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England and Scotland in the Fourteenth Century: New Perspectives

England and Scotland in the Fourteenth Century: New Perspectives

Andy King
Michael A. Penman
Copyright Date: 2007
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 288
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt81hsk
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  • Book Info
    England and Scotland in the Fourteenth Century: New Perspectives
    Book Description:

    Typical accounts of Anglo-Scottish relations over the whole fourteenth century tends to present a sustained period of bitter enmity, described routinely by stock-phrases such as 'endemic warfare', and typified by battles such as Bannockburn [1314], Neville's cross [1346] or Otterburn [1388], border-raiding and the capture of James I of Scotland by English pirates in 1406. However, as this collection shows, the situation was far more complex. Drawing together new perspectives from new and leading researchers, the essays investigate the great complexity of Anglo-Scottish tensions in this most momentous of centuries and in doing so often reveal a far more ambivalent and at times even a peaceful and productive Anglo-Scottish dynamic. The topics treated include military campaigns and ethos; the development of artillery; the leading 'Disinherited' Anglo-Scot, Edward Balliol; Scots in English allegiance and Border Society; religious patronage; Papal relations; the effect of dealings with Scotland on England's government and parliament; identity, ethnicity and otherness; and shared values and acculturation. Contributors: AMANDA BEAM, MICHAEL BROWN, DAVID CALDWELL, GWILYM DODD, ANTHONY GOODMAN, ANDY KING, SARAH LAYFIELD, IAIN MACINNES, RICHARD ORAM, MICHAEL PENMAN, ANDREA RUDDICK AND DAVID SIMPKIN.

    eISBN: 978-1-84615-538-3
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Contributors
    (pp. vii-vii)
  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. viii-viii)
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. ix-xii)
  6. 1 Introduction: Anglo-Scottish Relations in the Fourteenth Century – An Overview of Recent Research
    (pp. 1-13)
    Andy King and Michael A. Penman

    A recent volume of conference proceedings on north-east England in the later middle ages makes reference to March 1296, the month in which an English army crossed into Scotland and sacked Berwick-upon-Tweed, as marking the beginning of a ‘Three Hundred Years War’ between those two realms.¹ Of course, like all such generalisations, it is somewhat wide of the mark – as historians of the reign of James VI of Scotland (1567–1603), when the dynamics of dynastic succession ensured that Anglo-Scottish relations were generally peaceful, might reasonably object. Others might cry caution in the face of any impression of an inevitable...

  7. 2 The English Army and the Scottish Campaign of 1310–1311
    (pp. 14-39)
    David Simpkin

    The devastating defeat of the flower of the English aristocracy at Bannockburn in 1314 has long cast a spell over medieval military historians. Despite the incessant warfare of the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, large battles were rare in this period. Anglo-Welsh and Anglo-Scottish warfare repeatedly pitched forces of unequal strength against one another, and only the most foolhardy opponents of Edwardian conquest, such as William Wallace, were willing to risk the lives of their fellow countrymen, and their long-term political objectives, in full-scale engagement. Therefore it is not surprising that this battle, which undermined the apparent invincibility of the...

  8. 3 ‘Shock and Awe’: The Use of Terror as a Psychological Weapon During the Bruce–Balliol Civil War, 1332–1338
    (pp. 40-59)
    Iain A. MacInnes

    Ravaging land, burning crops, stealing livestock and killing peasants: this is how war was fought in the middle ages. These tactics constituted a form of warfare that minimised the dangers of meeting an enemy in battle, while maximising the destruction that could be inflicted upon the opposition. They also enabled the seizure of booty, the acquisition of which was important in keeping an army in the field since armed forces of the time were often unpaid. English armies in Scotland had employed destructive tactics from the beginning of the Wars of Independence, while the Scots had behaved similarly when pursuing...

  9. 4 The Scots and Guns
    (pp. 60-72)
    David H. Caldwell

    The early use and development of guns in Britain took place at a time when there were hostilities between Scotland and England, or at least the threat of warfare. It was Scotland’s great misfortune to share her only land frontier with a country whose military reputation was not only deservedly high for much of the period we are considering but which also had vastly superior resources in wealth and manpower. What is more, the English believed they had a right to the kingdom of the Scots and were to advance this claim as late as the sixteenth century.

    One of...

  10. 5 Edward Balliol: A Re-evaluation of his Early Career, c.1282–1332
    (pp. 73-93)
    Amanda Beam

    The patriarch of the Balliols of Barnard Castle and Galloway from 1229 to 1268, Sir John (I) Balliol, was unquestionably an English lord, yet his involvement in such events as both the guardianship of Alexander III of Scotland in the 1250s and the English Barons’ War in the 1260s illustrates the important position which he held on both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border. John (I)’s political ambitions and achievements had a direct influence upon those of his son, John (II), king of Scots (1292–96), and his grandson, Edward, king of Scots (1332–56). The impact of John (I)’s status...

  11. 6 Scoti Anglicati: Scots in Plantagenet Allegiance during the Fourteenth Century
    (pp. 94-115)
    Michael H. Brown

    At the beginning of the second decade of the fourteenth century the conflicts termed ‘the Scottish Wars of Independence’ were at a critical stage. From this period two petitions survive written on behalf of the ‘commune’ or ‘people’ of Scotland to their royal lord, seeking his protection and complaining of misgovernment by his officials. In turn, their king clearly sought to alleviate their problems and asked the leaders of this community as his ‘loyal subjects’ for their advice and support in the war. The role played by the community of the realm of Scotland and Robert Bruce’s conscious association of...

