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Journal of Medieval Military History

Journal of Medieval Military History: Volume VIII

JOHN FRANCE
CLIFFORD J. ROGERS
KELLY DeVRIES
Copyright Date: 2010
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 206
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt7zstnd
  • Book Info
    Journal of Medieval Military History
    Book Description:

    The journal's hallmark of a broad chronological, geographic, and thematic coverage of the subject is underlined in this volume. It begins with an examination of the brief but fascinating career of an armed league of (mostly) commoners who fought to suppress mercenary bands and to impose a reign of peace in southern France in 1182-1184. This is followed by a thorough re-examination of Matilda of Tuscany's defeat of Henry IV in 1090-97. Two pieces on Hispanic topics - a substantial analysis of the remarkable military career of Jaime I "the Conqueror" of Aragon (r. 1208-1276), and a case study of the campaigns of a single Spanish king, Enrique II of Castile (r. 1366-79), contributing to the active debate over the role of open battle in medieval strategy - come next. Shorter essays deal with the size of the Mongol armies that threatened Europe in the mid-thirteenth century, and with a surprising literary description, dating to 1210-1220, of a knight employing the advanced surgical technique of thoracentesis. Further contributions correct the common misunderstanding of the nature of deeds of arms à outrance in the fifteenth century, and dissect the relevance of the "infantry revolution" and "artillery revolution" to the French successes at the end of the Hundred Years War. The final note explores what etymology can reveal about the origins of the trebuchet. Clifford Rogers is Professor of History, West Point Military Academy; Kelly DeVries is Professor of History, Loyola College, Maryland; John France is Professor of History at the University of Swansea. Contributors: John France, Valerie Eads, Don Kagay, Carl Sverdrup, Jolyon T. Hughes, L. J. Andrew Villalon, Will McLean, Anne Curry, Will Sayers

    eISBN: 978-1-84615-902-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. [i]-[iv])
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. [v]-[vi])
  3. ARTICLES

    • 1 People against Mercenaries: The Capuchins in Southern Gaul
      (pp. 1-22)
      John France

      The Capuchins were a sworn confraternity whose members took up arms in order to impose the peace in the violently disordered world of southern Gaul in the years 1182–84. In doing this they acted under the authority of Canon 27 of the Third Lateran Council of 1179, and took upon themselves something of the character of crusaders. Their movement originated amongst the townspeople of Le Puy in the Auvergne, and although it embraced all classes of society and enjoyed the approbation of bishops and clergy, it was clearly popular rather than aristocratic in nature. For a time it was...

    • 2 The Last Italian Expedition of Henry IV: Re-reading the Vita Mathildis of Donizone of Canossa
      (pp. 23-68)
      Valerie Eads

      It is well over a century since the second and last Italian expedition of Emperor Henry IV was the subject of a dedicated study.¹ The gap is notable since the Italian policy of Henry IV was once studied intensively under the rubric of the Investiture Controversy. The neglect of the military aspects of that policy is even more striking since Henry IV was known to be “tireless in war” and “quick to resort to arms” in a generation that did not lack aggressive military leaders. William of Malmesbury’s estimate that Henry IV undertook some sixty-two military actions could as easily...

    • 3 Jaime I of Aragon: Child and Master of the Spanish Reconquest
      (pp. 69-108)
      Donald J. Kagay

      If “Africa begins at the Pyrenees” (a shaky truism that far too many medievalists still adhere to),² the discussion of a Spanish ruler’s reconquest career as a prime example of military leadership during the European Middle Ages may seem at worst pointless and at best ill-conceived. Since such geo-cultural divisions themselves would surely have seemed beyond the pale in the thirteenth century, however, this paper will proceed to assess the accomplishments of one of southern Europe’s greatest generals of the high Middle Ages, Jaime (Jaume) I “the Conqueror” (r.1214–76).

      The stellar military record of this long-lived Aragonese sovereign was...

