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Loyalism and the Formation of the British World, 1775-1914

Loyalism and the Formation of the British World, 1775-1914

Allan Blackstock
Frank O’Gorman
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 301
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  • Book Info
    Loyalism and the Formation of the British World, 1775-1914
    Book Description:

    Loyalism in Britain and Ireland, which was once seen as a crude reaction against radicalism or nationalism, stimulated by the elite and blindly followed by plebeians, has recently been shown by historians to have been, on the contrary, a politically multi-faceted, socially enabling phenomenon which did much to shape identity in the British Isles. This book takes further this revised picture by considering loyalism in the wider British World. It considers the overall nature of loyalism, exploring its development in England, Ireland and Scotland, and goes on to examine its manifestation in a range of British colonies and former colonies, including the United States, Canada, India, Australia and New Zealand. It shows that whilst eighteenth-century Anglo-centric loyalism had a core of common ideological assumptions, associational structures and ritual behaviour, loyalism manifested itself differently in different territories. This divergence is explored through a discussion of the role of loyal associations and military institutions, loyalism's cultural and ritual dimensions and its key role in the formation of political identities. Chronologically, the book covers a pivotal period, comprehending the American and French Revolutions, the 1798 Irish rebellion and Irish Union, the Canadian rebellions of 1837, and Fenianism and Home Rule campaigns throughout the British World.BR> Allan Blackstock is Reader in History at the University of Ulster and author of Loyalism in Ireland, 1789-1829 (Boydell, 2007). Frank O'Gorman was Professor of History at the University of Manchester. Contributors: Allan Blackstock, Richard P. Davis, Oliver Godsmark, William Gould, Jacqueline Hill, Andrew R. Holmes, Kyle Hughes, Mark G. McGowan, Donald M. MacRaild, Keith Mason, Patrick Maume, Katrina Navickas, Frank O'Gorman, Brad Patterson, Scott W. See

    eISBN: 978-1-78204-278-5
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. 1 Loyalism and the British World: Overviews, Themes and Linkages
    (pp. 1-18)
    Frank O’Gorman and Allan Blackstock

    In the early twenty-first century, the issue of national identity remains a principal matter of concern not only to academic historians in Britain and the Commonwealth but also, with political Devolution, in the wider context of UK identity politics. This is the case whether it arises in the guise of debates about Britishness, in the re-fashioning of Britain itself in the context of the devolved institutions in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland or in the continuing problems of Britain’s relationship with Europe. At the same time, passionate debates occur in Commonwealth countries about identity, involving not only their relationship with...

  5. 2 Origins and Trajectories of Loyalism in England, 1580–1840
    (pp. 19-42)
    Frank O’Gorman

    Loyalism is the name usually applied to the burst of counter-revolutionary patriotism which swept across England in the wake of the French Revolution. In recent years, the concept of ‘loyalism’ has undergone considerable expansion. Normally used to describe the phenomenon of the Reeves Associations of 1792–93, it has been stretched to include almost anything of an anti-reformist nature that may have contributed to the avoidance of revolution in England in the 1790s.¹ This essay will seek to extend our understanding of loyalism by outlining not only a viable concept of late eighteenth-century loyalism but also by offering a remodelled...

  6. 3 The ‘Spirit of Loyalty’: Material Culture, Space and the Construction of an English Loyalist Memory, 1790–1840
    (pp. 43-60)
    Katrina Navickas

    A grand monument to Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lloyd (1751–1828) stands in a side chapel of Leeds parish church. Commissioned by former members of the Leeds Volunteer Infantry, the memorial was completed by the prominent sculptor Joseph Gott in 1834.¹ Lloyd’s bust is styled in the classical funereal fashion of the time, with his hair and pose echoing the virtues of Roman statesmen. Two officers stand alongside, dressed elegantly in their military uniforms, their heads bowed in mourning and prayer. The epitaph resting between them extols the ‘social virtues’ of ‘the English Gentleman’ by giving a hagiography of Lloyd’s public...

