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Anglo-Norman Studies 30

Anglo-Norman Studies 30: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2007

Edited by C. P. Lewis
Volume: 30
Copyright Date: 2008
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 248
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt81wq7
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  • Book Info
    Anglo-Norman Studies 30
    Book Description:

    The 2007 conference on Anglo-Norman Studies, the thirtieth in the annual series, was held in Wales, and there is a Welsh flavour to the proceedings now published. Five of the thirteen papers cover Welsh topics in the long twelfth century: Church reform, political culture, the supposed resurgence of Powys as a political entity, and interpreter families in the Marches, besides a broad and compelling historiographical survey of the place of the Normans in Welsh history. Twelfth-century England is represented by papers on chivalry and kingship [in literature and life], the Evesham surveys, lay charters, and Henry of Blois and the arts. Essays which focus on the southern Italian city of Trani and on the crusader history of Ralph of Caen explore wider Norman identities. Finally, there are two broad surveys contextualizing the Anglo-Norman experience: on the careers of the clergy and on how warriors were identified before heraldry. CONTRIBUTORS: HUW PRYCE, LAURA ASHE, JULIA BARROW, HOWARD B. CLARKE, JOHN REUBEN DAVIES, JUDITH EVERARD, NATASHA HODGSON, CHARLES INSLEY, ROBERT JONES, PAUL OLDFIELD, DAVID STEPHENSON, FREDERICK SUPPE, JEFFREY WEST.

    eISBN: 978-1-84615-610-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-v)
  3. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS, AND TABLES
    (pp. vi-vi)
  4. EDITOR’S PREFACE
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Chris Lewis
  5. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. ix-xii)
  6. THE NORMANS IN WELSH HISTORY R. Allen Brown Memorial Lecture
    (pp. 1-18)
    Huw Pryce

    Although Allen Brown did not write extensively about Wales, he was certain that the Normans had made a big difference to its history by inaugurating a conquest that was completed, some two centuries later, by Edward I.¹ Members of the Battle Conference, on its visit to Gregynog, about eight miles west of the motte of Hen Domen near Montgomery,² will hardly need persuasion that Norman conquest and settlement were significant in Wales. After all, in the late eleventh and twelfth centuries the Normans and their allies established control over a substantial swathe of the country, extending in an arc along...

  7. WILLIAM MARSHAL, LANCELOT, AND ARTHUR: CHIVALRY AND KINGSHIP
    (pp. 19-40)
    Laura Ashe

    On his deathbed in May 1219, according to the History of William Marshal, the elderly Marshal spoke feelingly of the fate of his soul:

    ‘Li clerc sunt vers nos trop engrés,

    Trop nos vunt barbiant de pres;

    Car j’ai pris .v. cenz chevaliers,

    Dont j’ai e armes e destriers

    E tot lor herneis retenu;

    Se por ço m’est contretenu

    Li reignes Dé, n’i a que prendre,

    Car je nel porreie pas rendre.

    Je ne puis plus fere, ce cui,

    A Deu, fors rendre mei a lui

    Repentant de toz mes mesfez,

    De toz les mals que je ai fez.

    S’il...

  8. GRADES OF ORDINATION AND CLERICAL CAREERS, c. 900—c. 1200
    (pp. 41-61)
    Julia Barrow

    The clergy were a central part of medieval society and medieval political activity, and were responsible for creating many surviving medieval sources; thus all medievalists, irrespective of their interests, need to know something about how they were defined, as clerics, from the rest of society, and how their careers were structured. The principal function of clergy, and the feature that principally separated them from the laity, was to perform or to help to perform sacraments, the most significant and frequently celebrated of which was mass. Clerics were licensed to celebrate mass or to assist with its celebration by a series...

  9. EVESHAM J AND EVESHAM L: TWO EARLY TWELFTH-CENTURY MANORIAL SURVEYS
    (pp. 62-84)
    Howard B. Clarke

    Traditionally the history of Evesham abbey begins in the year 701 when Æthelræd, king of the Mercians (674–704), granted to Ecgwine, third bishop of the Hwicce (693–704), the place æt Hamme (Hethomme).¹ Out of a mass of pious legend, uncertain tradition, fraudulent invention, and ill-recorded fact, this is probably all that will ever be known beyond reasonable doubt. This hamm was a piece of land within the great loop of the river Avon that was later to contain the church, conventual buildings, and medieval town. According to the twelfth-century historian William of Malmesbury, there may have been a...

  10. ASPECTS OF CHURCH REFORM IN WALES, c. 1093—c. 1223
    (pp. 85-99)
    John Reuben Davies

    In 1093, not far from Brecon, the ‘French who were inhabiting Brycheiniog’ killed the king of Deheubarth.¹ For Sir John Edward Lloyd, the death of this native ruler, Rhys ap Tewdwr, ‘opened the flood–gates of Norman rapacity in South Wales’.² In John of Worcester’s chronicle, this was the day from which ‘kings ceased to bear rule in Wales’; and a Welsh cleric of the time judged that ‘the kingdom of the Britons was overthrown’.³

    On the west coast, near Aberystwyth, in the ancient community of St Padarn at Llanbadarn Fawr, the renowned scholar Rhygyfarch ap Sulien composed a poetic...

