Skip to Main Content
Have library access? Log in through your library
Kant in Brazil

Kant in Brazil

Frederick Rauscher
Daniel Omar Perez
Volume: 10
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 390
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Kant in Brazil
    Book Description:

    Kant in Brazil is a collected volume of essays conceived at the 2005 International Kant Congress in Sao Paulo as a way to make accessible to Anglophone Kant scholars some of the best work on Kant produced by Brazilian scholars. The availability of this material in English for the first time will promote interaction between North American and Brazilian scholars as well as enable Anglophone readers worldwide to incorporate excellent but previously neglected work into their own debates about Kant. The book contains an editor's introduction providing an overview of the institutional structure of Kant studies in Brazil. The essays that follow, translated from Portuguese, include a survey of the history of Kant studies in Brazil over the past two centuries as well as interpretive essays that span the corpus of Kant's work in theoretical philosophy, ethics, political philosophy, history, aesthetics, and teleology. Various styles of philosophy are put into practice as well: analytical, philological, reflective, comparative, displaying the broad and diverse nature of Brazilian philosophy. Frederick Rauscher is associate professor of philosophy at Michigan State University. Daniel Omar Perez is professor of philosophy at the Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Brazil.

    eISBN: 978-1-58046-772-8
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

Export Selected Citations Export to NoodleTools Export to RefWorks Export to EasyBib Export a RIS file (For EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero, Mendeley...) Export a Text file (For BibTex)
  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Note on Sources and Abbreviations
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 1-13)
    Frederick Rauscher

    In 2005 the Brazilian Kant Society hosted the International Kant Congress, the first time it has ever been held outside Germany and the United States. Hundreds of Kant scholars from throughout the world joined hundreds of Brazilian professors and students for five days of keynote lectures, contributed session papers, and discussion. Nonetheless language barriers prevented extensive interaction. While most of the Brazilian scholars understood English or German, very few of the non-Brazilian scholars understood Portuguese. The keynote lectures in Portuguese that were simultaneously translated into English and the handful of Brazilian contributed session papers read in English or German testified...

  6. 1 Two Centuries of Kantian Studies in Brazil
    (pp. 14-25)
    Daniel Omar Perez and Juan Adolfo Bonaccini

    When Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807, Prince Regent Dom João de Bragança decided to move his family and transfer the whole court to Brazil, departing on November 29, 1807, and arriving in Brazil in March 1808. That same year the Royal Library was installed in the hospital of the Third Order of the Carmelites (Carmo) in Rio de Janeiro.¹ Might Philosophie de Kant, ou principes fondamentaux de la philosophie transcendantale (Kant’s philosophy, or the fundamental principles of the transcendental philosophy) (1801) by Charles Villers, a work that arrived in Brazil as part of the library of the prince regent and...

  7. 2 Self-Consciousness and Objective Knowledge in the Transcendental Deduction of the Critique of Pure Reason
    (pp. 26-55)
    Guido Antônio de Almeida

    The work presented here proposes to investigate the question whether and in what sense epistemic self-consciousness constitutes for Kant a principle for explaining and establishing the possibility of knowledge.

    Given Kant’s explicit declarations, the question whether self-consciousness constitutes such a principle may undoubtedly appear remarkable. Did not Kant affirm this textually? Certainly, but if we read the texts with attention, we see that they are far from being clear and decisive to the extent that one would initially think. I wish to make two preliminary observations to this point. In the first place, it is convenient to observe that what...

  8. 3 Intuitive Knowledge and De Re Thought
    (pp. 56-80)
    João Carlos Brum Torres

    This text aims to explore the exegetical hypothesis that the Kantian conception of empirical intuition can be interpreted as a variant—obviously a variant avant la lettre—of the contemporary theory of de re thoughts.

    An elementary and minimal presentation of this theory will suffice for this purpose: de re thoughts are object-dependent thoughts, thoughts whose individuation derives not from conceptual conditions to be satisfied by the properties of their objects, but rather from the immediate relations of the subject of these thoughts to the objects of which they are thoughts. This is also to say that these thoughts are...

  9. 4 Predicative Judgments and Existential Judgments: Apropos Kant’s Critique of the Cartesian Ontological Argument
    (pp. 81-97)
    Raúl Landim

    Considered in schematic form, the Cartesian a priori proof of the existence of God—defined by Kant as an ontological argument—contains two main stages: (a) the first derives knowledge of the reality of God’s essence from the innate, clear, and distinct idea of God; while (b) the second derives knowledge of God’s existence from knowledge of His essence.

    In the second stage of the proof, the predicative proposition “God is existent” is deduced from the proposition “God is a supremely perfect being” and the supposition that existence is a perfection or a real predicate (a supposition explicitly admitted by...

