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Thirteenth Century England XI

Thirteenth Century England XI: Proceedings of the Gregynog Conference, 2005

Björn Weiler
Janet Burton
Phillipp Schofield
Karen Stöber
Volume: 11
Copyright Date: 2007
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 246
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  • Book Info
    Thirteenth Century England XI
    Book Description:

    Editors: Janet Burton, Björn Weiler, Philipp Schofield, Karen Stöber. The thirteenth century brought the British Isles into ever closer contact with one another, and with medieval Europe as a whole. This international dimension forms a dominant theme of this collection: it features essays on England's relations with the papal court; the adoption of European cultural norms in Scotland; Welsh society and crusading; English landholding in Ireland; and dealings between the kings of England and Navarre. Other papers, on ritual crucifixion, concepts of office and ethcis, and the English royal itinerary, show that the thirteenth century was also a period of profound political and cultural change, witnessing the transformation of legal and economic structures [represented here by case studies of noblewomen and their burial customs; and a prolonged inheritance dispute in Laxton]. This volume testifies to the continuing vitality and [with contributors from three continents and six countries] international nature of scholarship on medieval Britain; and moves beyond the Channel to make an important contribution to the history of medieval Europes. Contributors: ROBERT STACEY, FRÉDÉRIQUE LACHAUD, STEPHEN CHURCH, CHRISTIAN HILLEN, JESSICA NELSON, MATTHEW HAMMOND, KATHRYN HURLOCK, NICHOLAS VINCENT, ADAM DAVIES, HUI LIU, EMMA CAVELL, DAVID CROOK, BETH HARTLAND.

    eISBN: 978-1-84615-599-4
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-viii)
    (pp. ix-xi)
    Janet Burton, Phillipp Schofield, Karen Stöber and Björn Weiler
    (pp. xii-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
  7. ‘Adam of Bristol’ and Tales of Ritual Crucifixion in Medieval England
    (pp. 1-15)
    Robert C. Stacey

    Stories describing the ritual crucifixion of Christian children by Jews were widely told and commonly believed by Christians throughout medieval Europe from the middle of the twelfth until the end of the sixteenth century.² Such stories seem to have had a particular appeal in medieval England, however, for reasons that remain only partially understood.³ Between 1144, when the first allegation of ritual crucifixion was made against the Jews of Norwich, and 1290, when the entire Jewish population of England was expelled from the kingdom, at least a dozen allegations that Jews had murdered a Christian child were recorded by English...

  8. Ethics and Office in England in the Thirteenth Century
    (pp. 16-30)
    Frédérique Lachaud

    In medieval England, contemporary debate regarding the behaviour of royal officers seems to have developed alongside the growth in administration. Among the demands of the political community, the better control of the activity of officials ranked high. Documents of the period of crisis of 1258–1265, for instance, show that this question was one of the major concerns of the reformers.The Provisions of Oxford arranged for four knights in each county to hear all complaints against sheriffs and other officials, and stated firmly that one of the justiciar’s duties was to controlthe activity of lesser judges and officials. And the...

  9. Some Aspects of the Royal Itinerary in the Twelfth Century
    (pp. 31-45)
    S.D. Church

    Any interpretation of the royal itinerary in the twelfth century has to begin with J.E.A. Jolliffe’s chapter on the ‘King’s Eyre’ in his Angevin Kingship.² In that chapter, Jolliffe expressed his view of Angevin kingship in its daily acts of government as being characterised by ‘over-mastering strength…used equably with selfconfidence’. It was ‘strength we take for granted’, he stated, as the Angevin kings ‘bludgeoned’ their financial servants – the sheriffs – into ‘honesty and solvency’. And this strength was in part made real by a ‘laborious co-ordination of court and country’ achieved through the process of the king and the...

  10. The Minority Governments of Henry III, Henry (VII) and Louis IX Compared
    (pp. 46-60)
    Christian Hillen

    Sunday 27 July 1214 was a hot day. And it was a decisive day in European history. It was the day of the battle of Bouvines which the French king Philip Augustus won against the superior combined German-English forces of Emperor Otto IV and William of Salisbury, King John’s half brother.¹ The battlefield of Bouvines brought together kings, nobles and knights from three different societies or kingdoms – nations, if the word can be used in a thirteenth-century context – whose structures, customs, laws and history varied, but who were to suffer a very similar fate not too long after...

  11. Scottish Queenship in the Thirteenth Century
    (pp. 61-81)
    Jessica Nelson

    Medieval queenship as an area for study has enjoyed dynamic growth in the last generation. The pioneering work of Pauline Stafford and Jinty Nelson on early medieval queens has shown the tremendous value of looking at queens and queenship through the lens of gender, emphasising the effects of the female lifecycle on the status and opportunities of the queen, and the ways in which the existing structures of queenship constrained the activities of individual kings’ wives.¹ John Parsons has applied a similar approach to post-Conquest queens in England, paying special attentionto the queen’s place in the kinship network and the...

