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Regional Integration, Identity and Citizenship in the Greater Horn of Africa

Regional Integration, Identity and Citizenship in the Greater Horn of Africa

Kidane Mengisteab
Redie Bereketeab
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 280
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt1x73f1
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  • Book Info
    Regional Integration, Identity and Citizenship in the Greater Horn of Africa
    Book Description:

    The Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) is engulfed by three interrelated crises: various inter-state wars, civil wars, and inter-communal conflicts; an economic crisis manifested in widespread debilitating poverty, chronic food insecurity and famines; and environmental degradation that is ravaging the region. While it is apparent that the countries of the region are unlikely to be able to deal with the crises individually, there is consensus that their chances of doing so improve markedly with collective regional action. The contributors to this volume address the need for regional integration in the GHA. They identify those factors that can foster integration, such as the proper management of equitable citizenship rights, as well as examining those that impede it, including the region's largely ineffective integration scheme, IGAD, and explore how the former can be strengthened and the latter transformed; explain how regional integration can mitigate the conflicts; and examine how integration can help to energise the region's economy. Kidane Mengisteab is Professor of African Studies and Political Science at Penn State University; Redie Bereketeab is a researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden.

    eISBN: 978-1-78204-041-5
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Tables, Figures & Appendices
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. ix-xi)
  5. Acknowledgements
    (pp. xii-xii)
  6. List of Acronyms
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
  7. Part One RELEVANCE OF INTEGRATION TO IDENTITY AND CITIZENSHIP

    • 1 Relevance of Regional Integration in the Greater Horn Region
      (pp. 3-24)
      KIDANE MENGISTEAB

      The Greater Horn of Africa Region (GHR) can be said to comprise eleven countries – Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. However, for the purposes of the discussions in this book, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania are often omitted.

      The GHR is a region engulfed by three interrelated crises. One crisis comprises the various types of devastating conflicts, including inter-state wars, civil wars and inter-communal conflicts. The second is an economic crisis manifested in widespread debilitating poverty, chronic food insecurity and frequent cycles of famine. The third crisis is the alarming rate of environmental...

    • 2 Re-conceptualizing Identity, Citizenship and Regional Integration in the Greater Horn Region
      (pp. 25-50)
      REDIE BEREKETEAB

      Identity is one of the most contested issues in social sciences (Brubaker and Cooper, 2000; Voros, 2006). It is also one of the profound and powerful factors behind some of the cruel conflicts in the Greater Horn of Africa region (GHR). Conflicts have been raging for several decades throughout the region that are thought to be stemming from real or imagined divisions and differences of identity. It is to be noted that the identity formation in the region is yet in the process of formation and transformation, thus both continuity and change are the defining features. This incompleteness of the...

    • 3 A Diversity Perspective on Identity, Citizenship and Regional Integration in the Greater Horn of Africa
      (pp. 51-66)
      FOWSIA ABDULKADIR

      Integration, applied to any society, means the incorporation of disparate ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups of a population into a unified whole. In other words, an integrated society is one that provides equal opportunity for all groups, so that no one group is denied access to education, employment and ownership of property by reason of their ethnicity, religion or national origin (Encarta).

      Evidence abounds that integration, whether at country level, as in the example of the USA, or regional level, as in the example of the EU, can improve the socio-economic development of member groups. However, as Mengisteab points out...

  8. Part Two CRITICAL FACTORS IN INTEGRATION

    • 4 Invisible Integration in the Greater Horn Region
      (pp. 69-110)
      GAIM KIBREAB

      As noted in chapter 1, the Greater Horn Region (GHR) comprises eleven countries – Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. However, for the purposes of this chapter, the GHR constitutes Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. The aim of this chapter is (1) to theorize the hitherto-neglected key concept of invisibility; (2) to present a typology of invisible populations in the region; (3) to analyse and evaluate how transmigrants (pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, cross-border traders, wage-labourers and the like), the multiple sub-categories of asylum-seekers, as well as refugees and those who...

