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Military Intervenes, The

Military Intervenes, The: Case Studies in Political Development

Edited by Henry Bienen
Copyright Date: 1968
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 200
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  • Book Info
    Military Intervenes, The
    Book Description:

    Explores the mechanisms of military intervention and its consequences. The contributors examine a succession of coups, attempted coups, and established military regimes, with a view to evaluate the role of the military as a ruling group and an organization fostering political development. These studies cast strong doubt on the abilities of the military as a modernizing and stabilizing agent, raising important questions about our policies on military assistance and arms sales. Bienen makes an especially strong plea for a reassessment of our military and economic-political policies in order to determine whether both are working toward the same goals.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-054-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xii)
    Morris Janowitz
  4. Introduction
    (pp. xiii-xxiv)
    Henry Bienen

    A number of studies of developing countries have pointed out that in these areas the military is the best organized institution and therefore is in the best position “to give expression to the national will.”¹ This kind of analysis considers discipline and organization to be the key qualities necessary for institutions to act with political effect. Similarly, because the military is the strongest force in society (that is, it can intervene successfully against other groups), it has been thought that only a military regime can have the power to prevail against communist parties.² More positively, military elites have been claimed...

  5. ONE: The Initial Involvement:: Sub-Saharan Africa

    • [ONE: Introduction]
      (pp. 1-4)

      Within the developing areas, Africa now provides us with the most numerous examples of the initial phase of military intervention. The military may present its demands either by using or threatening to use force; it may settle conflicts between civilian contenders; or it may itself take over government. Africa is more frequently in this beginning phase compared to Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America, because newly independent African states are the most recent arrivals on the world scene.

      There are still countries elsewhere in the developing areas which have never had military coups or overt military disruptions.¹ (It is...

    • The Military in Ethiopian Politics: Capabilities and Constraints
      (pp. 5-34)
      Donald N. Levine

      Stirred by the examples of Colonel Nasser and General Abboud in the north, embarrassed by the comparatively high standard of living in African countries to the west and south, a small band of officers sought in the closing hours of 1960 to add Ethiopia to the growing list of developing nations in which military leaders have intervened to play a decisive role in national politics. The present study attempts to set that episode and its aftermath in a broader historical and institutional context, albeit in a brief and schematic fashion. It locates the novel position of the military in contemporary...

    • Public Order and the Military in Africa: Mutinies in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanganyika
      (pp. 35-70)
      Henry Bienen

      The overriding problems for most African countries are the maintenance of public order and the creation of political order.¹ The two terms are not identical. “Public order” refers to a stable situation in which the security of individuals or groups is not threatened and in which disputes are settled without resort to violence. “Political order” refers to a process of institution-building and the creation of stable patterns of politics. It is not some terminal state that exists forever, once attained. Groups vie for authority and struggle for shares of valued things, but they do so in a context of effective...

    • Military Intervention in the New States of Tropical Africa: Elements of Comparative Analysis
      (pp. 71-98)
      Aristide R. Zolberg

      Although it is easy to account for the recent wave of army coups in the new states of tropical Africa¹ by examining the characteristics of each country’s military establishment and the particular political and economic situation at the time of the take-over, it is impossible to specify variables which distinguishas a classcountries where coups have occurred from others which have so far been spared. Until the middle of January, 1966, the wave of coups seemed to be a characteristic of French-speaking countries. On the whole, these countries are poorly endowed economically (except for the Congo-Kinshasa, formerly Leo-poldville); they...

  6. TWO: After the Seizure of Power:: The Struggle for Stability

    • [TWO: Introduction]
      (pp. 99-102)

      It is difficult to draw a firm dividing line between the initial phase of military involvement and this second phase, the struggle for stability. In a sense, the second phase begins the day the military takes power. We might allow time to determine whether the military is going to hand back power to some civilian group right away (the first Burmese intervention of the Army; the first Dahomeyan intervention; Togo; Burundi for a few weeks before the Army intervened again.)

      South Korea, South Vietnam, and Burma are among the countries where the military has taken over and continues to rule...

    • Political Dominance and Political Failure: The Role of the Military in the Republic of Korea
      (pp. 103-122)
      Jae Souk Sohn

      In the Republic of Korea, as in many other new states in Asia and Africa, the military has played an important political role in the past few years. On May 16, 1961, a Korean military group assumed political control of the government after a period of ineffective civilian parliamentary leadership, climaxed by a crisis precipitated by a series of antigovernment demonstrations. In December, 1963, the military junta formally transferred political power to a civilian government chosen in national elections. But the actual control of the government remained in the hands of the junta’s core members, who had entered domestic politics...

  7. THREE: Institutionalized Intervention

    • [THREE: Introduction]
      (pp. 123-126)

      Latin America presents us with a host of situations of institutionalized military interventions where the military cannot promote political development and bring about political stability and where it cannot give up aspirations to rule. In the Central and South American republics the military has overthrown civilian regimes, stepped down voluntarily, or has been overthrown itself by a new military coup or by civilian-military coalitions. Springer shows how in a period of a few years the Argentine military intervened to promote civilian candidates, then took power itself, and how military factions contended for power. Argentina has been an extreme but not...

    • Intervention and Extrication: The Officer Corps in the Turkish Crisis
      (pp. 127-144)
      Nur Yalman

      The coup d’état in May, 1960, which opened the door to a period of intense political turmoil in Turkey, has been followed by a series of momentous elections, starting in 1961. The most important was held in the fall of 1965, and brought about an orderly change of power. Together with the by-elections to the Senate in June, 1966, the 1965 election may be regarded as having finally placed political activity on fully legitimate tracks once again.

      The free elections and the relatively easy change of power in Turkey have confounded the hasty theories of Middle East watchers who had...

    • Disunity and Disorder: Factional Politics in the Argentine Military
      (pp. 145-168)
      Philip B. Springer

      Because military politics is normally closed to public scrutiny, the military is usually considered an internally undifferentiated unit acting in the political arena. An examination of the Argentine experience of recent years, however, reveals a picture of faction-ridden Armed Forces. The Argentine military is not monolithic; nor is it a caste. The notion of the Army as caste implies that the military is an autonomous stratum acting in terms of a self-generated interest. In reality, the military is linked at many points to a variety of social and political groups and is particularly responsive to its social environment.

      A study...

  8. INDEX
    (pp. 169-175)