaya [18] ohuaya

    ¶ nihualchoca y / nihualycnootla[2]mati çâ nicuicânitl hvia y / a [3] ca anichuicaz i toxochi om oo[4]huaye /...

  23. [XIV] Princes, I’ve been hearing good songs
    (pp. 111-114)

    Princes, I’ve been hearing good songs in His home.¹²² O Coacuech, the trogons are strewn as gold, as flower banners: here on earth adorn yourself with these.¹²³

    Song flowers lie beyond in His home. O lord, O chief,¹²⁴ O Chalchiuhtlatonac, the trogons are strewn as gold, as flower banners: on earth adorn yourself with these.

    ¶ ye tomoneltoca ya om ohuaye - teohua [4] oo yn cuateomtla ohuaya ohuaya

    ¶ yn ca ya mocuepa moyoollo / caauh[6] timaniz i cuãtl ixpan i tlali mo[7] cuepâya ylhuicâtl olini /ay câ [8] ye â·hualo chichimecâtl i tlacâ[9]maçâtla ohuaya...

  24. [XV] Now let us begin [Part 2, Song 1]
    (pp. 115-116)

    Now let us begin in this house of green places,¹ friends. God’s words are awaited.² What will he want? What will he give? Flowers! Songs!

    All sorrows come from him. We call to him in this house of green places.⁴ God’s words are awaited.⁵ What will he want? What will he give? Flowers! Songs!

    Golden flowers, popcorn, cacao, and raven flowers are whirling. Oh, God,⁶ they’re your flowers.

    We can only borrow these flower drums,⁷ these rattles of yours. Oh God,⁸ they’re your songs, your flowers.

    My heart enjoys these companions,⁹ these comrades. Come, friends,¹⁰ be pleasured with these fragrant...

  25. [XVI] A master of egrets makes these flowers move [Part 2, Song 2]
    (pp. 117-119)

    A master of egrets makes these flowers move, brings down these songs from your home, O Life Giver. Be pleasured. I say it here.

    Princes, Chichimecs, call out to Him from Mictlan,¹⁴ for they’ve been lost [in battle] here on earth.¹⁵ Be pleasured. I say it here.

    All are appearing, all are arriving in this house of green places beside the drum.¹⁶ Briefly Tenocelotzin is scattered as ear and hand flowers.These become marigold jewels, these, your words, O Tlaltzin!¹⁷ Chiauhcoatzin! Not twice does one live. Does Life Giver have a craving for comrades here on earth?¹⁸

    Well now! On this...

  26. [XVII] On this flower mat you paint your songs [Part 2, Song 3]
    (pp. 119-121)

    On this flower mat you paint your songs, your words, my prince, you, Nezahualcoyotzin.

    Ah, your heart is painted.³¹ As multicolored flowers you paint your songs, your words, my prince, you, Nezahualcoyotzin.

    With these be pleasured. These intoxicating flowers lie in our hands.

    Let everyone wear these flower necklaces, these flower crowns of ours.³² Let flowers sprout, let flowers open. Chattering, singing, the birds are alive beyond. These jingles. God spreads them out in his home.³³

    Only with flowers are we pleasured. Only with songs is your sadness destroyed, O princes: you’re entertained.

    ¶ quiyocoya ya · yn ipalnemohua ye[1]...

  27. [XVIII] Are You obliging? [Part 2, Song 4]
    (pp. 121-123)

    Are You obliging? Is Life Giver in a mournful mood³⁷? Yes or no? What does he say? Let our hearts keep sorrowing.³⁸

    How many does he “yes” and “no”! This Life Giver is intractable. [But] let our hearts keep sorrowing.

    O God, O Life Giver, I’m in sorrow: will it never be?³⁹ Will I never have the pleasure of One’s company?⁴⁰

    You strew them as lovedones,⁴¹ and ah! they come from you, your riches, O Life Giver! They’re the popcorn flowers, the cacao flowers, that I crave in sorrowing.

    ¶ acan chalchihuitli / - qçãli patla[2]huac · moyolo motlatol /...

  28. [XIX] I’m born in vain [Part 2, Song 5]
    (pp. 123-125)

    I’m born in vain, come forth in vain from God’s home.⁴⁷ On earth I’m poor.

    Let me not come forth! Let me not be born! I say, what will befall me?⁴⁸ All the princes have come to be assembled.⁴⁹ I give no offense. Take care!

    Oh yes, I’m to go away ascending from my seat on earth, my lot,⁵⁰ I who am poor.⁵¹ My heart is suffering, friend. This earth is hardship.

