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Journal of Medieval Military History

Journal of Medieval Military History: Volume XII

CLIFFORD J. ROGERS
KELLY DeVRIES
JOHN FRANCE
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 253
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt6wpbxn
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  • Book Info
    Journal of Medieval Military History
    Book Description:

    The latest collection of the most up-to-date research on matters of medieval military history contains a remarkable geographical range, extending from Spain and Britain to the southern steppe lands, by way of Scandinavia, Byzantium, and the Crusader States. At one end of the timescale is a study of population in the later Roman Empire and at the other the Hundred Years War, touching on every century in between. Topics include the hardware of war, the social origins of soldiers, considerations of individual battles, and words for weapons in Old Norse literature. Contributors: Bernard S. Bachrach, Gary Baker, Michael Ehrlich, Nicholas A. Gribit, Nicolaos S. Kanellopoulos, Mollie M. Madden, Kenneth J. McMullen, Craig M. Nakashian, Mamuka Tsurtsumia, Andrew L.J. Villalon

    eISBN: 978-1-78204-312-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-v)
  3. List of Illustrations and Map
    (pp. vi-vi)
  4. 1 Some Observations Regarding Barbarian Military Demography: Geiseric’s Census of 429 and Its Implications
    (pp. 1-38)
    Bernard S. Bachrach

    A dearth of sound quantitative information generally is recognized to be a serious problem faced by scholars who try to understand the history of the Late Antique West.² In this context, demography surely is among those areas of study in which the substantial lack of statistically significant data is felt most keenly.³ As a result, estimates regarding population sizes in the Late Antique era remain highly controversial.⁴ The same may be said for the size of urban populations and for the urban districts (civitates) or rural administrative districts (pagi) of which, in each case, the fortified city (urbs) was the...

  5. 2 War Words and Battle Spears: The kesja and kesjulag in Old Norse Literature
    (pp. 39-50)
    K. James McMullen

    The spear is a weapon which does not normally receive an excess of praise in Old Norse literature. Certainly, there are famed weapons like Gísli’sGrásiða, or Óðinn’sGungnir, but on the whole it seems that, for most medieval Scandinavians, a spear was – to borrow from Oakeshott¹ – just a spear. This, however, was not always the case and there is a particular type of spear mentioned in Old Norse sagas, thekesja, which deserves some attention.Kesjurare used in numerous engagements, both large and small-scale, in the sagas. Unlike other spears, thekesjaforms part of a...

  6. 3 The Political and Military Agency of Ecclesiastical Leaders in Anglo-Norman England: 1066–1154
    (pp. 51-80)
    Craig M. Nakashian

    The civil war between King Stephen of England (r. 1135–54) and Empress Maud has long been a period of interest for medieval historians.² During this violent and destructive time centralized authority largely fragmented and fell into the hands of the local and regional nobility, including ecclesiastical lords. Contemporary observers, such as the compiler of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, complained that God had forsaken England and it was “said openly that Christ and His saints slept.”³ In the midst of societal and governmental upheaval ecclesiastical lords, primarily bishops, became both protectors and despoilers of the countryside. The author of theGesta...

  7. 4 Couched Lance and Mounted Shock Combat in the East: The Georgian Experience
    (pp. 81-108)
    Mamuka Tsurtsumia

    Over the centuries the horseman has used his lance in several ways: hurled it like a javelin, stabbed the enemy either from above¹ or forward,² or held it in both hands.³ When thrusting the lance, the horseman used his horse only as a combat platform, its power and speed never fully incorporated into the attack. Full use of the potential of the horse became possible after introducing a new combat style, when the medieval warrior held his lance fixed under his arm. As a result, the combined mass of the lance, the horseman and the horse rushing towards the enemy...

