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The State of Post-conflict Reconstruction

The State of Post-conflict Reconstruction: Land, urban development and state-building in Juba, Southern Sudan

Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 224
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  • Book Info
    The State of Post-conflict Reconstruction
    Book Description:

    Naseem Badiey examines the local dynamics of the emerging capital city of Juba, Southern Sudan, during the historically pivotal transformation period following the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). She challenges the dominant paradigm of 'post-conflict reconstruction' and re-conceptualizes state-building as a social process underpinned by negotiation. Focusing on the intersections of land tenure reform and urban development, Naseem Badiey explores local resistance to reconstruction programmes, debates over the interpretation of peace settlements, and competing claims to land and resources not as problems to be solved through interventions but as negotiations of authority which are fundamental to shaping the character of the 'state'. While donors and aid agency officials anticipated clashes between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) following the CPA, they did not foresee internal divisions that impeded reconstruction in Southern Sudan, raising serious questions about the viability of an independent state. In Juba local elites interpreted the CPA in line with their economic and political interests, using claims to land, authority and political power to challenge the SPLM's agenda for urban reconstruction. In revealing how local actors strategically interpreted the framework of land rights in Southern Sudan, the book offers a basis for understanding the challenges that confront the nascent South Sudan's state-builders and their international partners in the future. NASEEM BADIEY is Assistant Professor of International Development and Humanitarian Action at California State University Monterey Bay.

    eISBN: 978-1-78204-303-4
    Subjects: History, Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-vii)
  3. List of Photographs and Tables
    (pp. viii-viii)
  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. ix-xi)
  5. Acronyms
    (pp. xii-xii)
  6. Map A – Southern Sudan during the colonial period
    (pp. xiii-xiii)
  7. Map B – Southern Sudan, 2011
    (pp. xiv-xiv)
  8. Map C – Juba, 2006
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  9. Introduction: The Dilemma of ‘Post-conflict Reconstruction’ in South Sudan
    (pp. 1-27)

    Local teacher, Paul Nuduru, waited outside his polling place in Juba all night so that he would be at the head of the line to cast his vote in the January 9, 2011 referendum on the independence of Southern Sudan. He explained to a BBC reporter:

    We watched the light of the sun rise up this morning – the dawn of a new chapter for the south. We are happy to wait for this day of history, because we have waited for more than fifty years for the right to choose our own destiny.¹

    For Paul and millions of other...

  10. 1 The Momentum of History
    (pp. 28-73)

    On January 9, 2005, SPLM/A Chairman John Garang, and Ali Osman Taha, Sudan’s Vice President and head of the government delegation to the peace talks, signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Nairobi, Kenya.¹ In his speech to the crowd gathered at Nyayo Stadium, Garang referred to the tumultuous history of the country:

    Sudanese history is familiar to all of us, from the Islamic kingdoms of Sennar to the Turco-Egyptian occupation, to the first Islamic Mahdist state, to the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium to independence in 1956 and the Anyanya movement, to the SPLM/SPLA, to the second Islamic state in the Sudan,...

  11. 2 ‘Rebels’ and ‘Collaborators’: Integration and Reconciliation
    (pp. 74-100)

    The complex local history of Juba, some of which I recounted in the previous chapter, is what the leaders of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) confronted when they took over the town and began building the institutions of the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS). The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) contained both the framework of a united state, and a state-building blueprint for Southern Sudan. Unlike the first Southern Regional Government, GoSS was given a significant degree of political and financial autonomy. It would have its own constitution – the Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan; its own regional army –...

  12. 3 ‘Land Belongs to the Community’: Competing Interpretations of the CPA
    (pp. 101-125)

    The divisions that stymied the integration process in the early transition period in Juba were the result of multiple, intersecting factors, including competition over public sector jobs, political rivalries, and different experiences of the war. Overlaying divisions were competing understandings of the implications of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) for the framework of land rights in Southern Sudan, and for authority over land in Juba and surrounding areas. These understandings were not inherent to particular ethnic or ‘tribal’ identities, but were employed by key local stakeholders in Juba to promote particular interests in local reconstruction. To the degree that they...

  13. 4 The Unseeing State: Corruption, Evasion, and other Responses to Urban Planning
    (pp. 126-152)

    The different agendas for urban reconstruction espoused by the leaders of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) in the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS), by the Equatorian leaders in the Central Equatoria State (CES) Government, and by Bari community leaders, were at the root of the lack of progress in urban development in the capital during the Interim Period. When the SPLM began establishing the institutions of GoSS in Juba, they were confronted with a war-torn town that appeared wholly unprepared to serve as the region’s capital. Most of the town’s inhabitants had no access to running water, electricity, or...

  14. 5 Local Land Disputes: Informality, Autochthony, and Competing Ideas of Citizenship
    (pp. 153-171)

    So far in this book, the exploration of the dynamics of land control and urban development in Juba has been limited to relations between state and local elites and to wider debates about authority over territory and political jurisdiction. Yet, local state-building in Juba was not only comprised of interactions between elites. The end of conflict introduced a variety of actors into the town who had a stake in the politics of reconstruction. These included ex-combatants, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), refugees returning from neighbouring countries, and members of the diaspora. These groups, each with different experiences of war, represented the...

  15. Conclusion: All State-building is Local
    (pp. 172-179)

    This book offers a glimpse into the local dynamics of an emerging capital city during a historically pivotal transformation, a town immersed in a process of ‘post-conflict reconstruction’ fraught with complex challenges requiring difficult compromises. Concerns that the new Republic of South Sudan might inherit and replicate the conflicts between the northern government and local communities have brought land issues to the forefront of state-building priorities. Yet it is important to look beyond the question of who ultimately gets control over land in order to see what local land debates tell us about the nascent South Sudanese state. The previous...

  16. Interviews cited in text
    (pp. 180-185)
  17. Bibliography
    (pp. 186-200)
  18. Index
    (pp. 201-207)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 208-209)