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The Works of Thomas Traherne II

The Works of Thomas Traherne II: Commentaries of Heaven, part 1: Abhorrence to Alone

Edited by JAN ROSS
Copyright Date: 2007
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 580
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  • Book Info
    The Works of Thomas Traherne II
    Book Description:

    Thomas Traherne (1637? - 1674), a clergyman of the Church of England during the Restoration, was little known until the early twentieth century, when his poetry and Centuries of Meditations were discovered. There have been since miscellaneous publications of his poetry and devotional writings. The Works of Thomas Traherne brings together all of Traherne's extant works in a definitive, printed edition for the first time. It will include both his published and unpublished works, and his notebooks, presenting them insofar as possible by manuscript, giving due attention to their physical aspects and to their integrity as manuscript books. Volumes II and III make available the Commentaries of Heaven, preserved in one manuscript held at the British Library. Organised topically, it was intended to cover the whole of the alphabet but extends only through `A' and part of `B', with 95 prose articles altogether. It possesses the characteristics of a commonplace book, encyclopaedia and dictionary, and contains poetry, meditations, philosophical discourse, and polemic. The unusual range of subjects treated, from `Abhorrence' to `Ant', `Aristotle' to `Atom', shows Traherne to be an imaginative and compelling writer in his approach to Christian theology, while maintaining both his integrity and orthodoxy as a priest.

    eISBN: 978-1-84615-604-5
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. General Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. ix-ix)
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. x-x)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. xi-xl)

    Commentaries of Heaven¹ is Thomas Traherne’s most ambitious work, which if completed would have comprised several folio volumes. The full title indicates Traherne’s purpose, to open ‘the Mysteries of Felicitie’ by revealing ‘All Things’ to be ‘Objects of Happiness’ and to exhibit ‘the Transcendent Verities of the Holy Scriptures, and the Highest Objects of the Christian Faith’, his organizing principle, ‘Alphabeticaly Represented’ and his intended audience, Atheists, for their satisfaction, Christians, for their consolation and Divines, for their encouragement. The comprehensive scope of the work is indicated by the numerous cross-references throughout the manuscript, extending from the beginning with ‘Abhorrence’...

  7. List of Topics
    (pp. xli-xliii)
  8. Commentaries of Heaven

    • [Introduction]
      (pp. 1-4)
    • Abhorrence
      (pp. 5-15)

      God implanted Abhorrence in the Mind of Man, that he might be more Secured in the Possession of His Happiness. It is the Effect of Self-lov, arising upon a Sence of evil. It floweth from the Principle of Self-Preservation, which is Engraven in all our Natures. For it is impossible for us to lov our selvs, and not to hate those things that are Hurtfull to us.

      It is that Passion by which the Soul rejecteth what is Hurtfull. It is a certain Opposition of the Spirits, wherby the Soul retireth into it self, and excludeth what it loaths. It...

    • Abilitie, in Creatures
      (pp. 16-21)

      How GOD implanted Abilitie in the Soul, and after what maner it Exerteth it self, is impossible to Declare. We can no more tell how Life was infused, then a Candle can imagine how it was Lighted. A flame there is that Shineth in us, but whence it came, or of what it was made, it is, (if not Impossible, at least) very Difficult to Explain. GOD would hav us Mysteries to our selvs: that we might reverence our own Being. We are to Admire His Work in Ignorance for a time, that afterwards we might more Sweetly Admire it...

    • Human Abilitie
      (pp. 22-34)

      The Obscurity of its Original is therfore Profitable, becaus it fills us with Humilitie and Amazement. With the one in the sence of our Ignorance, with the other in the Apprehension of our Highness. Shall He that cannot tell how he moves his fingar, or commands his Tongue, reject all Religion, as the Atheist does, becaus he cannot unfold the Deepest Secrets of GOD? And shall he Despise Himself that is Incomprehensible? If Thou knowest not how thy Bones did grow in thy Mothers Womb, Enquire not how Souls Enter into Bodies, or acquire their Perfection. neither be at all...