  7. 4 Anti-Catholicism and Orange Loyalism in Nineteenth-Century Britain
    (pp. 61-80)
    Kyle Hughes and Donald M. MacRaild

    Violent anti-Catholicism in Britain reached its apogee with the ‘Gordon Riots’¹ as ‘King Mob’ went on a rampage that paralysed London for several weeks. Nineteenth-century Protestant militancy yielded nothing to match the bitter ‘no-popery’ antagonism of that turbulent Georgian summer, but an underlying revulsion at Catholicism did not remotely disappear. The revolutionary and Napoleonic periods saw several overlapping expressions of militant anti-Catholic populism as feverish crowds meted out savage violence in expressions of identity that combined anti-radical political, popular religion and xenophobia. Precise fault-lines were, however, not always clear. During the Priestly Riots in Birmingham in 1791 (‘the last great...

  8. 5 Loyalty and the Monarchy in Ireland, c.1660–c.1840
    (pp. 81-102)
    Jacqueline Hill

    From the 1530s onwards, the question of loyalty to the monarch became one of the most contentious issues facing the Tudor, Stuart and Hanoverian dynasties. Thanks to the break with Rome, monarchs found it expedient to require evidence – in the form of a proliferation of state oaths – not only of their subjects’ temporal allegiance (which was not new) but also to their position as heads of the reformed church. The ensuing debate about the legitimate scope of the crown’s prerogative drew in Catholics and took on European dimensions.¹ Moreover, the enlargement of the crown’s authority, testing enough in...

  9. 6 The Trajectories of Loyalty and Loyalism in Ireland, 1793–1849
    (pp. 103-124)
    Allan Blackstock

    It is a truism to say that Irish loyalism has received less historical scrutiny than Irish nationalism. Unlike nationalism, which has been anatomised to reveal its multifarious strands, loyalism is assumed to be uniformly reactionary and homogenous. Yet, as this volume demonstrates, loyalism, when viewed contemporaneously, embraced a diverse range of standpoints. Loyalism, moreover, was not confined to the British and Irish islands but occurred throughout the British Atlantic world, for example, in North America, where its width of appeal is now recognised.¹ Recent research notes loyalism’s overall dynamism and diversity and examines it in its own right rather than...

  10. 7 Presbyterians, Loyalty, and Orangeism in Nineteenth-Century Ulster
    (pp. 125-144)
    Andrew R. Holmes

    One of the most important developments in nineteenth-century Ireland was the so-called transformation of Presbyterians in Ulster from United Irish rebels in 1798 to loyalists in 1885. According to W. E. H. Lecky, ‘the defection of the Presbyterians from the movement of which they were the main originators, and the great and enduring change which took place in their sentiments …are facts of the deepest importance in Irish history and deserve very careful and detailed examination’.¹ It is often stated that this process was facilitated by the rise of evangelicalism, which forged Protestant unity between Presbyterians and their erstwhile enemy...

  11. 8 Unionists and Patriots: James Whiteside, the Irish Bar and the Dilemmas of the Protestant Nation in Victorian Ireland
    (pp. 145-162)
    Patrick Maume

    James Whiteside (1804–76) is remembered as a leading lawyer-politician of the mid-Victorian Irish Conservative party, one of the last great exponents of the tradition of Irish classical oratory dating back to the eighteenth-century Irish parliament, and a judge who displayed more Protestant-conservative bias than legal acumen. He was born in Delgany, County Wicklow on 12 August 1804. His father, a Church of Ireland clergyman, died in 1806 and James was brought up in somewhat reduced circumstances and on Evangelical principles by his mother. He was deeply impressed by the example of his guardian, the historian and statistician Rev. James...