  10. 5 An Experiment with Practical Reason
    (pp. 98-108)
    Valerio Rohden

    This is the second part of a study on the handwritten corrections that I found in the original copy of the Kritik der praktischen Vernunft at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg Library.¹ Whereas the first part of that research resulted in a predominantly philological and historical investigation on those corrections taken as a whole, in this paper I focus on the philosophical meaning of a single correction, namely, the one on line 11 of page A166 of the original edition (Practical Reason, 5:93). There the word nur (only) was changed to nun (now), apparently with the intent of expressing more adequately...

  11. 6 On the FAKTUM of Reason
    (pp. 109-126)
    Darlei Dall’Agnol

    The problem of the existence of a pure reason capable of determining the will, that is, capable of being practical, is an issue for philosophy of action, which is paramount to ethics since any discussion on whether an action is good or bad or on what must be done has to presuppose that action is possible at all. To deny the existence of a pure practical reason seems to imply the denial of the very possibility of making an agent accountable for his or her actions and, therefore, the very purpose of philosophical matters such as ethics, political philosophy, philosophy...

  12. 7 Critique, Deduction, and the Fact of Reason
    (pp. 127-154)
    Guido Antônio de Almeida

    Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason differs in a striking way from his other critical works, since it does not include what he calls a “deduction” of the principles of the criticized faculty, that is, a proof of the objective validity of its a priori principles. To be sure, one finds there the chapter “On the Deduction of the Principles of Pure Practical Reason.” However, the aim of this chapter is not exactly that of working out a deduction of these principles but, instead, to show that, in a critique of practical reason, such a deduction is in fact impossible, and,...

  13. 8 The Noncircular Deduction of the Categorical Imperative in GROUNDWORK III
    (pp. 155-172)
    Julio Esteves

    Among the most respected interpreters, there is virtual unanimity that in the third section of the Groundwork Kant intends to provide a justification or proof of the validity of the supreme principle of morality previously articulated in the other two sections. The problem dealt with in the third section is a result of the fact that the analytical or regressive-hypothetical method hitherto adopted can satisfy only “whoever holds morality to be something and not a chimerical idea without any truth” (Groundwork, 4:445). The question of the validity of the supreme principle of morality requires the synthetic use of pure practical...

  14. 9 The Distinction between Right and Ethics in Kant’s Philosophy
    (pp. 173-188)
    Ricardo Ribeiro Terra

    The analysis of the relation between morality and right requires that one makes precise the meaning of these terms that sometimes carry a narrow, sometimes a wide sense.¹ When distinguishing laws of nature from laws of freedom, the moral term in Kant acquires a wide sense: the latter are called moral laws. Kant affirms that, while they are “directed merely to external actions and their conformity to law they are called juridical laws; but if they also require that they (the laws) themselves be the determining grounds of actions, they are ethical laws, and then one says that conformity with...

  15. 10 Right and the Duty to Resist, or Progress toward the Better
    (pp. 189-205)
    José Nicolau Heck

    Kant held the unshakeable conviction that right could only be perfected within a given established order.

    Denial of the right of resistance, apostrophized by the German philosopher, derives from a simple argument. The possibility of legal resistance to the monopoly of power implies having authority to define the conditions, analyze the criteria, and choose the means for disobedience itself. Thus, every political opponent assumes the power of decision and acquires the privileges of a ruler. If there is someone in the state holding power, nobody can demand the right of resistance to this ruler, unless he himself is not the...

  16. 11 The Fundamental Problem of Kant’s Juridical Semantics
    (pp. 206-235)
    Zeljko Loparic

    Kant defines a philosopher as “the legislator of human reason” (Pure Reason, B867). The philosopher’s legislation has two objects, nature and freedom, and therefore contains both the laws of nature (natural laws) and the laws of freedom (moral laws). The former determine a priori what is and comprise the system of nature; the latter determine a priori what should be and make up the system of freedom.¹ Theoretical or speculative philosophy takes care of the former; practical philosophy takes care of the latter.

    In Kant’s later writings, practical philosophy is split into a “metaphysics of morals” and a “moral anthropology”...

  17. 12 Right, History, and Practical Schematism
    (pp. 236-245)
    Daniel Tourinho Peres

    Few philosophers reproduce so faithfully, in the degree of their thinking, the tensions inherent in the object under consideration. Such is certainly the case of Immanuel Kant, for whom this reproduction has a very specific sense, to the extent that the object, through its universal and necessary properties, responds to the determinations of thought. Kant, however, did not consider only the tensions; he also considered equally, as Ricardo Terra has demonstrated,¹ the way of resolving them. It is known that for Kant, history is the history of right, or rather of juridical institutions that place themselves in the path of...