  12. Ethnicity, Personal Names, and the Nature of Scottish Europeanization
    (pp. 82-93)
    Matthew Hammond

    The notion of Europeanization was first posited by Robert Bartlett as a way of explaining the sweeping changes that affected peripheral lands as disparate as Scotland, Sicily and Silesia in thecentral Middle Ages. This model has now superseded more localized concepts such as Normanization as the favoured means of understanding the experience of Scotland, Ireland and Wales at that time. Bartlett allowed for two further submodels within this framework – that of complete or partial conquest, as experienced by Wales and Ireland, respectively, as well as the more balanced approach taken by lands with centralized kingships who willingly invited immigrant,...

  13. Power, Preaching and the Crusades in Pura Wallia c.1180–c.1280
    (pp. 94-108)
    Kathryn Hurlock

    It was not long after Urban II launched the First Crusade in 1095 that the ideas of crusading were being used within the borders of Christendom; as early as 1100, Landulf of Milan likened freeing the Church from simoniacs to the crusade, and three years later Robert of Flanders was offered remission of his sins if he fought against the people of Liége. Crusading began to be used as a way of removing religious and political enemies and troublemakers, either by launching crusades against them or, as with Thomas Becket’s murderers, by sending them to the Holy Land to fight....

  14. A Forgotten War: England and Navarre, 1243–4
    (pp. 109-146)
    Nicholas Vincent

    War is a theme so central to the history of thirteenth-century England that it is surprising that at least one of the wars fought by King Henry III appears entirely to have escaped the notice of English historians. Yet the war fought in southern Gascony in the 1240s between the supporters of Henry III and those of Theobald I King of Navarre, although briefly noticed by modern Spanish commentators, has elicited virtually no comment from the historians either of England or of Gascony.¹ Matthew Paris devoted only a single sentence to the conflict, noting in his chronicle entry for 1244...

  15. The Appointment of Cardinal-deacon Otto as Legate in Britain (1237)
    (pp. 147-158)
    Adam Davies

    On 12 February 1237 Pope Gregory IX appointed Otto da Tonengo,¹ Cardinaldeacon of St Nicholas in carcere Tuillano, as his legate de latere in England, Wales and Ireland.² Scotland too fell within the ambit of Otto’s authority for on 24 March he was instructed to bring about a peace settlement between the kings of Scotland and England, and in early May, after Otto had left the curia, the pope extended his legatine authority to the northern kingdom as well.³ Hence, upon his arrival at Dover in mid-July⁴ he wielded influence over the larger part of the British Isles; indeed the...

  16. Matthew Paris and John Mansel
    (pp. 159-173)
    Hui Liu

    Matthew Paris was born around 1200, and became a monk at St Albans abbey in 1217. He started working on his most important work, the Chronica Majora, from around 1240, using material from other chroniclers, especially his predecessor at St Albans, Roger of Wendover, for the chronicle up to 1235, while his own writing started from the annal for year 1236. Before his illness and death in 1259 cut short his career, Matthew Paris had kept a spirited record of people and events from the entire known world, writing with a scope and extent unparalleled among contemporary chroniclers.²

    John Mansel...

  17. The Burial of Noblewomen in Thirteenth-Century Shropshire
    (pp. 174-192)
    Emma Cavell

    The romance of Fouke le Fitz Waryn speaks of a harmonious relationship between the sometime outlaw Fulk FitzWarin III of Whittington and his beautiful and wealthy first wife Dame Maud ‘de Caus’² who, amid the turbulence of the Welsh frontier, bore Fulk several surviving children. When Maud died around 1226 she was buried in the New Abbey at Alberbury, on Shropshire’s western border, which her husband had founded a short time before (‘E, n’I a geres aprés, morust dame Mahaud de Caus, sa femme, e fust enteree en cele priorie’).³ For his part, Fulk FitzWarin went on to marry another...

  18. Dynastic Conflict in Thirteenth-Century Laxton
    (pp. 193-214)
    David Crook

    The village of Laxton, formerly Lexington or Lessington, in east central Nottinghamshire owes most of its modern fame to the survival within it of a modified version of the system of open field agriculture, made famous by the great study of that system published in 1938 by the Orwins.¹ There is, however, far more to the medieval history of Laxton than its open fields, as I hope to show by considering the contrasting nature and fortunes of the two most important families who lived in the village in the first half of the thirteenth century, and who came into legal...

  19. Absenteeism: The Chronology of a Concept
    (pp. 215-230)
    Beth Hartland

    There is no doubt that the origins of the English words ‘absentee’ and ‘absenteeism’ are to be found in the pages of Irish history.¹ The question to be pursued here is how far back into that history the search for the beginnings of a developed consciousness of English ‘absenteeism’ and its effects upon the lordship of Ireland should be pushed. Writing in the opening decades of the twentieth century, Goddard Henry Orpen set out to correct ‘the strong tendency amongst Irish writers to assume that nothing but evil resulted to Ireland from Anglo-Norman rule’.² In arguing thus Orpen was swimming...

  20. Back Matter
    (pp. 231-231)