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Baetica Felix

Baetica Felix

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    Baetica Felix
    Book Description:

    Baetica, the present-day region of Andalusia in southern Spain, was the wealthiest province of the Roman Empire. Its society was dynamic and marked by upward social and economic mobility, as the imperial peace allowed the emergence of a substantial middle social and economic stratum. Indeed, so mutually beneficial was the imposition of Roman rule on the local population of Baetica that it demands a new understanding of the relationship between Imperial Rome and its provinces.

    Baetica Felixbuilds a new model of Roman-provincial relations through a socio-economic history of the province from Julius Caesar to the end of the second century A.D. Describing and analyzing the impact of Roman rule on a core province, Evan Haley addresses two broad questions: what effect did Roman rule have on patterns of settlement and production in Baetica, and how did it contribute to wealth generation and social mobility? His findings conclusively demonstrate that meeting the multiple demands of the Roman state created a substantial freeborn and ex-slave "middle stratum" of the population that outnumbered both the super-rich elite and the destitute poor.

    eISBN: 978-0-292-79779-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-vii)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. viii-viii)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  6. Glossary of Technical Terms
    (pp. xv-xx)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 1-14)

    This book is a social and economic history of the Roman province of Baetica from Augustus to the Severan emperors. It represents also a contribution to the complex debate over the nature of the Roman economy. Those reflections on the Roman economy published in recent years that have helped to frame this study conceptually include the essays of Whittaker, Parkins, and others in Parkins’Roman Urbanism, as well as works by Harris, Jongman, and Pleket.¹ They touch on, among other things, the problems of the role of the (consumer?) city, the nature of exchange, the primitiveness versus modernity of the...

  8. CHAPTER ONE Rural Settlement and Production in Baetica, c. 50 B.C.–27 B.C.
    (pp. 15-31)

    Change and continuity in the Baetican settlement of the land, sources of income, and the varying degrees to which the inhabitants of Baetica profited from the Pax Romana are the themes of this and subsequent chapters. I shall explore the social and economic transformation of Further Spain and the future province of Baetica from the late Republican period to the end of the Antonine dynasty. A brief examination, however, of the historical and administrative development of Further Spain and the future province of Hispania Ulterior Baetica will provide a context in which to understand the socioeconomic development of the province....

  9. CHAPTER TWO Baetica Pacata
    (pp. 32-45)

    Recent survey work in southern Spain has revealed a proliferation of rural settlements in Baetica from Augustus’ reign onward. This and the remaining chapters will seek to explain this settlement activity. The exposition and analysis will concentrate on theconventus Astigitanus, the southernconventus Cordubensis, and the southeasternconventus Hispalensisfor the simple reason that it is in these portions of Baetica, representing ancient assize districts, that modern survey archaeology and excavation have been practiced with the greatest frequency and intensity since the early 1970s (see Map 2).

    The expansion and intensification of settlement, particularly rural, relate to a variety...

  10. CHAPTER THREE The Julio-Claudian Experience
    (pp. 46-68)

    Broad changes affecting Baetica and Spain as a whole from the latter part of Augustus’ rule to the death of Nero include not only Augustus’ definitive organization of Tarraconensis, Lusitania, and Baetica, but also the formal articulation of theconventussystem and imperial cult. A number of commentators emphasize the initiative of the provincials in matters such as monumental building, local coinage, and worship of the emperor and thedomus Augusta.¹ The emperor and his agents were not passive, though, in matters affecting the provincials’ identification with the ruling power, and positively fostered loyalty. This is made clear by the...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR The Flavian Impact: The Evidence Surveyed
    (pp. 69-108)

    The purpose of this and the following chapter is to document the explosion of rural settlement in Baetica during the period c. A.D. 70–150, and to argue that the new first- through thirdorder rural establishments are connected with both the Flavian municipal policy affecting Spain and the demands of theannonaand other interests for Baetican goods and staples. The essential argument of these two chapters is this: As a result of the Flavian municipalization of Spain, financial demands on local elites and potential elites increased, arising from an augmented tribute and from the need to maintain one’s census...

  12. CHAPTER FIVE The Flavian Impact: An Analysis
    (pp. 109-134)

    The purpose of this chapter is to put the abundant data set out in the previous sections into a larger perspective. Vespasian promulgated the Latin right throughout the Spanish provinces in 73–74, and from that period on, scores of communities in Baetica becamemunicipiain name and provisionally in function.¹ Scholarship is unanimous in positing as the essential component of theius Latiithe ability of local elites to become Roman citizens through the holding of a civic magistracy. The Flavian municipalization of Baetica and elsewhere also enhanced the importance of local town councils, from the ranks of which...

  13. CHAPTER SIX Wealthy Baetici
    (pp. 135-170)

    It is now time to name some of the beneficiaries of economic activity and growth in Baetica from c. 50 B.C. to c. A.D. 200. The first three sections of this chapter will consider thoseviri honestiandfeminae honestaewhose connections with specific wealthproducing activities may be established or inferred with some degree of confidence. A fourth and final section will be reserved for freedpersons and those likelyhonestioutside theordofor whom specific wealth-making activities cannot be identified, but whose inclusion in this study finds its justification in that such persons illustrate the generalized growth that the...

  14. CHAPTER SEVEN The Nature of Economic Growth in Roman Imperial Baetica: A Theoretical Perspective
    (pp. 171-185)

    All nonslaves in the province will have seen a general growth in their per capita income and accumulated wealth during the period c. 25 B.C. to A.D. 170.¹ There is no decisive evidence for a substantial growth in the population of the province between the Julio-Claudian and late Antonine eras. It is in the Julio-Claudian and, particularly, Flavian periods that we see a remarkable proliferation of productive rural settlements. Thus agricultural production that can increase either at the intensive margin (that is, through greater inputs of capital and labor, in part through an expanding population that results in net diminished...

  15. CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusions
    (pp. 186-190)

    The imperial peace generated a substantial middle social and economic stratum in Baetica between c. 30 B.C. and A.D. 200. The fundamental basis of this stratum’s wealth was metals and, increasingly, exportable agricultural production. Baetica’s geography, its resources, its climate, its riverine system, and the elastic demands of the Roman state, army, andplebsfor its products combined to generate wealthy Baetici.

    The Augustan peace generated complex and widespread changes in the nature of the Baetican rural landscape. At the administrative level, the inhabitants of Baetica were bound up in Roman schemes of land division, tax assessment, and tax collection....

  16. Notes
    (pp. 191-230)
  17. Bibliography
    (pp. 231-262)
  18. Index
    (pp. 263-278)