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Music in Print and Beyond

Music in Print and Beyond: Hildegard von Bingen to The Beatles

Craig A. Monson
Roberta Montemorra Marvin
Copyright Date: 2013
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 344
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  • Book Info
    Music in Print and Beyond
    Book Description:

    This collection of critical essays examines the diverse ways in which music -- and ideas about it -- have been disseminated in print and other media from the sixteenth century onward. Contributors look afresh at unfamiliar facets of the sixteenth-century book trade and the circulation of manuscript and printed music in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries. They also analyze and critique new media forms, showing how a dizzying array of changing technologies has influenced what we hear, whom we hear, and how we hear. The repertoires considered include Western art music -- from medieval to contemporary -- as well as popular music and jazz. Assembling contributions from experts in a wide range of fields, such as musicology, music theory, music history, and jazz and popular music studies, 'Music in Print and Beyond: Hildegard von Bingen to The Beatles' sets new standards for the discussion of music's place in Western cultural life. Roberta Montemorra teaches music at the University of Iowa and is the author of 'Verdi the Student-Verdi the Teacher' (Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 2010) and editor of 'The Cambridge Verdi Encyclopedia' (Cambridge University Press, 2013). Craig A. Monson is a Professor of Musicology at Washington University (St Louis, Missouri) and is the author of 'Divas in the Convent: Nuns, Music, and Defiance in 17th-century Italy' (University of Chicago Press, 2012).

    eISBN: 978-1-58046-828-2
    Subjects: Music, History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 1-10)
    Craig A. Monson and Roberta Montemorra Marvin

    The dissemination of music and of ideas about music preoccupied humanists long before the emergence of musicology as an academic specialty. How music has reached performers and listeners, the means of musical distribution, both in manuscript and in print; the modes through which creators, executants, and their critics have communicated; the methods and purposes of musical appropriation through the ages—all form the foundation and objects of musicological investigation.

    Musicologists were investigating music’s dissemination in print long before sixteenth-century printers caught the great tsunami of Renaissance musicology as it crested in the late 1960s and early 1970s.¹ As disciplinary perspectives...

  5. Chapter One Robert Granjon and Music during the Golden Age of Typography
    (pp. 11-35)
    Kate van Orden

    When compared to the broader history of printing, the history of music printing — late-blooming and faced with unique challenges — is strikingly disjunct, particularly in its early stages. The first books of polyphonic music issued from the presses of Ottaviano Petrucci almost fifty years after Gutenberg printed his forty-two-line Bible in 1455. If we take speed and the use of moveable type as indicators of the so-called Gutenberg Revolution, then music printing lagged even further behind: Petrucci relied on a double- and even triple-impression method that required running each sheet through the press at least twice, once for the metal staff...

  6. Chapter Two Publishing Music Theory in Early Cinquecento Venice and Bologna: Friends and Foes
    (pp. 36-61)
    Bonnie J. Blackburn

    “Regarding theDiffinitorioby Tinctoris that you say you have, I don’t care, because the copy I have is sufficient. And what you say about theretratationeof thisDiffinitoriois news to me.” Thus wrote the Bolognese music theorist Giovanni Spataro to the Venetian musician Marc’Antonio Cavazzoni on August 1, 1517, in answer to a lost letter.¹ This is the earliest known reference to the printing of Johannes Tinctoris’sTerminorum musicae diffinitorium, which appeared without name of printer or place of publication, but on typographical evidence is believed to come from the press of Gerardus de Lisa in Treviso...

  7. Chapter Three Preaching to the Choir: Arts of Persuasion in the Convents of Italy
    (pp. 62-94)
    Craig A. Monson

    By now we are accustomed to considering how music may have created a sonic and ritual space that offered some convent women room to maneuver within a regimented system and to transcend its restrictions by working within and sometimes around external expectations and demands. Indeed, Gabriella Zarri cites music as one of two “major specializations” for convents during the early modern period (the other being the education of aristocratic young women). Scholars have also suggested how music might speak for nuns in the world beyond the convent wall. Less familiar is how music in relation to other arts might possibly...

  8. Chapter Four Music Distribution in London during Handel’s Lifetime: Manuscript Copies versus Prints
    (pp. 95-117)
    Ellen T. Harris

    When George Frideric Handel arrived in London in 1710, he entered a flourishing musical culture. The landed aristocracy, gentry, and increasingly well-to-do merchant classes were schooled in music, and many were able performers and composers. Consorts of gentlemen musicians, often with professionals mixed in, were numerous — especially, but not exclusively, in urban areas. Some of these musical groups accrued wide recognition, and their performances were accorded specific nights of the week. John Hawkins writes that around 1720 “there were weekly concerts at the houses of the duke of Rutland, the earls of Burlington and Essex, lord Percival, father of the...

  9. Chapter Five Beethoven’s Miniatures
    (pp. 118-128)
    Lewis Lockwood

    In early March 1823 Beethoven received an unpleasant letter from Carl F. Peters, founder of the well-known music publishing firm, mainly about the Bagatelles, op. 119, and some other minor works that Beethoven had sent him. Peters begins this long letter with a nagging complaint that he had paid Beethoven in the previous year for compositions that had not yet been delivered. Then Peters continues:

    Now I come to the bagatelles — at which I was very surprised. I have had several of them played but not one person wants to believe that these are by you. To be sure, I...