  18. 13 Cosmopolitanism: Kant and Kantian Themes in International Relations
    (pp. 246-270)
    Soraya Nour

    On April 5, 1795, Prussia celebrated the Peace of Basel with France, abandoning the coalition with Austria and England against France, to whom it yielded its territories on the left bank of the Rhine. In August, Kant finished his work Toward Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch, in which he ironically imitates the form of the peace treaties of his time. Two hundred years later, commemorations for the bicentennial of Kant’s Perpetual Peace in Germany and elsewhere¹ were not content with the usual philological work: they evaluated the relation of the work to the present, comparing the contemporary world with Kant’s...

  19. 14 A Typology of Love in Kant’s Philosophy
    (pp. 271-282)
    Maria de Lourdes Borges

    In this paper I shall analyze what Kant says about the different kinds of love, trying to reconstruct what I call a typology of love. I begin with the feeling of sympathy in the Groundwork. Then, I examine the love of benevolence in the Doctrine of Virtue as a duty to love other human beings, which is a duty of virtue toward other people. The introduction of a feeling like love seems, at first sight, strange to the Kantian system, since the moral action should be practiced from duty and not because of sensible inclinations.

    I shall show that the...

  20. 15 The Meaning of the Term GEMÜT in Kant
    (pp. 283-294)
    Valerio Rohden

    This essay was born out of difficulties with the translation of the term Gemüt that I ran into while working on a Portuguese translation of Immanuel Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment

    By Gemüt Kant means the principle that unifies the various faculties that are in reciprocal relations to one another; it has a cognitive transcendental sense and also an animating aesthetic sense for the cognitive faculties. In addition to that, Kant takes the term Geist (spirit) as the faculty that creates genius, which he in part differentiates from Geist as the spirit of taste. In the latter sense,...

  21. 16 Between Prescriptive Poetics and Philosophical Aesthetics
    (pp. 295-304)
    Ricardo Ribeiro Terra

    Peter Szondi began his course Ancients and Moderns in the Poetics of the Age of Goethe¹ by considering the meaning of the word “poetics.” Poetics bears a double meaning as the doctrine of both Dichtung (poetry) and Dichtkunst (ars poetica). On the one hand Dichtung is taken as a philosophical problem, as the theory that concerns what poetry is. On the other hand Dichtkunst is taken as a technical issue, as the theory of the poetic technique regarding the issue of how to make poetry. Nonetheless, both are interwoven—the reflection on poetry making must lead back to its technique:...

  22. 17 The Purposiveness of Taste An Essay on the Role of Zweckmässigkeit in Kant’s Critique of a Esthetic Judgment
    (pp. 305-320)
    Pedro Costa Rego

    The main concern of Kant’s aesthetics in the third Critique can be summed up in the following question: Is it in any sense possible that an aesthetic judgment, that is, one that is grounded upon a feeling of pleasure and does not involve any conceptual objectivity, be universally valid? In other words: Do we have the right to claim for a nonobjective and non-conceptual judgment the status of an a priori valid judgment for every judging subject? Given that only the judgment of taste puts forward claims to this sort of nonobjective universality, the problem of the possibility of such...

  23. 18 Freedom in Appearance Notes on Schiller and His Development of Kant’s Aesthetics
    (pp. 321-336)
    Christian Hamm

    In the first pages of the second edition of the 1794 treatise Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason one finds a long footnote in which Kant acknowledges the objections of an eminent critic of his writings and justifies once more his “rigorist” ethics, elaborated in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, in the second Critique and in the first edition of Religion itself, according to which can be admitted in his doctrine of morals no “intermediate moral concept.” We read this:

    Professor Schiller, in his masterful treatise on gracefulness and dignity in morality (Thalia, 1793, 3rd issue), disapproves...

  24. 19 Reading the Appendix to Kant’s Critique of the Teleological Power of Judgment
    (pp. 337-347)
    Pedro Pimenta

    The subject of this article is the second part of Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment, concerning teleological judgment. The aim is to show through a close reading of the appendix the role of reflective teleological judgments in promoting the connection or transition (Übergang) between the theoretical and the practical principles of reason as a single faculty. Such a reading implies that the text of the appendix is a consistent and coherent part of Kant’s exposition in the third Critique. That the third Critique deals with this connection in its different configurations is what Kant states in both introductions,...

  25. 20 Symbolization in Kant’s Critical Philosophy
    (pp. 348-358)
    Joãosinho Beckenkamp

    Just as he concluded in great style the secular development of philosophical enlightenment, Kant also opened a new space in which the programs of subsequent philosophy would be developed. In particular, German Idealism owes a great deal to him concerning the conceptions of reason, idea, and even philosophy itself.

    I would like to show that Kant can also be considered the philosopher who marked the place in which both idealists and romantics would soon lay claim to what they called a “new mythology.” Therefore, I will begin with a short text first published in 1917 by Franz Rosenzweig, “Das älteste...

  26. Bibliography of Works in German and English
    (pp. 359-364)
  27. Contributors
    (pp. 365-368)
  28. Index
    (pp. 369-376)
  29. Back Matter
    (pp. 377-377)