    • Abridgement
      (pp. 35-38)

      Concerning Abridgement I shall speak but little: Observing in it only the Glory of the Soul, that can frame an Abridgement; and instructing men how to use it. That the Soul can Extend the Rays of its understanding to all Objects in Heaven and Earth is as Specious a Wonder, as infinit. But that it can draw all these into a little Abstract, and lodg them in fit and convenient Repositories, even in a Centre, containing in it self Rooms Enough wherin to Dispose them, in Clear Light, in fair Treasuries, in Distinct Accessible Orders, so that it can Approach...

    • Spiritual Absence
      (pp. 39-47)

      Certainly as there are Abilities, wherwith Human Souls are endowed, to Enjoy; so there are Treasures to be Enjoyed. But what we are Absent fromin Spirit, affects us not. Nothing can be more against Nature, either in GOD, or MAN, then to giv Abilities without Objects. That we hav Abilities therfore is a Sure foundation of infinit Hope: for nothing can be more Contrary to Divine Wisdom, or Goodness, then to implant such, as we hav received, and to leave them Desolat without Enjoyments. If they hav no Objects, they are Seated in us to no Purpose; and being...

    • Abstinence
      (pp. 48-52)

      As there are Objects which engage our Faculties in a Noble Maner: So there are Objects which Allure them into Danger. From which therfore we ought to Abstain. becaus they are but Shadows of Eternal Things, by catching after which we lose the Substance. They are but Counterfeits of true Felicitie, not real Ware. From which we are therfore to Abstain, not as if we must lose that from which we refrain, but commend and Perfect it to Eternal Enjoyment: For as He that Delays to Pluck the Blossoms can Smell them on the Tree, and by leaving them behind...

    • Abundance
      (pp. 53-63)

      As Order is the Goodness, so is Proportion the Beauty, of Goodness it self. Is it not an Infinit Miracle, that we who are born to Vanities and Miseries, should Suddainly be Surrounded with Joys and Treasures? Yea rather is it not a greater Miracle, that they who are born into a World of Delights, should inherit nothing but Complaints and Poverties! In the Light of Wisdom it is Evident that Man is born to Abundance, and that All Things are full of Celestial Treasures. For since Order and Proportion is the Goodness of Goodness, as there is an Abundance...

    • Abuse
      (pp. 64-76)

      Abuse, if we consider the Importance of the Word, is a Turning away from the Use of Things. So that not to Use those Things which we ought, is truly to Abuse them. It signifies also a Wrong Use; for then we Abuse, when we use Things in another Maner, to another End, then was by Nature intended. If therfore GOD intended His Abundance to be Used, not to Use them is to Abuse them. And if he Designed the Use of them to consist in Honoring, and in Serving Him, by and for; to turn them against Him, is...

    • Acceptance
      (pp. 77-84)

      Acceptance in GODs Kingdom is a Word full of Joys: A Sweet and Delightfull Thing, in Order of Nature abov all Abundance: and so Desirable and Necessary to the Soul, that without it no Abundance would be Pleasing. Let us see therfore what Acceptance is, and what Security I hav, that I shall be Accepted.

      Acceptance and Approbation are so neer akin, that they cannot well be Divided. We Accept the Nature of what ever we Approv. They are contrary to Abhorrence and Abomination. Acceptance therfore is a receiving of any thing we like into our Souls, and seating it...

    • Of Acceptance in GOD
      (pp. 85-96)

      That Abhorrence and Acceptance Should both be in GOD, is an incomprehensible and Eternal Miracle, That they should be no Accidents, is equaly Incredible: That both should be HE is abov all most Wonderfull. Yet are these things Manifest to a Clear Ey. For GOD is a Pure and most Simple Act; as all Divines who com nearest to Him, and hav the best Advantages to see into His Nature, think it Tru, and most Honorable to Witness! In Him it is Disgracefull to believ there is a Composition of Parts and Powers, or any Distinction of Substance and Accident....

    • Accesse
      (pp. 97-108)

      Accesse is an Approaching to remote and Desirable Things.¹

      It ever more intendeth som thing Desirable and implieth Difficulty. For if there be no other the very Journey is a Difficulty to be overcom; and so is the Retirement of the Object.

      When we approach a King that is in the Midst of his Armies, we hav Admittance or Access unto him. If He be in his Parlours, it is Accesse; if in his Gardens, it is Access; if in his Closet it is Access: if the Way be prepared for us by the Ministery of others, it is Access;...

