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Thirteenth Century England XII

Thirteenth Century England XII: Proceedings of the Gregynog Conference, 2007

Janet Burton
Phillipp Schofield
Björn Weiler
Volume: 12
Copyright Date: 2009
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 224
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  • Book Info
    Thirteenth Century England XII
    Book Description:

    The articles collected here bear witness to the wide interest in England and its neighbours in the 'long' thirteenth century; topics include the high politics of the thirteenth century, international relations, the administrativeand governmental structur

    eISBN: 978-1-84615-770-7
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vi-vi)
    (pp. vii-x)
    Janet Burton, Phillipp Schofield and Björn Weiler
    (pp. xi-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xviii)
  7. The English and the Welsh in Fouke le Fitz Waryn
    (pp. 1-12)
    Max Lieberman

    One important strand in historical writing on the peoples of the medieval British Isles has been the image that those peoples had of each other.¹ A particular focus has been on the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, when ecclesiastical authors such as Gerald of Wales propagated an overwhelmingly disparaging view of the Welsh, Irish and Scots.² The ‘Celtic’ neighbours of the English, according to this view, still needed to be taught how to make the most of the economic potential of their countries; they led a largely pastoral existence; they were intensely warlike societies of freemen given to violent feuding...

  8. Royal Piety in Thirteenth-century Scotland: The Religion and Religiosity Of Alexander II (1214–49) And Alexander III (1249–86)
    (pp. 13-30)
    Michael Penman

    It is perhaps inevitable that the public and personal piety of Scotland’s thirteenthcentury kings should appear unremarkable in contrast to that of the long-reigning Henry III of England and Louis IX of France. Henry’s consuming investment at Westminster Abbey in the cult of his ancestor, Edward the Confessor, and, from 1247, the veneration at that house of a Holy Blood relic, were but the most outward signs of a deep personal faith wedded tightly to Plantagenet political ends. A number of recent studies have revealed in Henry a commitment to a varied and costly round of religious building as well...

  9. The 1213 Pipe Roll and Exchequer Authority at the End of John’s Reign
    (pp. 31-44)
    Nick Barratt

    If ever there was a pipe roll you did not want to lose, among the strongest candidates would be the one covering the 1213 financial year, which ran from Michaelmas 1212 and concluded twelve months later. So, rather obligingly, at some point over the last eight centuries, this is exactly what a long-forgotten clerk of the Exchequer did. At least we can be sure that the Public Record Office or The National Archives did not accidentally dispose of it. No pipe roll, or indeed corresponding chancellor’s roll, has ever appeared in a modern listing for either series, suggesting that the...

  10. The Public Debate during the Baronial Rebellion
    (pp. 45-60)
    Leidulf Melve

    Research into public debate does not loom large in medieval studies. In fact, the term ‘public debate’ is often seen as an anachronistic imposition of a phenomenon only emerging in the early modern period. From one side, this reluctance to deal with public debate – and the related concepts of ‘public sphere’ and ‘public opinion’ – is not difficult to understand, since the work that established the point of departure for public sphere studies to a large extent neglected the Middle Ages. The work in question is Jürgen Habermas’ Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit, originally published in 1962.¹ According to Habermas, the medieval public...

  11. Richard of Cornwall and the Baronial Opposition in 1263
    (pp. 61-74)
    Adrian Jobson

    Around the time of the feast of St Marcus the Evangelist in 1263, Simon de Montfort, the earl of Leicester, returned to England from his self-imposed exile in France.² Shortly after his arrival, he began building a broad but fragile coalition against the king, Henry III. This alliance’s first appearance can be traced to Oxford, where several long-term reformists and other more recent converts gathered. Having renewed their oaths to the Provisions of Oxford, they demanded in a letter that the king should actively enforce them. Furthermore, they denounced those who opposed the reintroduction of the Provisions as ‘mortal enemies’.³...

  12. Les liens personnels entre les cours de France et d’Angleterre sous le règne de Philippe III, 1270–1285
    (pp. 75-90)
    Xavier Hélary

    The object of this paper is to study, through the rich material conserved at The National Archives (London) and in a manner that takes us beyond diplomatic negotiation, the personal lines of contact between the French and English royal courts during the reign of Philippe III (1270–85), the contemporary of Edward I (1272–1307). Numerous exchanges and responses between the French and English kings, who were closely related by blood, exist. Letters of recommendation and litterae de statu (concerning the state of health of the correspondents) reveal the existence of a less formal correspondence than that found in the...

  13. The Lay Opposition to Edward I in 1297: Its Composition and Character
    (pp. 91-106)
    Andrew Spencer

    The year 1297 witnessed a sundering of the political consensus that Edward I had painstakingly built up over the previous quarter of a century, and a splintering of the community of the realm in a way not seen since the Barons’ Wars. Edward faced opposition from both the church and the laity on a very large scale, and the crisis has rightly received a good deal of attention from historians.¹ For all this, however, we still do not know very much about those who formed an opposition that the chronicler Walter of Guisborough estimated at 1500 mounted men.² Beyond the...

