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Scotland, England and France after the Loss of Normandy, 1204-1296

Scotland, England and France after the Loss of Normandy, 1204-1296: `Auld Amitie'

M. A. Pollock
Copyright Date: 2015
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 272
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  • Book Info
    Scotland, England and France after the Loss of Normandy, 1204-1296
    Book Description:

    Following King John's loss of Normandy to King Philip Augustus in 1204, the ties that had bound the Anglo-French nobility across the Channel began to dissolve. The Scottish nobility had also been part of the Anglo-French structure of lordship; and thus the loss of Normandy made a deep and profound impact on Scotland, as Anglo-French Scottish families began to redefine their identity within a native Scottish and English context apart from their French roots. The author of this book investigates this complex set of connections. She shows that by the end of the thirteenth century, the number of Scottish families who still held land in France or made French marriages was slashed by two-thirds. Cross-Channel relations were maintained mainly through the extended kin of the Scottish royal family, while the crown of Scotland focused more on promoting relations with England. Ironically, it was precisely this disintegration of kin-based, personal relations between the nobility of these three polities that made it necessary for a formal bond (The Treaty of Paris) to be forged between France and Scotland in 1295, referred to as an "Auld Amitie". M.A. Pollock gained her PhD from the University of St Andrews. She has since taught at St. Andrews, the University of Edinburgh, Trinity College, Dublin, and University College Dublin. .

    eISBN: 978-1-78204-456-7
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-vii)
  3. List of Genealogical Tables
    (pp. viii-viii)
  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xi-xiii)
  6. [Illustrations]
    (pp. xiv-xvi)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 1-7)

    When King John of England departed from Normandy on 5 December 1203, he ruled over an aristocracy whose origins were deeply rooted in traditions and customs on both sides of the Channel.¹ His failure to return to Normandy by mid-1204 shook the foundations of this social structure and left men and women who held lands in England and in Normandy vulnerable to the invading forces of Philip Augustus of France. Entrusted with strategically significant Norman fortresses, they had no recourse but to relinquish the king’s position and return to England.² Subsequently, a large section of the Anglo-French nobility was disinherited...

  8. 1 King John and Scotland after the Loss of Normandy
    (pp. 8-49)

    Reactions to King John of England’s style of rule after 1204 made a deep and lasting impression on Franco-Scottish relations. Although fewer Scottish and English families continued to hold lands and serve in France after 1204, communication with French lords and the French court continued. France became a place of refuge for those who fell out with King John, particularly after he began to attack men who had previously supported him in his continental campaigns. Some of these men and their families, like Hugh de Lacy and William de Briouze, found refuge in Scotland and then fled to France where...

  9. 2 The Scots and the First Barons’ War
    (pp. 50-84)

    The flight of men like the Briouzes and Lacys from King John’s court instigated protective bonds between the French, English and other lords at the fringe of English power particularly in Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Many of the families who rebelled against the king after 1210 were related to the Briouze and Lacy kin group and they were joined by a number of men who had found John’s style of rule overbearing and unjust. Moreover, the Lacy and Briouze connections in Ireland, Wales and Scotland had a direct impact on Scottish and Welsh relations with France. William de Briouze and...

  10. 3 Alexander and Henry III
    (pp. 85-129)

    After 1204, the majority of the aristocracy of France and England explicitly served different royal lords and fought on opposing sides, which should have simplified loyalties. However, the English kings did not relinquish the hope of regaining their French lands. Henry III sent or led expeditions in 1225, 1230–31, 1244–45, and throughout the 1250s until the Treaty of Paris in 1259. Furthermore, even though the Anglo-French nobility of 1204 had for the most part surrendered any hope of regaining their former French fees, particularly after Louis’s defeat in 1217, the psychological bond with their kin and patronage networks...

  11. 4 War and Marriage: The French Dimension
    (pp. 130-161)

    Following the death of Joan Plantagenet, the relationship between the crowns of England and Scotland was strained to breaking point. Henry had failed to fulfil the agreement concerning the 200 librates of land in Northumberland and Cumberland promised in the Treaty of York.¹ Although an inquisition had been set up in 1238 at Carlisle to discuss the lands owed, nothing had been determined.² There were some concessions to Alexander but the fact remained that he did not receive the lands promised to him until 1242.

    The other issue was that King Alexander remained without an heir at the time of...

  12. 5 The ‘Auld Alliance’: A New Beginning
    (pp. 162-217)

    The French alliance was to make a brief resurgence within a few years of Joan Plantagenet’s death and then nearly burn out over the following fifty years. The decline of the French alliance was caused by several factors. The primary factor was the demise since 1204 of families who held lands in England, Scotland and France. Most Scottish families and their English cousins no longer held property in France and rarely forged marriage alliances across the Channel by the mid-thirteenth century. A second influence for the weakening of Franco-Scottish amity was the period of about forty years of good relations...

  13. Conclusion
    (pp. 218-220)

    The loss of Normandy in 1204 redefined relations between the three kingdoms. Gradually cross-Channel interests waned and the Anglo-French nobility became increasingly confined to lordships in France, England and/or Scotland. Aristocratic identities were simplified and reflected political interests in mainly England or Scotland for those who had renounced their French territories. The Wars of Independence introduced even more boundaries as families were forced, like in 1204 (between England and France), to choose between their lordships in England and Scotland. This was spelled out in the Cambuskenneth Parliament of 1314 when Robert de Brus declared forfeit all those who refused to...

  14. Bibliography
    (pp. 221-248)
  15. Index
    (pp. 249-272)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 273-273)