    ¶ qni nemohua yaa · yn tenahua[6]qui · mach ilihuiz tiyanemia [7] 4 tehuic teyxco niyanemi çã[8]n ihuiyaa çân i çêmele - yn [9] çã nonopechtecâ çâ nitoloti[10]nemi...

  29. [XX] I strike up a song [Part 2, Song 6]
    (pp. 125-127)

    I strike up a song, singing the songs of God Life Giver.

    God has arrived,⁶⁰ spreading song marvels. Self Maker is coming here, you princes. Let these cacao flowers be borrowed.

    [1]huãya · mayc ninapãtihui niya[2]patlaniz i · ninotoliniya · yca ni[3]choca yn · ohuaya ohuaya

    ¶ cuel achic monahuac yeehuâya, y[5]palnemohuani, y ye neli toteycui[6]lohua acaa toteycnomati ay tlal[7]ticpâqui ohuaya ohuaya

    ¶ nepâpa cua·huizhuayoticac ŷ mo[9]huehue yn ipalnemohua yehua[10]ya Dios y xochitica çêlizticac aa-[11]yyahue yca miçônaahuiltia / ay te[12]pilhua ahuiya ohu ach i ye yuhcaa [13] cucaxochitl huel imanicâ ohua[14]ya ohuaya

    ¶ y queçâlizquixochitl · omcueputoc [16] ye ocã...

  30. [XXI] I stand up the drum [Part 2, Song 7]
    (pp. 127-130)

    I stand up the drum, I gather our friends, and their cares are put aside:

    I give them songs. We’re off to that place [beyond]. Recall them.

    Adorn yourselves and rejoice, friends.

    ¶ yn cuix uc no yhuiya · cano yeuhcaan aya [3] cuix oc uo 18 yhuiya cano ximohua[4]ya ▪oohuyeo aye · oo 2 = = = = =

    [¶] huaye // ma tihuiyacan i yecẽ ye nican i xo[6]chinahuatilo 3 yeçẽ ye nican i cuica[7]nahuatilo tlalticpâc u ohuaye 19 ximo[8]quimiloca xiyamocuiltonocâ - y ya[9]tocnihuan an ohuaya ohuaya - =

    ¶ tzinizcaxuchitla yhua quimalinan [11] yectli ya cuicatla ·...

  31. [XXII] Your flowers blossom as bracelets [Part 2, Song 8]
    (pp. 131-132)

    Your flowers blossom as bracelets, swelling as jades, the petals abounding, they lie in our hands. These fragrant plume flowers are our adornment, you princes. Aya! We only borrow them on earth.

    Let the popcorn flowers, the raven flowers be scattered, and fragrant plume flowers lie in our hands. They are our adornment, you princes. Aya! We only borrow them on earth.

    I, Tizahuatzin, am grieving here. Where are we to go? To His home! There can be no coming back, there can be no return. We go away forever. Beyond is where we go.⁷⁷

    Let these flowers, these songs...

  32. [XXIII] My heart is greatly wanting flowers [Part 2, Song 9]
    (pp. 133-135)

    My heart is greatly wanting flowers that lie in my hand. Yes, I songgrieve, making songs on earth,⁸³ I, Cuacuauhtzin, wanting flowers that lie in my hand. I grieve.

    “Where might we go, so as never to die? Though I be jade, or gold, I’ll be smelted, or drilled on the mound.”⁸⁴ Ah! I’m born, I, Cuacuauhtzin, and I grieve.

    Your precious log drums! You blow your conch for turquoise swans, you, Yoyontzin.⁸⁵ The singer arrives, he appears.

    It’s time!⁸⁶ Be pleasured! And they shall appear! I wound their hearts.⁸⁷ I’m lifting songs. The singer arrives, he appears.

    “Let your...

  33. [XXIV] Let there be comrades [Part 2, Song 10]
    (pp. 135-137)

    Let there be comrades, acquaintance with flowers. Songs shall be raised, [then] we’re off to His home.⁹⁹ It’s just our songs that live right here on earth.⁹⁴

    We’re leaving our songs, our creations. Their acquaintance shall be made: the songs shall be raised.⁹⁵ [Then] we’re off to His home. It’s just our songs that live right here on earth.

    My heart hears songs, and I weep, I grieve, on account of these flowers. We’re to go away and leave them here on earth. We merely borrow them, and we’re off to His home.

    Let me take this multitude of flowers...

  34. [XXV] Strike it up beautifully [Part 2, Song 11]
    (pp. 137-139)

    Strike it up beautifully, singer. Beat your flower drum and pleasure the princes, the eagles, the jaguars. For a moment we borrow them.¹⁰²

    Life Giver’s heart requires these jewels, these plumes. And so they’ll be splintered. He’ll need them beyond. He’ll strew these princes, these eagles, these jaguars. For a moment we borrow them.