  12. 7 Best of Enemies: Were the Fourteenth-Century Anglo-Scottish Marches a ‘Frontier Society’?
    (pp. 116-135)
    Andy King

    In August 1388 a force of northern Englishmen was overwhelmed at the battle of Otterburn, in Redesdale, Northumberland. Writing shortly after the event, a monk at Westminster Abbey sought to explain this defeat. He attributed it partly to the ‘impetuous spirit and excessive audacity’ of Sir Henry Percy, and partly to the failure of the bishop of Durham to turn up with his forces. But in addition, he wrote, the English were defeated:

    because the darkness deluded our Englishmen so much that when they struck carelessly at a Scotsman, due to the chorus of voices speaking a single language, they...

  13. 8 Dividing the Spoils: War, Schism and Religious Patronage on the Anglo-Scottish Border, c.1332–c.1400
    (pp. 136-156)
    Richard D. Oram

    In a series of studies since the 1980s, the long-held view that the Anglo-Scottish war of 1296–1328 ended with the severing of the cross-border landholding network that had developed in the course of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries has been challenged and overturned.¹ The treaty which ended the war made provision for the return of the heritage of specific Anglo-Scottish nobles or their successors and, although the number of restorations made good before the re-opening of hostilities with Edward Balliol’s English-backed invasion of 1332 remained low and the attitudes of leading figures in the Bruce regime in Scotland decidedly...

  14. 9 The Pope, the Scots, and their ‘Self-Styled’ King: John XXII’s Anglo-Scottish Policy, 1316–1334
    (pp. 157-171)
    Sarah Layfield

    Discussions of papal involvement in the resolution of temporal disputes in the early fourteenth century have tended to emphasise the ineffectuality of the Holy See in enforcing its judgements and managing to evade accusations of partiality. When, in 1319, the pope ordered the Teutonic Knights to restore Pomorze to the Polish kingdom, the Order refused on the grounds that the ruling had been made by partisan judges-delegate.¹ The potency of the pontiff’s subsequent attempts to enforce the judgement was outweighed by the political and military strength of the Order in the region, coupled with its distance from Avignon. Attempts at...

  15. 10 Sovereignty, Diplomacy and Petitioning: Scotland and the English Parliament in the First Half of the Fourteenth Century
    (pp. 172-195)
    Gwilym Dodd

    One of the peculiarities of scholarship on the medieval English parliament is that the appointment of the committees of receivers and triers have received so little attention. This is surprising, not least because the long lists of receivers’ and triers’ names constitute one of the most visually striking sections of the contemporary record of parliament, the parliament roll.¹ The receivers and triers formed the administrative and judicial framework which enabled parliament to handle complaints and requests of a private nature – that is to say, private petitions. Their appointment in parliament took place immediately after the chancellor’s opening speech in which...

  16. 11 National and Political Identity in Anglo-Scottish Relations, c.1286–1377: A Governmental Perspective
    (pp. 196-215)
    Andrea Ruddick

    During the reigns of Edward I, II and III, the king of England claimed dominion over a number of territories beyond England itself: Wales, Ireland, Gascony and other remaining French possessions, and, from 1337, the whole of France. English claims to overlordship of Scotland from 1290 thus fitted into the broader context of what the late Rees Davies has dubbed ‘the first English empire’, a shifting range of territories over which the king of England claimed varying degrees of authority.¹ Consequently, while all English people were subjects of the king of England, not all subjects of the king of England...

  17. 12 Anglici caudati: abuse of the English in Fourteenth-Century Scottish Chronicles, Literature and Records
    (pp. 216-235)
    Michael A. Penman

    The research for this paper began with a simple premise: that it should be a relatively straight-forward task to assemble a survey of Scottish writers’ increasingly abusive depictions of the English in fourteenth-century government records, diplomatic papers, propaganda and correspondence, as well as in historical annals and chronicles, verse, literature and song. It might also be assumed, given the generations of war between England and Scotland after 1296 – punctuated by major battles in 1297, 1298, 1314, 1318, 1332, 1333, 1346, 1388 and 1402 – that such Scottish portrayals of their most common enemy would also take on an increasingly heated ethnic...

  18. 13 Anglo-Scottish Relations in the Later Fourteenth Century: Alienation or Acculturation?
    (pp. 236-254)
    Anthony Goodman

    The visit of David II to England in 1363–64 marks the high point in cordial relations and chivalrous acculturation between the Scottish and English courts and higher nobilities in the later middle ages.¹ It left a decided afterglow, in the volume of visits to England, or passage through it, or by its coasts, of courtiers, diplomats, scholars, traders and crusaders. After the renewal of the Anglo-French conflict in 1369, Scottish soldiers conspicuously served the English Crown down to the making of the 1375 truces.² However, the manifold breaches of truce between Scotland and England in the later 1370s and...

  19. Index
    (pp. 255-276)
  20. Back Matter
    (pp. 277-277)