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Vintage Moquegua

Vintage Moquegua

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    Vintage Moquegua
    Book Description:

    The microhistory of the wine industry in colonial Moquegua, Peru, during the colonial period stretches from the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries, yielding a wealth of information about a broad range of fields, including early modern industry and labor, viniculture practices, the cultural symbolism of alcohol consumption, and the social history of an indigenous population. Uniting these perspectives, Vintage Moquegua draws on a trove of field research from more than 130 wineries in the Moquegua Valley.

    As Prudence Rice walked the remnants of wine haciendas and interviewed Peruvians about preservation, she saw that numerous colonial structures were being razed for development, making her documentary work all the more crucial. Lying far from imperial centers in pre-Hispanic and colonial times, the area was a nearly forgotten administrative periphery on an agricultural frontier. Spain was unable to supply the Peruvian viceroyalty with sufficient wine for religious and secular purposes, leading colonists to import and plant grapevines. The viniculture that flourished produced millions of liters, most of it distilled into pisco brandy. Summarizing archaeological data and interpreting it through a variety of frameworks, Rice has created a three-hundred-year story that speaks to a lost world and its inhabitants.

    eISBN: 978-0-292-73547-7
    Subjects: Archaeology, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. ix-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
    (pp. xvii-xxii)
  6. 1 INTRODUCTION: Contexts and Contextualizing
    (pp. 1-20)

    Vintage Moquegua is a story of Spanish colonialism, emerging capitalism, commodity consumption, and class and identity formation in an agro-industrial periphery of the world-economy. The setting is the tiny Moquegua valley in the desert western mountains of far southern Peru (fig. 1.1), a nearly forgotten corner of Spain’s once-wealthy New World empire. The time is the Colonial period, 1533 to 1823. The plot concerns the arrival of avaricious strangers into, and their usurpation of, this new land to make it productive in the image of their European homeland and to satisfy their desires for personal wealth.

    The methods of both...

  7. PART I Background and Deep Context

    • 2 THEORY: Peripheries, Frontiers, Actors, and Innovations
      (pp. 23-45)

      Whether ancient or modern, the large, territorially expansionist states known as empires hold an enduring fascination for scholars. The workings of empires, colonization, and colonialism are pervasive themes in the literature of the social and historical sciences (e.g., Alcock et al. 2001; Doyle 1986), with varied methods, concepts, starting points, and perspectives applied to their investigation. I bring four complementary theoretical perspectives to the study of Moquegua’s early colonial history: world-systems analysis (including the related archaeologies of capitalism and industrial development), frontiers, actor-networks, and diffusion of innovation. Bodegas Project fieldwork was not undertaken in the context of most of these...

    • 3 CORE-STATE: Spain, Wine, and the Birth of Empire
      (pp. 46-59)

      Frontiers of colonization experience the introduction of attributes of the intrusive society: language, customs, beliefs, cuisine, history, economy, social statuses, attitudes, administrative institutions and policies, and the material culture associated with all of these. Many of these traits and behaviors, like those of the indigenous society, are transformed and adapted in the formation of a new hybrid (or syncretic, or assimilative, creolized, etc.) culture. With respect to Spanish-colonial Peru, it is necessary to explore the complex character of both Islamic and Christian Spain in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, but it is also useful to probe back into medieval European...

    • 4 PERIPHERY: Moquegua, Its Physical Environment, and Indigenous Peoples
      (pp. 60-74)

      In the early sixteenth century, Moquegua was a tiny frontier on a distant periphery of the Spanish-colonial empire, invisible in the nascent European capitalist world-system. But in the Andes, the Moquegua valley had been a frontier of colonial expansion of indigenous states for nearly a millennium before the arrival of the Spaniards.

      One of the most striking physical features of this part of western South America is the Atacama-Peruvian desert, a narrow, arid-to-hyperarid coastal strip west of the Andes Mountains that stretches more than 3,200 km (2,000 mi.) from Ecuador in the north through Peru into Chile in the south....

  8. PART II Actors and Institutions:: Moquegua on the Periphery of Empire

    • 5 FOLLOWING THE ACTORS, ACT 1: Discovery and Exploration
      (pp. 77-93)

      In discussing Spain’s discovery, conquest, and colonization of the Western hemisphere—the “New World”—it is important to consider the actors: the individuals who migrated to the New World, the agents of colonization. The conquering Spaniards are typically characterized rather romantically as inspired by a commitment to military achievement and honor, a sense of religious crusade, and dual loyalties to town and to crown. More pragmatically, the invaders were consumed by desires for personal wealth and a determination to seize and settle new lands, as Bernal Díaz wryly comments in the epigraph. In establishing their new settlements they endeavored to...

    • 6 FOLLOWING THE ACTORS, ACT 2: Encomiendas, Encomenderos, and Founders
      (pp. 94-113)

      Most of what we know about the earliest Spaniards in the Moquegua region, as well as the early geopolitics of the area, comes from the Spanish practice of rewarding conquistadors with grants of encomienda. Encomiendas were assignments of native labor because, although large landholdings were always desired by the Spaniards, the initial need was for labor and income (taxes and tribute) in the new settlements. In addition, the land was generally considered to be held by the Spanish crown rather than by private individuals. With its beginnings in the peninsular reconquista, the institution of encomienda was the cornerstone of the...