  10. Chapter Six “The Beautiful and the Ugly”: Travel Literature, Racial Theory, and a Schumann Song
    (pp. 129-157)
    Susan L. Youens

    Whenever something is published, it has the possibility of becoming the proverbial stone thrown into a pond, with ripples traveling farther and farther away from the original object. If we emend the fluid analogy so that the ripples themselves become publications, we have a rough analogy for the intricate “back story” of certain nineteenth-century songs, in which scholarly, political, and historical prose publications become sources of ideas for a poem that is subsequently set to music, in a process that might extend over years or decades. With each new ripple, the context changes, the audience is different, the currents shift...

  11. Chapter Seven Verdi’s “Music of the Future”
    (pp. 158-179)
    Roberta Montemorra Marvin

    In late December 1870 Verdi was invited to serve as director of the Naples Conservatory. Although he declined the “honor” for numerous reasons, the invitation provided an opportunity for him to verbalize his ideas on the subject of what and how aspiring Italian composers should be taught. One of his letters on the topic, to the Neapolitan archivist and librarian Francesco Florimo, dated January 5, 1871, was published (with the composer’s permission) in Italian journals, thereby making Verdi’s thoughts public.¹ The following excerpt conveys the essence of Verdi’s position: “I would be proud to occupy that post, where the founders...

  12. Chapter Eight The Suspended Voice of Amália Rodrigues
    (pp. 180-199)
    Gabriela Cruz

    For Portuguese music as for Portuguese politics, 1926 marked a historical watershed. The military coup of May 28, 1926, led by General Manuel Gomes da Costa, put an end to the First Republic and ushered in a conservative dictatorship that by 1933 had mutated into a full-fledged authoritarian regime, the self-proclaimed Estado Novo. The year of the coup also saw the introduction of electrically reproduced sound in Portugal, when Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company partnered with the local music dealers Valentim de Carvalho and Bazar do Porto in Lisbon and Oporto, respectively.¹ Thus, Portuguese cultural modernity was double-layered...

  13. Chapter Nine More than Mostly Mozart: Teddy Wilson’s “China Boy”
    (pp. 200-212)
    Paul S. Machlin

    Jazz scholarship is among the younger humanistic disciplines. It began to gain traction only in the 1970s with the advent of the first jazz history textbooks, a few scholarly papers and articles, and, most important,The Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz(1973), a compilation of recorded performances selected almost exclusively by jazz critic Martin Williams. The conjunction of this publication activity, together with the American bicentennial celebration in 1976, however, gave a noticeable impetus to academic jazz studies. As university courses in the area proliferated in the ’70s and ’80s,The Smithsonian Collectiontook on the aura of a canon,...

  14. Chapter Ten Wanted Dead and Alive: Historical Performance Practice and Electro-Acoustic Music from IRCAM to Abbey Road
    (pp. 213-231)
    Joseph Auner

    A note in the score for Kaija Saariaho’sNoaNoa(1992), a piece for flute, pre-recorded sounds, and real-time processing, points to the remarkable degree to which electro-acoustic music is embedded in the specific moment and technologies of its creation. Saariaho composedNoaNoaat IRCAM (Institute for Research and Coordination in Acoustics and Music at the Pompidou Center, Paris) using its extensive computer music resources for analyzing and modeling instrumental timbre, reverberation, and spatial effects. After a description of all the gear required for a performance (processors, controllers, a Midi interface, Max/MSP patches, and a “Macintosh PowerPC with CD-Rom drive [compatible...

  15. Chapter Eleven Lowinsky’s Secrets
    (pp. 232-257)
    Bonnie Gordon

    Edward Lowinsky’s six-week sprint to finish his dissertation before leaving Germany in July 1933 is now musicological legend.¹ Three years later he published the project in a similar rush when his advisor Heinrich Besseler warned him of an incoming edict forbidding the granting of doctoral degrees to Jews. In the thesis lies the germ for Lowinsky’s controversial Secret Chromatic Art. His theory posited that in the second half of the sixteenth century, a small contingent of northern musicians with radical Protestant sympathies wrote pieces that appeared on the surface to set texts and use diatonic melodies condoned by the Church....

  16. Chapter Twelve The Unknown Hildegard: Editing, Performance, and Reception (An Ordo Virtutum in Five Acts)
    (pp. 258-306)
    Honey Meconi

    The first note is wrong — the very first pitch of the first modern edition of Hildegard’s music is, quite simply, the wrong note.

    The symbolism is too powerful to ignore. The literal start of the publication of her music, the commencement of the rebirth of her song, is incorrect. This misstep, as it turns out, was prophetic. As the following essay will show, the publication of Hildegard’s music has, for almost 150 years, usually misrepresented her in one way or another. It is thus all too fitting that the direction was off from the very start.

    Hildegard’s music is now...

  17. List of Contributors
    (pp. 307-310)
  18. Index
    (pp. 311-328)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 329-329)