    So many jewels, so many plumes are done away with! It seems they’re jades, it seems they’re gold.¹⁰³ Be pleasured with these. With these, you princes, let our sadness be destroyed.

    ¶ ahu i tocuic ahu in i toxochihu a[4]ya yn tonequimilol xonahahui[5]yacan yc maliticac yn...

  35. [XXVI] Eagle flowers, broad leafy ones, are sprouting [Part 2, Song 12]
    (pp. 139-141)

    Eagle flowers, broad leafy ones, are sprouting. This seems to be their blossoming place, and these are shield flowers, your flowers, Self Maker, Life Giver.

    The spear flowers scatter.¹⁰⁵ These are your flowers. They blossom as jades, Self Maker, Life Giver.

    As flowers, it seems, these feathers are scattered before Cacamatl at Thorn Knife Town.¹⁰⁶

    The eagle screams,¹⁰⁷ the jaguar roars before Cacamatl at Thorn Knife Town.

    Flowers sprinkle down. Your war flowers, jaguar flowers, are shining as eagles. There they are: on the field.

    Yes, these are your loved ones, your flowers, God. Your war flowers, jaguar flowers, are...

  36. [XXVII] A shield-roaring blaze-smoke rises up [Part 2, Song 13]
    (pp. 141-143)

    A shield-roaring blaze-smoke rises up. Ah, and rising up as bell dust it’s equated with your flowers, God.¹⁰⁹ In the distance shrills a multitude of eagles, jaguars.

    He befriends and He shows mercy. In a blaze the dust is stirring: reed flowers turn gold,¹¹⁰ rain down as a blade-mist,¹¹¹ becoming great.¹¹²

    In War-death Flower Flood Land, at the House of Butterfly Shields,¹¹³ Montezuma using javelins recites, tossing off plume-flood-flower picture paintings. He’s gone to that distant Mexico, leaving reed flowers behind.¹¹⁴

    Flowers are blossoming. Yonder he sings. This Montezuma using javelins recites, tossing off plume-flood-flower picture paintings. He’s gone to...

  37. [XXVIII] Flowers are our only adornment [Part 2, Song 14]
    (pp. 143-146)

    Flowers are our only adornment. Only through songs does this pain of ours, this flower multitude, come falling down.¹²⁰

    “Will companions be lost to me,¹²¹ comrades lost to me, when I, Yoyontzin, have gone to the Singing Place, to God?”

    O Nezahualcoyotl, O Montezuma, be pleasured […]¹²²

    Çanyo in xochitl in tonequimilol çanyo in cuicatl ic huehuetzin telel a in tl pM c a ohuaya ohuaya.

    Ỹ mach noca ompolihuiz in cohuayotl mach noca ompolihuiz yn icniuhyotl yn onoya yehua niyoyontzin ohuaye on cuicatillanõ yn ipalnemoani ohuaya ohuaya

    Tineçahualcoyotzin Moteucçomatzin maoc xonahahuiacã xocõahuilticã Dios ypalnemoani ohuaya ohuaya.

    A yç ac...

  38. [XXIX] […] [Part 3, Song 1]
    (pp. 147-148)

    “Friends, let it not be ‘never twice’ that we come to earth,” say the hearts of Montezuma, Citlalcoatzin, and Cahualtzin. “Let there be pleasure,² let there be dancing, princes. Nowhere is there such a place!”³

    God Life Giver lives within you. He paints, he creates, within you, O Chichimec prince, O Nezahualcoyotl.

    Just “huilaca-toco-huini-ye-ohaye-ililili-cal-haa-cal-huan-o-ohuaya.”⁴ “But Yoyontzin, it is not true that you are Life Giver’s friend. It is not true that you are God’s great one. O comrades, beware, beware. Beware of rejoicing.”

    These princes know flowers, your words. They say them to each other, to each other, utter them....

  39. [XXIX-A] You paint with flowers, with songs [Part 3, Song 1-A]
    (pp. 149-151)

    You paint with flowers, with songs, Life Giver. You color the ones who’ll live on earth, you recite them in colors,¹¹ and so you’re hatching eagles,¹² jaguars, in your painting place. You’re here on earth!

    And so you’re giving outline to these comrades, these companions, these nobles. In colors you recite the ones who’ll live on earth, and so you’re hatching eagles, jaguars, in your painting place. You’re here on earth!

    “Let them be in plume mats, in a jade wickerwork. Let these princes be done away with.” Though we vassals are alive, we are mortal. All of us are...

  40. [XXX] Your flowers are jade [Part 3, Song 2]
    (pp. 151-151)

    Your flowers are jade, gold. O God!