    • 4 Numbers in Mongol Warfare
      (pp. 109-117)
      Carl Sverdrup

      The Mongols created the largest land empire known to history during the thirteenth century. It was an empire created by means of military conquest. The military successes of the Mongols are now generally seen as a result of superior weaponry, tactics, and organization. Historians have rejected the older view that the Mongols greatly outnumbered their foes, holding instead that the Mongols were in fact generally outnumbered.¹ The Mongol run of conquests took them all the way into Central Europe. At Mohi in 1241, they defeated a Hungarian army. It is not known how large the armies were at Mohi, but...

    • 5 Battlefield Medicine in Wolfram’s Parzival
      (pp. 118-130)
      Jolyon T. Hughes

      Parzival is not the only hero in Wolfram von Eschenbach’s narrative of the same name, which dates to around 1210–20. There is another feature woven into the text, in a section known as the Gawanbücher (Gawan books) using a “Doppelwegstruktur,” or parallel narrative structure, in which Gawan is the focus of the author’s narrative intent and not Parzival, the title character. Gawan embodies the virtues of knightly prowess and chivalric manners. While he is a physically gifted knight with the ability to outperform any knight except Parzival on the battlefield, he is also able to reason and use skills...

    • 6 Battle-Seeking, Battle-Avoiding or perhaps just Battle-Willing? Applying the Gillingham Paradigm to Enrique II of Castile
      (pp. 131-154)
      L. J. Andrew Villalon

      On the night of 23 March 1369, just south of the city of Toledo in the central Iberian kingdom of Castile, one of the great medieval dramas played out as two bitter enemies faced each other for the first time in nearly fifteen years.¹ One of these men was the legitimate monarch of Castile, Pedro I (1350–66, 1367–69), better known to history as Pedro “the Cruel.”² The other was his illegitimate half-brother and rival for the throne, Enrique II (1366–67, 1369–79).³

      After suffering defeat in battle nine days earlier, Pedro had taken refuge in the nearby...

    • 7 Outrance and Plaisance
      (pp. 155-170)
      Will McLean

      Modern writers on medieval deeds of arms often use the termsà outranceto describe combats fought “using the normal weapons of war” andà plaisanceto describe combats using “specially modified weapons with sharp edges removed or blunted.” The definitions quoted are from Richard Barber and Juliet Barker’s 1989Tournaments: Jousts, Chivalry and Pageants in the Middle Ages. Barker’s earlier work,The Tournament in England 1100–1400, definesoutranceandplaisancewith almost identical terms, as do Maurice Keen’sChivalry, Richard Kaeuper’sChivalry and Violence in Medieval Europeand Katie Stevenson’sChivalry and Knighthood in Scotland, 1424–1513. This...

    • 8 Guns and Goddams: was there a Military Revolution in Lancastrian Normandy 1415–50?
      (pp. 171-188)
      Anne Curry

      Historians like labels and categories. In part this has been driven by the needs of pedagogy. It cannot be a coincidence that an early use of the term “La Guerre de Cent Ans” was in Chrysanthe-Ovide Desmichels’Tableau Chronologique de l’Histoire du Moyen Agepublished in 1823. This work was symptomatic of the expansion of schooling in early nineteenth-century France in which competitive examinations stimulated publication of aides-mémoire.² Other nations followed suit. Even in the 1970s teachers in Britain were still using William Edwards’Notes on British HistoryandNotes on European History, cribs published almost a century earlier, which...

  4. NOTE The Name of the Siege Engine trebuchet: Etymology and History in Medieval France and Britain
    (pp. 189-196)
    William Sayers

    It is now generally agreed that traction and counterweight trebuchets were developed in China centuries before the Christian era and reached the Middle East and Central Europe through such intermediaries as the Mongols, Arabs, Avars and their Slav armies.¹ Our most extensive description is found in Yusuf ibn Arunbughâ al-Zaradkâsh’sAn Elegant Book on Trebuchets(al-Anîq fî al-manajanîq) from about 1462, although as early as the 1180s Saladin’s advisor Mardi bin Alî al-Târsûsi describes a hybrid trebuchet and shows an awareness of the foreign provenance of the engine.² Al-Zaradkâsh’s key word,manajinîq, is among possible sources for the termmangonel,...

  5. Back Matter
    (pp. 197-201)