    • Accident
      (pp. 109-123)

      An Accident, in the Strength of its Signification, is any thing that befalleth or happeneth to another. In its common Acceptation among the vulgar, It is a Thing that befalleth another by chance. But among Philosophers it signifies any Quality, Affection, or Property that is Inhærent by Nature, and that even by the understanding can be seperated from the Subject in which it is. So that whatsoever befalleth another either from without, or from within, is an Accident.

      All Beings whatsoever are Divided into these two Kinds, Substances and Accidents. So that Accident is put in Opposition to Substance. Which,...

    • Account
      (pp. 124-132)

      Account is a Word used by Merchants and by Kings. Among those (as we may see by their Books) it signifies a Reckoning of Expences, and Commodities; among these it is taken for Honor and Esteem. In Princes Courts they say, A Man of Account, when they mean a Man of Honor and Renown.

      In its Abstracted Notion, it is from Vulgar Use, from Merchants Shops and Princes Courts taken up into Heaven; and shineth there like a Star in GODs Kingdom. Its Influence is great upon all Things. for were we not able to Number and Esteem them they...

    • Accuratness
      (pp. 133-138)

      Accuratness is either the Adding of Care to Work, or Care to Care. It signifies a Care upon Care, that the Work may be perfect, which is undertaken.

      Accuratness is a Special Care that nothing be Redundant, Defectiv, or Deformed: Or the Effect of that Care.

      It is in Things, or Persons. In Things it is seen, as it were an Effect of that Accuratness that is in Persons: And it is an Exactness in Works. That Work being called Accurat that is Compleat in evry one of its smallest Circumstances. The Definition relateth to the Accuratness of Persons. Of...

    • Accusation
      (pp. 139-153)

      That all things in Heaven and Earth are Treasures to the Soul, and that there is nothing either in Time or Eternitie, which Man is not able to Enjoy, we may see by Accusation. for it is an Object as uncapable of Fruition as can be prepared: Evil in its Nature, Invisible to the Ey, Transeunt in its Duration. And yet all Accusations, Past, Present and to Com; in any Kingdom, or Region upon Earth, in any Distance abov the Heavens: by what ever Persons, tho Spirits themselvs; in whatever Causes, to whatever Ends, tho they are Commenced with never...

    • Acknowledgement
      (pp. 154-162)

      Acknowledgement is an Application of the Knowledg, to the object we confes by Way of Humiliation, Reverence, or Obligation; wherby we confess what we are bound to confess; or Do. The Word importeth an Union of our Knowledg to the Object and implies som thing of Difficulty in confessing it. Signifying indeed an Act added to the Knowledg upon some strong conviction; or Exerted by it notwithstanding the Impediment of Shame or Danger.

      The fountain of Acknowledgement is the Truth of the Thing, and our Willingness to own it: notwithstanding all Prejudices, or Temptations to the contrary. Willingness and Truth...

    • Acquaintance
      (pp. 163-169)

      So Divine and Boundless is the Happiness of Man, that by reason of his fall he neither knows the objects, nor the Maner, of his Enjoyments. His Glory is incredible, and it is purely its Greatness that makes it so. for being Acquainted only with the Viler Objects here upon Earth, when he heareth of Eternal Glory, Infinit Bounty, Rivers of Pleasure that flow at GODs Right Hand; he either knows not what is spoken, or his heart fails him at the Relation. Things of this Nature appearing too Great to be believed: which proceedeth partly from the Vanities where...

    • Act
      (pp. 170-187)

      There are innumerable Questions of infinite Concernment depending upon the Explication of this Word for which caus I shall crave the Libertie to look narrowly into it; and promise faithfully that all I design is the Glory of God, and Mans Happiness.

      This word is frequently used among Philosophers, Lawyers, Historians, and Divines. Among the vulgar nothing is known of it almost but the Name. by whom Trivial Deeds are somtimes called Acts, as it were by chance: Historians stile the famous Atchievments of Warriors by the Name of Acts, under which Title all Heroick Actions are contained; Among Lawyers...

    • Action
      (pp. 188-197)

      Action is a Motion of the Agent actualy exerted, or an Exertion of Power, or Motion performed by the Agent, as Passion is a motion impressed on the Patient.