    • 5 Nationalist, Sub-nationalist, and Region-wide Narratives and the Quest for Integration-promoting Narratives in the Greater Horn Region
      (pp. 111-132)
      ASSEFAW BARIAGABER

      Almost all countries, including the powerful ones, have now come to accept the tremendous power of the ongoing globalization and its impact on the re-alignment of political and economic forces on the globe. Its impact on countries has been differential: while some countries, especially the more economically advanced, may have benefitted from it, others, especially the less developed economies, have not. Therefore, many countries have vigorously pursued membership in regional economic organizations in order to survive and grow in an increasingly competitive world. Although regional integration blocs, such as the East African Economic Community and the European Common Market were...

    • 6 Infusion of Citizenship, Diversity and Tolerance in the Education Curriculum: Promoting Regional Integration and Peace in the Greater Horn Region
      (pp. 133-142)
      ABDINUR MOHAMUD

      The last five decades have been a significant time of challenge and change for many countries in Africa, and especially in the Horn. Most African countries gained independence from Western colonial powers, with territorial boundaries of various sizes and shapes. Some of these newly-created countries were too small, others too large or landlocked, and in the process divided various communities and culture areas, and lumped together peoples of diverse cultures who had little or no pre-colonial experience of shared governance. In addition, many countries have since experienced, however briefly, a combination of various forms of self-governance, including parliamentary democracy, military...

    • 7 Radio and the Propagation of Anti- and Pro-Ethiopian Narratives in Somalia
      (pp. 143-170)
      ALI NOOR MOHAMED

      One of the major sources of political and social instability in the Horn of Africa region has been the historically precarious relationship between Ethiopia and Somalia.¹ Experts agree that the most destructive conventional war between two independent African states was waged between these two neighbours in the 1977–78 Ogaden War.²

      The conflict, which assumed global dimensions through the massive intervention of the former Soviet Union and Cuba on the Ethiopian side, and the United States, Italy, and Arab League nations on the Somali side, eventually led to the collapse of the Somali state as well as spawning the 20-year...

  9. Part Three LESSONS FROM SELECTED AFRICAN INTEGRATION SCHEMES

    • 8 Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD): A Critical Analysis
      (pp. 173-194)
      REDIE BEREKETEAB

      The Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) was established in 1986 comprising Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda. The circumstances giving rise to the formation of IGADD were the rampant drought and desertification that was ravaging the region (IGAD, 1996). Since the early 1970s the region has been experiencing pervasive and severe droughts such as those of 1974 and 1984. These droughts inevitably generated extreme environmental degradation, desertification, deforestation and famine, making livelihoods in the region extremely precarious. The famine of 1984/85 which was of a cataclysmic magnitude wrought an unimaginable destruction of life in the form of...

    • 9 The East African Community: Can it be a Model for Africa’s Integration Process?
      (pp. 195-236)
      FRANCIS A. S. T. MATAMBALYA

      Africa has a long history of regional integration, being one of the pioneers of initiatives of this nature. To highlight with concrete examples:

      (a) The Congo Basin Treaty emerged from the Berlin conference of 1884.

      (b) The seed of the first iteration of East African integration was sown in 1894 through the creation the Uganda-Kenya railway (see Appendix table 9.2).

      (c) The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) was first signed by South Africa, Basutoland (now Lesotho), Swaziland, and Bechuanaland (now Botswana) at Potchefstroom on 29 July 1910.

      (d) The Southern Rhodesia Customs Union between South Africa and present-day Zimbabwe was...

    • 10 The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Quest for Community Citizenship: Any Lessons for the Greater Horn Region?
      (pp. 237-254)
      CYRIL I. OBI

      This chapter explores the efforts so far made by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) towards institutionalizing community citizenship encompassing nationals of its member states in the West African sub-region, and the lessons that can be learned from this by Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in the Greater Horn of Africa region (GHR)¹. There is compelling evidence that ECOWAS as a regional organization has achieved considerable progress in promoting a concept of regional or supra-national identity or citizenship for the people of its member states through various protocols, agreements, and policies designed to promote West African integration, security and...

  10. Index
    (pp. 255-263)
  11. Back Matter
    (pp. 264-265)