  11. LAY CHARTERS AND THE ACTA OF HENRY II
    (pp. 100-116)
    Judith Everard

    This paper deals with the acts of Henry II as a source for the production and use of charters by laymen in the twelfth century. Its starting point is the British Academy ‘Acta of the Plantagenets’ research project, and the immense value to historical research of this corpus of the acts of the early Plantagenet rulers.¹

    The subject index currently in preparation will illuminate, among other things, the seemingly endless variety of customs, always interesting and sometimes picturesque or bizarre, mentioned in the royal acta. Some of these only occur in one single text, whether because they represent customs that...

  12. REINVENTING NORMANS AS CRUSADERS? RALPH OF CAEN’S GESTA TANCREDI
    (pp. 117-132)
    Natasha Hodgson

    In many respects Ralph of Caen had the most ‘Norman’ credentials of any historian of the First Crusade, since his family hailed from Caen or near by and he shared a tutor, Arnulf of Chocques, with the sister of Duke Robert II of Normandy. Although Guibert of Nogent was scornful of Arnulf’s talents, Ralph seems to have been particularly well educated, especially in the classical poets and historians.¹ Ralph did not accompany Arnulf on the First Crusade, but joined the entourage of Bohemond of Taranto during his recruitment tour of France in 1106, and taking part in the crusade expedition...

  13. KINGS, LORDS, CHARTERS, AND THE POLITICAL CULTURE OF TWELFTH–CENTURY WALES
    (pp. 133-153)
    Charles Insley

    The development of Wales during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, in terms of its political and social structures and legal and cultural institutions, has seen much attention over the last twenty years from scholars who have sought to explore the impact of the Normans in the British Isles and locate Wales’s experience in an Insular context; the work of Robin Frame, Huw Pryce, John Gillingham, Robert Bartlett, and above all the late Sir Rees Davies has been enormously influential here.¹ Nevertheless, Welsh political culture in the twelfth century has received less detailed attention than it might. The first problem is...

  14. IDENTIFYING THE WARRIOR ON THE PRE–HERALDIC BATTLEFIELD
    (pp. 154-167)
    Robert Jones

    The battle had reached a crisis point. Hard–pressed by the English, the Normans and their allies were convulsed by a rumour: that William had been killed. The left wing broke and ran. The duke, William of Poitiers wrote,

    seeing a great part of the opposing force springing forward to pursue his men, rushed towards them, met them as they fled and halted them, striking out and threatening with his spear. Baring his head and lifting his helmet, he cried ‘Look at me? I am alive, and with God’s help I will conquer. What madness is persuading you to flee?...

  15. ST NICHOLAS THE PILGRIM AND THE CITY OF TRANI BETWEEN GREEKS AND NORMANS, c. 1090—c. 1140
    (pp. 168-181)
    Paul Oldfield

    In the first half of the twelfth century the Apulian coastal city of Trani was a key port and urban centre of its region, and one that was rapidly growing.¹ The city had previously passed gradually from Byzantine to Norman rule during the period from the 1040s to the 1070s.² By 1079 it was formally part of the Norman Robert Guiscard’s duchy of Apulia.³ Nevertheless, from at least the 1080s until 1139 the city was, to all intents and purposes, politically independent; from 1085 until 1127 Guiscard’s successors as dukes of Apulia had no real control along the Apulian coast,...

  16. THE ‘RESURGENCE’ OF POWYS IN THE LATE ELEVENTH AND EARLY TWELFTH CENTURIES
    (pp. 182-195)
    David Stephenson

    The early medieval kingdom of Powys, which had by tradition extended over much of central and eastern Wales, had effectively ceased to exist in the course of the ninth century.¹ Parts of the kingdom had fallen to English incursions, while much of the remainder appears to have been absorbed into Gwynedd. For some two hundred years Powys appears to have existed as a region rather than as a polity. Mid-twelfth-century sources, however, reveal a very different situation. A vigorous, though more restricted, realm of Powys had re-emerged, ruled by a dynasty that traced its origins to the formidable and talented...

  17. INTERPRETER FAMILIES AND ANGLO-WELSH RELATIONS IN THE SHROPSHIRE-POWYS MARCHES IN THE TWELFTH CENTURY
    (pp. 196-212)
    Frederick Suppe

    Biographies of medieval English rulers tend to describe Anglo-Welsh relations in terms of a king’s Welsh policy – that is, composing a ‘top-down’ narrative analysis focusing on an English ruler and the contemporary Welsh ones. However, close examination of the careers and fortunes of two families of March interpreters who held lands near the geographical nexus where the Welsh polities of Gwynedd and Powys were juxtaposed with the English counties of Cheshire and Shropshire will supply a more nuanced description of border events during the twelfth century and the reasons for those events.

    The first of these families is the six-generation...

  18. A TASTE FOR THE ANTIQUE? HENRY OF BLOIS AND THE ARTS
    (pp. 213-230)
    Jeffrey West

    Having surveyed a considerable body of material relating to the life and achievements of Henry of Blois, Lena Voss turned her attention in the closing pages of her biography to the personality and character of her subject.¹ While accepting that Henry’s was an unusual and multi–faceted life, Voss expressed the view that the written record was so full of gaps and contradictions that to get anything like a rounded picture of him it was necessary to assemble the pieces like the tesserae of a mosaic.² Henry is not alone in this, and whether or not we agree with Knowles...

  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 231-231)