  14. Peacekeepers and Lawbreakers in London, 1276–1321
    (pp. 107-122)
    Henry Summerson

    For anyone encountering it for the first time, the roll of crown pleas from the London eyre of 1321 (JUST 1/547A) must have a fair claim to be the single most alarming medieval document to be found in The National Archives, a remorseless catalogue of lurid vice and crime.¹ Two men take a prostitute to a latrine in London wall, where a quarrel as to who shall possess her first in this salubrious spot leads to one man striking the other dead.² Another latrine is found to contain a man’s head; whose it was and how it came there no-one...

  15. ‘The peace less kept’? The Origins, Revelations and Impact of Edward I’s ‘Trailbaston’ Commissions of 1305–7
    (pp. 123-138)
    Caroline Burt

    Named after those highwaymen who brandished ‘trailbastons’, or clubs, with which to beat their victims, Edward I’s great commissions into crime, issued in 1305, achieved notoriety almost immediately, meriting a mention in a number of the chronicles of the period.² Historians, too, have frequently commented on them, though there has been little research on disorder in this period or on the ‘trailbaston’ commissions directly, which is surprising given their fame.³ My aim here is to evaluate the historiography of ‘trailbaston’, and to offer some new thoughts on the origins, revelations and impact of what were, at the time of their...

  16. Notes and Documents

    • Knightly Society and the Augustinian Canons in the North-west of England
      (pp. 141-154)
      Andrew Abram

      A portion of an early fourteenth-century stone grave cover excavated at the Augustinian priory of St Mary at Norton depicts, beneath a floriated cross, a sword with its blade covered by the arms of the Dutton family.¹ This example of the symbolism of lineage, social class and devotional aspirations of a male member of an important family of benefactors is an especially striking one. Sometime after 1138 Robert II of Stafford, the patron of another Augustinian house, Stone Priory, confirmed the canons’ possessions and granted the community substantial temporal and spiritual property.² In especially warm-hearted language he requested, ‘as brother...

    • A Year in the Life of a Royal Justice. Gilbert de Preston’s Itinerary, July 1264 – June 1265
      (pp. 155-166)
      Susan Stewart

      Gilbert de Preston was one of the best-known and longest-serving justices in thirteenth-century England, his career spanning from his appointment as a royal justice in 1240 at the age of just over thirty to his death, probably in December 1273, while chief justice of the Common Bench, an office he had held almost continuously from 1260.¹ David Crook found that he served in fifty-five general eyres as a junior justice between 1239 and 1254, and between 1254 and 1272 he was chief justice in twenty-nine eyres.² Gilbert was from a Northamptonshire knightly family, which held land in several places in...

    • Living with Father’s Reputation: The Careers of Two Thirteenth-century Oxfordshire Knights of Alien Origin, Thomas De Bréauté and Hugh de Plessis
      (pp. 167-182)
      Michael Ray

      In a much-quoted section of his Ecclesiastical History, Ordericus Vitalis criticised Henry I because ‘he ennobled others of base stock who had served him well, raised them, so to say, from the dust, and heaping all kinds of favours on them, stationed them above earls and famous castellans’.² This phenomenon was not confined to the twelfth century. Both John and Henry III promoted obscure men, often aliens, to the highest ranks in their realms.

      What happened to the children of these ‘new men’ when the high position their fathers achieved was not passed on in full? There is no obvious...

    • The Charters of Richard of Cornwall for the Empire
      (pp. 183-192)
      Ingo Schwab

      This paper deals with a topic and a question that, while recognised as significant, has so far not been treated in a concentrated and focused fashion. We will not be concerned with Richard’s biography and will certainly not offer a discussion of his role as Romanorum rex. Rather, we would like to offer a short survey of the evidential basis of charters and diplomas on which, ultimately, any historical treatment will have to build. This seems all the more worthwhile an undertaking, as neither Frank Lewis’s – sadly still unpublished – MA dissertation of 1934,¹ nor Denholm-Young’s – still definitive – biography of Richard...

    • The Development of the Fine Rolls
      (pp. 193-206)
      Beth Hartland and Paul Dryburgh

      The fine rolls provide a wealth of material of great value to historians of Henry III’s reign being, in essence, the principal record of offers of money to the king for an enormous variety of concessions and favours to individuals and corporate bodies, both municipal and religious.² They reveal what the king was expected and could be persuaded to grant and the benefits his subjects expected or hoped to be able to win from him. They are therefore crucial in understanding networks of patronage and debt and credit, and the increasingly rapid changes to the law, the position of women...

    • Back Matter
      (pp. 207-207)