    Your riches. O Life Giver! The flower of knife death, war death.¹⁶

    Through war death aren’t they recognized? Oh, you must pass away!¹⁷

    In war,¹⁸ in blaze aren’t they recognized?

    Shield dust is pouring down, spear mist,¹⁹ pouring down.

    Is it true that one is recognized in the Place Unknown?

    Only for fame and renown does one die in war. In this way, and soon, one is shorn. O God!

    As flowers it comes forth.²⁰...

  41. [XXXI] Come forth and play our drum [Part 3, Song 3]
    (pp. 151-153)

    Come forth and play our drum.²² […]²³

    May all have comrades. Just take His hearts from Him.²⁴ Only here do we borrow them. Only our smokes and our flowers.²⁵

    ¶ hueli ya cuica ye nicâ xiuh[3]toto qchol tzinizcãn iya q[4]chol atohuâ mocha quiyana[5]quiliya hayacachtlin hue[6]huetl ohuaya ohuaya

    ¶ oya nicua cacahuãtl yc no[8]paquiya noyol ahuiya no[9]yol huelamatiya om ya[10]hue om hama ha yya a ohua[11]ya ohuaya

    ¶ ma ya nixoca y ma ya nicui[13]ca y yn i xomolco y caltech [14] ninonemitia yehuaya [15] dios y ya om yyahue om ha[16]ma ha yya ohuaya ohuaya

    ¶ oya noconizqui cacahuaxo[2]chitl noyolo...

  42. [XXXII] In the house of pictures [Part 3, Song 4]
    (pp. 153-156)

    In the house of pictures God starts making music,³⁴ scattering flowers, songs.³⁵

    ¶ ycahuaca cuicatl oyo · huale[2] huatihuiz çã · quinaquiliya [3] toxochayacachi /quimoya[4] hua xochitli on ahuiya cui[5] catl o hamayyahue hahua[6] yya o /oviya oviya

    ¶ xochiticpac cuica y yectli coçx[8] coxi ye coyatotoma cujtl qo -ha [9] ylili -yaha ylili y /o /huio hui [10] ohui ohuaya ohuaya

    ¶ çã ye coyanaquiliya o -y nepâpa [12] qchol -yn yectli qchol · y hueli [13] ya cuica y · o · ha ylili · yaha yli[14] li y · o · hui...

  43. [XXXIII] Begin in beauty [Part 4, Song 1]
    (pp. 157-159)

    Begin in beauty, sing with beauty in this flower house,² O Chichimec Lord, O Acolhuatzin.

    Be pleasured, be glad, be entertained. Don’t be sad. Do we come to earth again? Only briefly are they borrowed here: these flowers of His, these songs of His: and He is God!

    In this flower house He starts to sing: flower garlands are whirled, these hearts of yours, O singer!

    Singer, come!³ You’re giving songs,⁴ jewels to the Acolhuans. These flowers, will they truly be eternal? These songs, eternal?

    Our hearts are glad with flowers. Just briefly here on earth. Our good flowers walk...

  44. [XXXIV] Like flowers [Part 4, Song 2]
    (pp. 159-161)

    Like flowers, songs are our adornment, friends. It’s for this that we’ve come to live on earth.

    Truly our songs, truly our flowers are good songs. Let’s have these jades, these gold ones, these broad plumes. Let me have them here beside the drum. Can it be true that death for us would be vanquished here on earth? Singer that I am, oh would that it might be so.

    We are song-glad,⁹ adorned with flowers here. Yes, our hearts enjoy them. Alas, we go away and leave them, and so I weep, I grieve.

    If only it were not true:...

  45. [XXXV] “Never with shields” [Part 4, Song 3]
    (pp. 161-161)

    “Never with shields do princes get through the day.”¹⁶

    Would that he might not pass away grieving, “War is not your joy,¹⁸ not your wealth.” Cuatlecoatzin, gone away,¹⁹ knows God....

  46. [XXXVI] Jade, turquoise: your chalk, [your] plumes [Part 4, Song 4]
    (pp. 161-162)

    Jade, turquoise: your chalk, [your] plumes,²⁰ O Life Giver.

    All princes are rich with the flower of knife death, war death.²¹...

  47. Commentary
    (pp. 163-188)
  48. Concordance to Proper Nouns
    (pp. 189-203)
  49. Verbs, Particles, and Common Nouns
    (pp. 204-206)
  50. Appendix I: Two Versions of the Myth of the Origin of Music
    (pp. 207-210)
  51. Appendix II: Corrections for the Cantares Edition
    (pp. 211-220)
  52. Bibliography
    (pp. 221-232)
  53. Index
    (pp. 233-237)