    • 7 COLONIAL INSTITUTIONS: Peripheral Transformations and Contested Identities
      (pp. 114-132)

      Colonial Peru was governed by many administrative institutions transferred from Spain’s earlier experience with royal dependencies in Italy and peninsular regions newly seized from Muslim rule. But the boundaries of civil and ecclesiastical jurisdictions were not isomorphic—they changed through time, and they often overlapped. As new institutions redefined Peruvian space, the region’s social and economic life became a patchwork of conflicting domains, indigenous versus Spanish, private versus crown, and church versus state. The colonial bureaucracy was ponderous, inefficient, and dominated by special interests. Furthermore, southern Peru, like the Spanish-colonial world in general, was held hostage by the crown’s distrust...

  9. PART III Wine:: The Commodity

    • 8 COMMERCE: Wine in an Imperial Colonial Economy
      (pp. 135-153)

      Histories of wine pursue two related themes. One is that the spread of viticulture tracks the expansion of Christianity (see Johnson 1989:79–81): wine is considered a symbol of Christ (through the doctrine of transubstantiation¹) and Catholicism, and wine-making was maintained through ecclesiastical need. The second theme is that wine was a key component of Mediterranean cultural patterns and lifeways, with roots in the earliest Near Eastern civilizations (e.g., Hamilakis 1999; Hyams 1965:186; McGovern et al. 1995; Unwin 1991:64–77). These narratives are promulgated by connoisseurs and humanists in semimystical tones, stressing wine’s symbolism. A harder look at the social...

    • 9 PRODUCTION: Growing Grapes and Making Wine in Moquegua
      (pp. 154-172)

      Wine was the engine of Moquegua’s economy and it is through wine that we can get the “taste of place”—le goût de terroir—of the colonial valley. Quoting the Larousse encyclopedia, Amy Trubek defines the French phrase as “the flavor or odor of certain locales that are given to its products, particularly with wine” (2008: xv). We cannot actually taste the wines of colonial Moquegua—and given the comments of the time, this is likely for the best—but the smell and taste of wine infuse the valley’s sense of place. And understanding how and by whom the wine...

    • 10 LIQUID ASSETS: A Historical Overview of Moquegua’s Wine Economy
      (pp. 173-188)

      Throughout the history of viticulture, there has been an interplay of scale and mode of production, with vineyards cultivated as small family holdings and as extensive commercial enterprises; each existed in colonial Peru. On both scales, grapes and wines were manufactured primarily for exchange (i.e., as commodities), with domestic and ecclesiastical consumption taking a secondary role (at least quantitatively).

      Toward the end of the sixteenth century, the wine industry of southern Peru experienced a “boom” coinciding with a “mining boom” in the silver mines of Alto Peru (modern Bolivia). Discovery of the silver mines of Potosí in 1545 (see Bakewell...

  10. PART IV Material Culture:: Objects as Actors and Agents

      (pp. 191-214)

      When the Spaniards first encountered the middle Osmore valley in the early sixteenth century, they would have been struck, as is the modern visitor, by the visual contrast between the lush green of the cultivated valley bottomland, and the barren brown hillsides delimiting it on either side. At the moment of contact, the valley was sparsely occupied by indigenous agricultural colonists, whose impact on the landscape was primarily that of making the land bear fruit, constructing irrigation canals to carry water to their fertile fields of corn and peppers, and perhaps a road traversing the area from sierra toward the...

    • 12 CERAMICS: Industrial and Domestic
      (pp. 215-237)

      Ceramic artifacts—objects of fired clay—are formed and informed, their shape, color, size, decoration, composition, contents, location of recovery, and many other attributes providing archaeologists with insights into who made them, when they were made, and how they were used or “consumed.” Detailed descriptions of all these categories of data and debates about their interpretation have filled endless shelves of published reports and countless hours of archaeological symposia.

      The ceramics from the Moquegua bodegas fall into two categories: “industrial” (used in making and shipping wine and brandy) and “domestic” (cooking vessels and tablewares), with significant subcategories in each. Each...

    • 13 THE STRUCTURES OF EVERYDAY LIFE: Nonceramic Artifacts and Materials
      (pp. 238-258)

      Doubtless inadvertently, Fernand Braudel (1981:23, 31) called attention to the contributions of archaeology to history by emphasizing the importance of “material life” and “everything mankind makes or uses.” In the case of coastal Peru, the archaeological study of such things is on the one hand facilitated by the extraordinary conditions of preservation of organic remains afforded by the arid desert environment. On the other, in Moquegua it is hindered by the region’s Republican-period and later poverty: the artifactual record recovered during excavations at the colonial bodega sites is relatively depauperate, with nearly every vestige of useful goods and raw materials...

  11. PART V Concluding Synthesis:: On the Frontier of a Periphery of an Empire

      (pp. 261-284)

      Vintage Moquegua is a socioeconomic micro-history set in a colonial periphery: the Río Osmore valley in Moquegua, southern Peru, beginning about a.d. 1500. The study explores the interrelations among colonialism, capitalism, commoditization, consumption, and identity construction through production and trade of wine and brandy. The principal actors in this narrative are the early Spanish settlers in the valley, along with their networks of neighbors, descendants, homeland and local authorities, new arrivals, native Andeans, slaves, and many others. These were the agents whose actions and decisions culminated in the successful introduction of viti-viniculture in Moquegua by the 1560s, ushering the valley...

  12. NOTES
    (pp. 285-292)
    (pp. 293-332)
  14. INDEX
    (pp. 333-343)