      It is either Immanent, or Transeunt; Permanent or Successive. Temporal, or Instantaneous, or Eternal: It is either Natural and Spontaneous, or free and Voluntary; finaly it is either Good or Evil.

      Immanent Actions are those which are wrought in the Author, and End in the Power out of which they are Exerted. Becaus they pertain to Spiritual Beings, generaly, they are invisible. As all the Actions of the Soul are by...

    • Activity
      (pp. 198-207)

      Activity is an Inclination to move; or an Ability joynd with Promptness and Proneness to Action.

      It is in Things inanimat, as Activity in fire: in Things Animat, as in Dogs and Lions; It is in Bodies, as Pharaoh said to Joseph concerning his Brethren. If thou knowest any Men of Activity among them then make them Rulers over my Cattel;¹ or in Souls where it is a Principle moving them to Life and Action.

      Of all other subjects wherin Activity is seated the Soul is the most Noble, and of all other the Souls Activity: which is a Property...

    • Acuteness
      (pp. 208-213)

      Acuteness is another Property of the Soul, of incomparable Excellency.

      It signifies Keenness in Material things, as in Swords or Knives. from whence it is transferred to the Corroding Quality in Vinegre. Most strictly it signifies the Sharpness of a Needle, which among the Latines, by way of Eminence is stiled Acus. A Knife being Acute on both the Sides, but a Needle round about.

      Were a Sword as Broad as it is long it would not be acute at all.Wherby we see that Acuteness is made by Divesting a Thing of its length and Thickness. Where Thickness is removed...

    • Adam
      (pp. 214-226)

      He that would clearly see the Nature of Felicitie must look into the Beginning and first Estate of Things: He that would see Mans Corruption, must have respect to the Rule of Life from which he Swerved. He that would see the Demonstrations of GODs Love or Divine Bounty, must look upon Adam in his first Estate and by him learn the Way to be restored to his Happines. The Seeds of Heaven being Sowen in Innocency, and budding forth in Eden, after that maner wherin they are to be seen flourishing in the Maturity of Eternal Glory. Look what...

    • The Second Adam
      (pp. 227-235)

      Tho the Estate of Man in Eden compared to that of Glory differeth as much as Infancy from perfect Manhood, yet is that Estate the Patern of our Life on Earth, to which here beneath we ought to aspire, to which all Wisdom directs, and felicity allures. For the first things are the most perfect, and the Rule of them that follow. Hence is it that we are Commanded, to consider from whence we are falne, and to repent. Rev. 2. That is to remember all the Beauty and Glory to which we were Ordained and to lead that Kind...

    • Admiration
      (pp. 236-243)

      Admiration is that Affection of the Soul wherby it is Amazd at the Excellency or Strangeness of its Object.

      Its Object is always New, or Strange, or Unknown, or High or Rare or Extraordinary, Surprizing, Astonishing, or Wonderfull. Any thing Extremly Excellent, or Transcendently Pleasing, or Exceeding Great, or Miraculous.

      Whether its Object be in Heaven or Hell, in Time or Eternity, in Sea or Land, it can without any Limitation or Impediment close with it: and Admire the Strangeness of its Nature, its own Light being Endless and Infinit. It is plainly Impossible to seat an object, in any...

    • Adoration
      (pp. 244-254)

      Adoration is the Highest Effect of Admiration, An Admiration sweetend with Delight, an Amazement at ones Happiness, a Pleasing Wonder at its Infinit Perfection, this is the Parent of true Adoration. Benefits received are its Fuel, Self Love its Incentive, and Happiness the Occasion of it. Thoughts are its Materials, Virtues its Ornaments, Affections Inclinations and Powers its Ministers Servants and Ingredients. It always Springs from a Heart Ravished with Love, filled with Contentment fraught with Reverence Zeal and Devotion. By Adoration we return what by Wisdom we receive, so that Divine Bounty is the fountain of it in the...

    • Adulterie
      (pp. 255-260)

      Adulterie is either Carnal, or Spiritual. Carnal, when Bodies due unto others are stoln, and defiled: Spiritual when the Souls and Affections of others, (as Absalom stole the Hearts of his fathers Subjects from their Sovereign) are withdrawn and allured from their proper Objects. There is a Kind of Love, which from all is due to all. but when Conjugal Affection is violated, to desire, or delight in it is Spiritual Adulterie in him that receivs it, and to giv it is infidelitie, and Treachery, in him that gives it. A man may therfore as well rejoyce in wearing a...