  12. 9 Loyalism in British North America in the Age of Revolution, c.1775–1812
    (pp. 163-180)
    Keith Mason

    When considering the role of loyalism in British North America during what is sometimes termed the ‘age of revolution’ it is crucial at the outset to clarify precisely what the central political currents and directions actually were in the wider late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Atlantic world. This task is all the more pressing because of the long shadow that R. R. Palmer’s notion of ‘democratic revolution’ has cast over the historiography.¹ While this concept has certainly proven influential over the years, it is now becoming increasingly clear that the label is, especially in its purest form, rather limited, misleading,...

  13. 10 ‘A Colonial Hybrid’: Nineteenth-Century Loyalism as Articulated by the Orange Order in the Maritime Colonies of British North America
    (pp. 181-200)
    Scott W. See

    On the eve of Canadian Confederation in the 1860s, impassioned arguments came forward in support of crafting a new nation in North America that would take charge of its domestic economy, social structures, and territorial expansion, yet remain firmly rooted to the British Empire. At the forefront of the endeavor to keep the bonds of loyalty to Britain and its Empire fully intact was the Loyal Orange Order, an ultra-Protestant fraternal organization with roots in Ireland and Britain. As one newspaper trumpeted: ‘We have only to add Orangemen do your duty, and guard the rights of British connection.Remember your...

  14. 11 Canadian Catholics, Loyalty, and the British Empire, 1763–1901
    (pp. 201-222)
    Mark G. McGowan

    At times Lord Durham found the attitudes of Canada’s religious groups much different than to what he was accustomed in Great Britain. In 1839, while gathering together materials for what would become his famous report on the state of British North America after the unsuccessful rebellions of 1837–38, Durham (John George Lambton) came upon meetings of the Loyal Orange Order in Upper Canada. Surprised at their activities, Durham commented:

    Its members profess to desire to uphold the Protestant religion, but to be free from those intolerant feelings towards their Catholic countrymen, which are the distinctive marks of Irish Orangemen....

  15. 12 Loyalism in Australasia, 1788–1868
    (pp. 223-240)
    Richard P. Davis

    The Old ‘Australian Legend’, publicised by the SydneyBulletinand writers like Henry Lawson in the 1890s, depicted Australians as bronzed, independent, outback pioneers, radical Labor in politics, intolerant of authority, and deeply suspicious of the British establishment. Early Australian historians maintained that convicts, providing the initial colonising impulse, were generally ‘village Hampdens’ transported for semi-political or minor offences. Henry Reynolds argues that the English deference which authorities like Governor George Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land tried to brutally force upon convicts had the opposite effect of instilling irreverence in emancipists and their descendants.¹ The Australian Labor Party was exalted...

  16. 13 ‘We love one country, one queen, one flag’: Loyalism in Early Colonial New Zealand, 1840–80
    (pp. 241-262)
    Brad Patterson

    Responding to an address of welcome at Nelson, February 1856, Colonel Thomas Gore-Browne, fourth Governor of the colony of New Zealand, on behalf of Queen Victoria accepted the assembled citizens’ assurances of loyalty. It was gratifying for him ‘to be able to report for Her Majesty’s information that she has not in the whole of her empire subjects more devoted to her throne and person, or more attached to the institutions of Great Britain than those settled in New Zealand’.¹ His praise was readily accepted by those present. But how was this feeling publicly manifested? This chapter examines the extent...

  17. 14 Clientelism, Community and Collaboration: Loyalism in Nineteenth-Century Colonial India
    (pp. 263-286)
    Oliver Godsmark and William Gould

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s words of 1899 were presented while working as an advocate for the rights of Indians in South Africa, and argued for Indian support to, and loyalty towards, Britain at the start of the Boer War. Gandhi went on to develop what became one of the most radical and successful forms of anti-colonial protest from the time of the First World War. His early loyalism to the principles of imperial justice established by British power in India, though, largely remained as an integral part of the logic underpinning his method of protest –satyagraha. These movements were based...

  18. Select bibliography
    (pp. 287-292)
  19. Index
    (pp. 293-300)
  20. Back Matter
    (pp. 301-301)