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American School Counselor, The

American School Counselor, The: A Case Study in the Sociology of Professions

Copyright Date: 1969
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 240
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  • Book Info
    American School Counselor, The
    Book Description:

    A comprehensive case study of secondary school counseling as a developing profession. The author examines the growth of counseling, the characteristics of the contemporary counselor, the use of standardized tests, the changing orientation of the counselor from "educational advisor" to "therapist," the influences of the institutional setting on counseling, and the impact of counseling on students and society.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-016-5
    Subjects: Education, Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
    (pp. vii-viii)
    David J. Armor
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-x)
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. CHAPTER 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-5)

    FOR the sociologist interested in social change in a society, one question that must be dealt with iswhatis changing. Another way of stating this is to ask what exists now in the social organization that did not exist at a previous point in time. As trivial as this question may sound, serious consideration of it will reveal that answering it is a non-trivial matter.

    On the one hand, there seems to be much of human behavior and many social processes and institutions that have remained relatively constant throughout man’s recorded history. Man has continued to love and hate,...

  6. CHAPTER 2 The Sociology of Professions
    (pp. 6-23)

    THERE are several different approaches which have been used to study guidance counseling in secondary schools. One approach is based on impressionistic surveys of the goals of counseling and the way in which it is practiced. The data for these studies consist largely of material already written and literature of the type usually found in journals of the various professional organizations of counselors,¹ combined with the experiences of the author in actual counseling work. This framework is apparent in many of the major works in the area.²

    Another approach is that taken by some of the literature used in the...

  7. CHAPTER 3 The Origins and Growth of Guidance Counseling
    (pp. 24-48)

    LITTLE has been said, thus far, about guidance counseling per se. Our conceptual framework has been established for professional roles in general. From this point we shall be concerned, for the most part, with the counseling profession and, in particular, with those practitioners in secondary schools.

    The main purposes of this chapter are twofold. First, we hope to trace the development of counseling, particularly the evolution of that form now present in contemporary public schools, while providing some relevant sociological interpretations. Aside from learning of some issues internal to the profession, we shall also learn of the significance of counseling...

  8. CHAPTER 4 Characteristics of the Contemporary Counselor
    (pp. 49-64)

    THE previous chapter has dealt with historical and documentary data relevant to the professional collectivity as a whole. From this data we have discerned the main formal standards of the counseling profession and have traced some of the historical antecedents of these standards and the development of the profession as a whole. It is our main task in this chapter to detail the aggregate characteristics of counselors by examining data gathered from actual samples of practitioners. To our knowledge, such data on large samples of contemporary counselors are rare.¹ Hence, aside from giving us a chance to compare actual practices...

  9. CHAPTER 5 Educational Counseling and Standardized Testing
    (pp. 65-86)

    IN THE previous chapter we discussed the kinds of counseling activities practiced by counselors in the field. One of these was educational counseling, a direct descendant of the traditional counseling focus on vocational choice. In this chapter we will attempt to explicate the process of educational counseling, again using data derived from descriptions of this activity by counselors themselves. We hope thereby to attain some idea of the means the counseling profession uses to attain one of its major goals. We also will want to distinguish between means that rest upon a formal knowledge base and those that derive from...

  10. CHAPTER 6 Therapeutic Counseling and Professional Ideologies
    (pp. 87-106)

    MOST of the preceding discussions have focused on the counseling profession at the collectivity level. That is, the collectivity has been the unit of analysis; we have presented its characteristics as a whole, and most of our comparisons have beenamongdifferent collectivities. In this chapter, our major concern will be differences with respect to professional behavior and attitudeswithinthe counselor collectivity. For example, whereas in the previous chapter we spoke of counselors as a whole relying on standardized test scores (or some other kinds of information about students), here we can raise questions about variations in such reliance...

  11. CHAPTER 7 Counseling and the Institutional Setting
    (pp. 107-119)

    LITTLE has been said thus far about the school setting within which counseling operates. For many researchers, the school as an institution might have been the logical starting point for an analysis of the counseling profession. In one recent study of counselors by Aaron Cicourel and John Kitsuse, for example, this approach was chosen.¹ In this work the counselor was portrayed as one of the roles in the bureaucratic structure of the school system, pursuing the goals of the school in differentiating students into college and noncollege career paths.

    This “sorting out” function of the school has recently received considerable...

  12. CHAPTER 8 The Impact of Counseling
    (pp. 120-133)

    NO CASE STUDY of a profession would be complete without an examination of the impact of the professional on his clientele. So far, we have viewed the counseling profession through the eyes of the counselor or through his own writings. We have gained some insights regarding his origins, the goals he is now pursuing, the means he chooses to gain them, and some of the problems and conflicts which he faces. But regardless of the counselors’ professional background, experiences, and orientations, the institutionalization of any profession depends ultimately on acceptance by the society or subgroup which it serves.

    In this...

  13. APPENDIX I On Influence and the Sociology of Professions
    (pp. 134-151)
  14. APPENDIX II Sampling and Research Methodology
    (pp. 152-163)
  15. APPENDIX III Data Collection Instruments
    (pp. 164-224)
  16. INDEX
    (pp. 225-227)