    • An Advocate
      (pp. 261-266)

      An Advocate is a Seasonable Help to a lost Transgressor: Many a Cause by a Good Advocate hath been won, which lay gasping on the Brink of very despair. Many an Evil Cause hath been carried by the Art of a Sollicitor. And a bad one is some times made Good by a Powerfull Orator. Not as if Eloquence could change the Nature of Things, but the Success maketh that Good in the End, which in it self is deplorable. The Joy of Deliverance maketh danger a Benefit. But a Divine Intercessor, bringeth Good out of Evil; and improveth the...

    • Affairs
      (pp. 267-273)

      Affairs are matters of Concernement, wherin we may be busied pertinently and profitably. They are distinguished from vain and frivolous Businesses, as well as from Idleness, being such as those wherin we may be seriously employed, either for ourselvs or others.

      God is the Sovereign fountain and Well-Spring of all Affairs, who hath given us life and Time, and objects and Ends wherin, by which, and for which to be employed. The immediat Causes and occasions of them are our Souls with their faculties and Powers, our needs and necessities, our Inclinations, and Desires on the one side, and the...

    • Affection
      (pp. 274-298)

      The Number, Nature and Extent of the Affections, their Use and End, their Original and their objects are here to be considered, where we speak of Affection in the general before we come to their Particular kinds as those of Anger Lov etc. We shall reserve many Mysteries that will more properly be opened in the Affections of fear and Hope, Desire, Sorrow Joy etc. in their proper places! Their order and Degree, and the several maner of their Existence in their various Subjects is here to be observed, to which we may adde also their Diseases, and their Cures....

    • Affinity
      (pp. 299-303)

      Affinity is a Sort of Kindred contracted by Marriage. for Kindred in the general includeth two Species, Affinity and Consanguinitie. Consanguinity is that of Nature, Affinitie is that of Choise, tho to some it be only Accidental. Kindred by Consanguinity are Branches naturaly flowing from one Root, those that are Alleyd to each other by Affinity, are engrafted in the same stock, and made of Kin by Inoculation.

      Affinity Springeth from Marriage. for becaus, Man and Wife are but one flesh, they become the Centre in which two famelies are united. The Root of the Cognation is not the Parents,...

    • Affliction
      (pp. 304-312)

      Since Humane Nature is distemperd, as the Bride of God faln into a Diseas, She needeth becom a Patient to Some Heavenly Physician. And being by nature a Queen of infinit Excellency is not to be trusted under any Hand. A Common Artist is far beneath her. God who is her Bridegroom is most Worthy becaus of his Glory, most able bec. of his Skill and Power, most Willing bec. of his Lov, most safe and tender, bec. most full of Bowels and compassions towards her, whom he infinitly loveth, whose Happiness and Welfare (Consequently) he no less esteemeth. And...

    • Ages
      (pp. 313-334)

      Being to treat of Ages we shall consider their Nature Obscuritie, Relation to God Angels Men Animals, and Inanimates, their Cause and End, their Excellencies Effects and Uses. After which we shall come to their Contents, determining to end with the Joys of Ages.

      An Age is a part of Time measured by the Life of Man.who being the best and most Noble of the Creatures, as he is the Lord of the World, is Lord of Ages. What is said concerning one is said concerning all; A Crow may live 300. yeers and a Raven 900. an Oake...

    • The Delights of Ages
      (pp. 335-353)

      GOD who by his Glory dwelleth in Heaven, and by his Justice in Hell, by his Goodness and Providence dwelleth upon Earth: and as the Angels sing,Heaven and Earth are full of the Majesty of thy Glory.So may we Sing that all Worlds are full of his Blessedness. forhe doth whatsoever it pleaseth him in Heaven above, and in Earth beneath; and in the Hearts of the Children of Men.²So that all his Works and Ways in all Ages are hispleasures. And if his, they must of necessity be ours, bec. his Nature is Goodness,...

