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Journal of Medieval Military History

Journal of Medieval Military History: Volume IX: Soldiers, Weapons and Armies in the Fifteenth Century

Volume: 9
Copyright Date: 2011
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 216
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  • Book Info
    Journal of Medieval Military History
    Book Description:

    The articles in this volume focus on the fifteenth century. Several draw on the substantial archives of the Burgundian polity, focusing particularly on the Flemish shooting guilds, spying, and the provision of troops by towns. The urban emphasis continues with a study of the transition from `traditional' artillery to gunpowder weaponry in Southampton, and a comparison of descriptions of military engagements in the London Chronicles and in Swiss town chronicles. Welsh chronicling of the battle of Edgecote (1469) is also reviewed, and there is a re-assessment of Welsh involvement in the Agincourt campaign. English interests in France are pursued in two further papers, one considering the personnel of the ordnance companies in Lancastrian Normandy and the other examining the little-known French attacks on Gascony in the early years of the fifteenth century. Contributors: Frederik Buylaert, Jan Van Camp, Bert Verwerft, Adam Chapman, Laura Crombie, Andy King, Barry Lewis, Randall Moffett, Guilhem Pepin, Andreas Rémy, Bastian Walter

    eISBN: 978-1-84615-984-8
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-v)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. vi-vi)
  4. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Anne Curry and Adrian R. Bell
  5. The French Offensives of 1404–1407 against Anglo-Gascon Aquitaine
    (pp. 1-40)
    Guilhem Pépin

    From 1396 the realm of England was at peace with the kingdom of France, thanks to the long truce signed by Richard II and Charles VI and the marriage of the former with Isabella, daughter of the latter. However, the deposition of Richard by Henry of Lancaster in 1399 changed the situation. Charles’s brother, Louis, duke of Orléans, had considerable influence over the sick king, and became the staunchest supporter of a new war against England. Although Orléans had entered into an alliance with the duke of Lancaster in 1399 in order to gain support against John the Fearless, duke...

  6. The King’s Welshmen: Welsh Involvement in the Expeditionary Army of 1415
    (pp. 41-64)
    Adam Chapman

    The victory of the English at Agincourt is still frequently attributed in the popular consciousness to Welsh bowmen in their knitted Monmouth caps. The battle is undoubtedly part of a wider patriotic narrative in both England and Wales. The belief in the English victory being a result of Welsh efforts, though ubiquitous, is almost impossible to reference in a way that might satisfy the editor of an academic journal. A possible origin may lie in Shakespeare’s Henry V (1599). The garrulous captain Fluellen reminds the king not of the number or importance of Welshmen in his army, however, but in...

  7. Gunners, Aides and Archers: The Personnel of the English Ordnance Companies in Normandy in the Fifteenth Century
    (pp. 65-75)
    Andy King

    Edward III is widely credited by historians with having presided over a military revolution in English arms; in keeping with this, he was not slow in adapting to technical innovation in the field of war. The English employed guns at Crécy in 1346; and by the time the French war broke out again in 1369 guns were playing an increasingly important role, although mainly at this time in a defensive role in garrisons. The Tower of London was used as an arsenal from which guns were dispatched to English fortresses ranging from Calais to Roxburgh and Berwick.¹ Garrison captains were...

  8. Defense, Honor and Community: The Military and Social Bonds of the Dukes of Burgundy and the Flemish Shooting Guilds
    (pp. 76-96)
    Laura Crombie

    Archery and crossbow guilds are first documented in Flanders in the early fourteenth century, and grew from military origins to become some of the leading cultural and festive groups in late medieval towns. Though the shooting guilds of the fifteenth century maintained a military function, and could become soldiers in ducal armies, they had become social and religious guilds and a vibrant part of late medieval urban culture. The guilds, like religious confraternities, had chapels and paid priests for performing services.¹ And, like craft guilds, the shooters held annual meals, strengthening their unity through commensality.² The guilds were an important...

  9. The Battle of Edgecote or Banbury (1469) Through the Eyes of Contemporary Welsh Poets
    (pp. 97-117)
    Barry Lewis

    The battle of Edgecote, also known as the battle of Banbury, was fought in late July 1469. It is one of the least studied and most obscure and poorly understood battles of the Wars of the Roses. Charles Ross, the biographer of Edward IV, spoke of “total confusion amongst contemporary chroniclers” which leaves the events of Edgecote “far from clear today.”¹ An examination of the various chronicles which report the events of July 1469 leaves no doubt as to what he meant. They do not agree about the date of the battle, the sequence of events before, during or after...

  10. Descriptions of Battles in Fifteenth-Century Urban Chronicles: A Comparison of the Siege of London in May 1471 and the Battle of Grandson, 2 March 1476
    (pp. 118-131)
    Andreas Remy

    These words were used by the Zürich chronicler, Heinrich Brennwald, to describe the beginning of the battle of Grandson in 1476. We can ask why the author mentioned this specific act of prayer as the beginning of the actual battle. Why did he present the gesture of prayer, and the reaction of the Burgundians to it, in the way he did? The explanation can be divided into three points. First, it served to portray the Swiss as very pious people, since even on the battlefield they fell on their knees to pray so that God would grant them the victory....

  11. Urban Espionage and Counterespionage during the Burgundian Wars (1468–1477)
    (pp. 132-145)
    Bastian Walter

    On 29 July 1475 the councillors of Strasbourg wrote an enraged letter to their captains in the war theatre in the Free County of Burgundy.¹ The letter opened by thanking them for their last communication in which they had reported the taking of the town of L’Isle-sur-le-Doubs but had failed to talk about their future plans. These, however, could be deduced from a letter of the captains’ scribe, written by him to his wife in Strasbourg. As proof, a copy of that letter was attached.² The councillors ordered that in future the captains’ scribe should write to no one but...

  12. Urban Militias, Nobles and Mercenaries: The Organization of the Antwerp Army in the Flemish–Brabantine Revolt of the 1480s
    (pp. 146-166)
    Frederik Buylaert, Jan Van Camp and Bert Verwerft

    In the 1480s Habsburg rule over the Low Countries was faced with its greatest crisis before the Dutch Revolt of the late sixteenth century. After the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy in 1482 Maximilian of Austria had assumed authority over the principalities that constituted the Low Countries as the guardian of Philip the Fair, their under-age son and sole heir to Mary’s dominions. This claim did not go unchallenged. The county of Flanders, one of the richest and most populous principalities, was the first to take up arms against Maximilian. The first Flemish revolt of 1482–85 was...

  13. Military Equipment in the Town of Southampton During the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
    (pp. 167-200)
    Randall Moffett

    The provision of ships from port towns such as Southampton is a well-known aspect of urban military obligation to the crown in late medieval England. This ancient right was imperative to the king in his wars. In all but one decade in two hundred years between 1300 and 1500 Southampton provided ships to the king for transportation of troops or naval activity.¹ Less well studied is the military equipment which such towns held, and its deployment to serve both urban and royal needs. The crown, the civic government and individual townsmen all played a role in the provision of equipment...

  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 201-205)