  8. 5 The Battle of Arsur: A Short-Lived Victory
    (pp. 109-118)
    Michael Ehrlich

    On the twenty-second of August, 1191, the Crusader army led by King Richard Lionheart left Acre.¹ More than two weeks later and about 100 kilometers south of Acre, on the seventh of September, the Crusader and Muslim armies clashed in the Forest of Arsur.²

    I would like to suggest that the battle was practically inevitable because both sides had good reasons to seek a decisive encounter. The Lionheart could not conquer Jerusalem as long as Saladin’s army was in the coastal plain, whereas Saladin wanted to minimize the damage Richard could do and to avoid the conquest of Jerusalem and...

  9. 6 Prelude to Kephissos (1311): An Analysis of the Battle of Apros (1305)
    (pp. 119-138)
    Nikolaos S. Kanellopoulos and Ioanna K. Lekea

    One of the most impressive military feats of the fourteenth century was the activity of the Great Catalan Company in the eastern Mediterranean area. Initially a band of mercenaries in the service of Frederick of Sicily (1295–1337) and then of the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos (1282–1328), they turned into an autonomous fighting force against the Byzantines and settled permanently in the duchy of Athens. Their main strength and one of the principal reasons for their success lay in their military skills. They defeated the Turks in a series of battles; defeated the Byzantines at the battle of...

  10. 7 Horse Restoration (Restaurum Equorum) in the Army of Henry of Grosmont, 1345: A Benefit of Military Service in the Hundred Years’ War
    (pp. 139-164)
    Nicholas A. Gribit

    The vivid description of the horse at the beginning of the alliterative poemSir Gawain and the Green Knightis, apart from its colouring, an accurate portrayal of a medieval warhorse which would have been used in battle by many of the elite knights who served in English armies during the first half of the fourteenth century.² Indeed, many of the warhorses would have shared the characteristics described above: big enough in size to dominate the opposing forces and of sufficient strength to carry a fully-equipped knight, as well as being covered with barding (coopertum) for its own protection and...

  11. 8 The Indenture between Edward III and the Black Prince for the Prince’s Expedition to Gascony, 10 July 1355
    (pp. 165-172)
    Mollie M. Madden

    On 19 September 1356 an English army under the command of Edward of Woodstock (1330–1376), also known as the Black Prince, won a smashing victory over a numerically superior French army led by Jean II (1319–1364). Jean II, of course, was captured. While it was unclear who could claim the honor of actually having done so, what was not in dispute was that Edward III (1312–1377) would ultimately claim the ransom. In fact, this provision was specifically spelled out in the 10 July 1355 indenture between the king and the prince.² The prince was free to “have...

  12. 9 Investigating the Socio-Economic Origins of English Archers in the Second Half of the Fourteenth Century
    (pp. 173-216)
    Gary Baker

    On 25 May 1383 the soldiers of an English army advanced out of the gates of Dunkirk to confront a Flemish force attempting to remove them from the Low Countries.¹ According to Froissart, a herald sent across the field to negotiate was butchered by the Flemish. With tensions already high, this act seems to have sparked a battlefield encounter.² The English chronicler, Thomas Walsingham, was in no doubt as to who was responsible for the subsequent English victory.

    But among all and before all it was our archers who on that day deserved praise and glory. For they sent such...

  13. 10 War and the Great Schism: Military Factors Determining Allegiances in Iberia
    (pp. 217-238)
    L. J. Andrew Villalon

    In the fall of 1378 a pair of envoys from Italy arrived at the royal court of Enrique II of Castile (r. 1366–1367 and 1369–1379) then located in the city of Cordoba near Spain’s southern coast.¹ They brought greetings to the king² from a new pope, the sixty-year-old archbishop of Bari, Bartolomeo Prignano, who had taken the papal name Urban VI (r. 1378–1389). Never himself a cardinal,³ the archbishop had been a compromise candidate in a severely divided election and was the first pope to be selected by a conclave held in Rome since the papacy had...

  14. List of Contributors
    (pp. 239-242)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 243-248)