    • Air
      (pp. 354-361)

      Som things in Felicity are inanimate; which tho servily ministerial, yet are glorious and precious. Such are the Elements which GOD hath prepared to be the Objects of our Happiness. Among which the Air offers it self to our view, in a most glorious maner, bec. without it no other Element or Body could be seen. We shall examine therfore its Original its Nature use and End, together with the Valu of so great a Treasure, and our Interest therin. For if its Nature is Mysterious, its Concernments are more: its Excellencies like it self, being lost in their presence,...

    • Alacritie
      (pp. 362-362)

      Alacritie is the Activitie of the Soul exerted with pleasure, in the persuit of any object, in the Service of any friend, in Obedience to any Law, in promoting any Creatures Happiness. It is a Natural Disposition by God implanted in the Soul, for the more sweet and easy Attainment of its Glory. It is a propertie that makes it shine and Sparkle as it goes in the Paths of his Commandments: well exprest by the Prophet David in those Words, How Sweet is thy Law! It is sweeter to my Taste then the Hony and the Hony Comb in...

    • Allurement
      (pp. 363-370)

      The Meat which Falconers hold up to their Hawkes, when they are on high in the Air, or pearching upon som tree, to entice them to their hand is among English men called a Lure: from whence the word Allure seemeth to be derived. So that to allure and to Entice are the same. For All in composition is Ad in signification. So that if we consult their Nature by the force and importance of the Word we shall find it to be thus.

      Allurements are Invitations or Enticements to one. They are strong and vigorous Motives displayed which by...

    • Almes
      (pp. 371-380)

      Almes being so delightfull and Welpleasing to God, so profitable for both the Doer and Receiver, our Design is not to present the Face of the Duty in its first Superfice, but to open the fountains from whence all Deeds of Charity abundantly flow, and to discover those Reasons that may teach and fuel so Divine a Virtue. We purpose also to display the interior and hidden Excellency which like an incredible Kernel enricheth such a Shell: to the intent that seeing the Glory and Goodness within so small an Husk, we may Glorifie God for giving such Power unto...

    • Almighty
      (pp. 381-406)

      Almighty Power is an Attribut of God, and tis Seated alone in infinite and Eternal Love. Tis one with Love. And for that Cause the object of all our Adorations and Thanksgivings. It is not convenient that Power infinit should reside any where, but with Wisdom and Goodness infinit: becaus Power without Goodness may become injurious to others, and be foolishly employed, in regard of it self, without Wisdom. In God it is one with Goodness and Wisdom; such is the Simplicity of his Eternal Nature; Such is the security of our Blessedness. His Power is his Blessedness and Glory....

    • All Things
      (pp. 407-414)

      In the Close of our former Discourse we have observd that Allmighty Power hath made All Things in the Eternitie and the Immensity of GOD our Treasures. Which indeed must be an Effect of no less then Almighty Power infinit Wisdom and Eternal Goodness. From the Cause we descend to the Effects, designing now to examine the Nature of those things which we affirm to be Objects of our Joy, and Happiness. For there is another Connexion between God and us, wherof the Medius Terminus¹ and Centre is Felicitie. This is the Point wherin all our Affections Endeavors and Concernments...

    • Alone
      (pp. 415-424)

      There is a Property in the Soul of man, wherby he cannot endure to be alone, and yet loves to enjoy a Kingdom or a Crown by himself, abhorring Rivals Sharers and Competetors, as much as Desolatness and that as much as Death and Desert Solitariness. Both these Inclinations in him are Natural and yet incompatible. They are Good Humors in themselvs, were it not for two faults, the one in us, the other in them. We are apt to misunderstand and abuse them, and they are as repugnant and Contentious, as difficult to be Satisfied. One would think God...

  9. Textual Emendations
    (pp. 425-512)

    Emendations are recorded by page and line numbers. For emendations that extend to two lines, only the number of the first line is recorded. For emendations that extend over two lines, the inclusive lines are recorded. When ‘substituted for’ appears instead of ‘substituted from above the line for’, the substitution was made within the text by one letter or word written over another. For emendations in the extended title only line numbers are given....

  10. Appendix

    • Commonplace Book
      (pp. 515-522)
    • Cross-references
      (pp. 523-528)
    • Manuscript Foliation of Topics in Commentaries of Heaven
      (pp. 529-530)
  11. Glossary
    (pp. 531-536)
  12. Back Matter
    (pp. 537-537)