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Review of Child Development Research

Review of Child Development Research: Volume 2

Copyright Date: 1966
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 612
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  • Book Info
    Review of Child Development Research
    Book Description:

    Makes a major contribution to current research on children by providing a broad view of up-to-date, authoritative material in many different areas. Contributors have selected and interpreted the relevant material in reference to the practitioner's interests and needs. The chapters, written by prominent specialists, cover various topics in child development from early periods of socialization to the development of higher mental processes, and include two chapters dealing with genetic and neurophysiological bases of behavior.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-648-8
    Subjects: Sociology, Psychology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-xii)
    Lois Wladis Hoffman and Martin L. Hoffman
  4. Family Structure, Socialization, and Personality
    (pp. 1-54)

    In all societies, the nuclear family is the initial social matrix within which personality is rooted and nourished. It insures continuity of child care and the primacy of certain relationships above all others. The nuclear family of husband, wife, and children is always a part of a kinship system, which, in turn, is an element of the larger social structure and culture. The family orients the child first to his kin and then to community and society.

    The structure of the family—its make-up in terms of number, age, and sex of members, and the organization of their interrelationships—reflects...

  5. Language Development
    (pp. 55-106)

    The study of language development reflects trends in child development, but it has also been subject to practical pressures from applied fields and to other research developments outside of psychology, especially in linguistics.

    Both psychologists and linguists have contributed to an extensive series of longitudinal diary studies and briefer descriptions of individual cases. When investigators used phonetic transcriptions and were sensitive to linguistic and situational considerations, these studies remain rich sources for research ideas and hypotheses.

    A radical innovation took place in the 1930’s under the influence of behaviorism and the testing movement. The diary method appeared methodologically unsound, lacking...

  6. Mental Retardation: Current Issues and Approaches
    (pp. 107-168)

    Mental retardation is a problem of serious social concern. In view of the large number of persons in our society considered mentally retarded, such concern is certainly justified. Using the conventional three per cent of the population criterion, the President’s Panel on Mental Retardation (1962) estimated that almost five and one-half million children and adults in the United States are mentally retarded. The criterion for mental retardation established in theManual on Terminology and Classification in Mental Retardation(Heber, 1959) and adopted by the American Association on Mental Deficiency as well as the Biometrics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health,...

  7. Psychophysiologic Disorders in Children
    (pp. 169-220)

    Man’s belief that his internal functions can be modified by events affecting his psyche dates back into antiquity. Scholars in the arts, philosophy, and science have frequently employed the concept of mind-body interrelationships to explain a wide variety of observable phenomena. The mechanisms of these interrelationships were largely unexplored in any systematic way until Cannon, Pavlov, and others suggested the possible pathways through which the brain could influence the organs of the body.

    Much of the investigative work over the past few decades has been performed by psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychologically oriented internists. A vast body of literature rapidly accumulated...

  8. Socialization and Social Structure in the Classroom
    (pp. 221-256)

    What is the nature of the social structure of the elementary school classroom? What is the process of socialization of the individual into the classroom and, perhaps, via the classroom, into society? Investigators have been dealing with these questions for at least a generation now, and this review will attempt to organize the relevant findings of their work. Primary attention has been given to that empirical research carried out since 1930 in the classroom setting in the United States, mostly in the public schools.

    But it is first desirable to establish certain points of reference, define some of the terms...

  9. Psychological Testing of Children
    (pp. 257-310)

    Psychological tests are ubiquitous on the American scene today, influencing a wide range of vital decisions about children from institutional placement to the selection of prize winners. Scientific disciplines as diverse as genetics and sociology draw freely upon such test findings, and even the law has recognized the tests in numerous ways. In 1954, for example, the Supreme Court indicated inBrownv.Board of Education of Topekathat it had considered psychological test findings in arriving at its decision that school segregation was inherently harmful. Further legal recognition came in 1962, when Judge David Bazelon of the U.S. Court...

  10. The Development of Intergroup Attitudes
    (pp. 311-372)

    To no small degree, the interest in research on intergroup attitudes has stemmed from the fact that it represents one significant avenue of attack on a major social problem—intergroup conflict. For the same reason, social and developmental psychologists have given major attention to the genesis of negative intergroup attitudes, or “prejudice.”² And within this focus, we find an even more specialized interest generated by the greater social urgency of some kinds of prejudice as compared to others. Investigators have thus tended to pay greater attention to the development ofethnic prejudice; that is, to the negative attitudes directed toward...

  11. Development of Occupational Motives and Roles
    (pp. 373-422)

    Few would seriously deny the importance of occupation in the cultural history of man. Comparative analyses of civilizations frequently center on the simplicity or complexity of economic systems and on the characteristics of jobs and workers within such systems. Roe (1964) has even speculated that true speech in primordial man may have evolved in response to the need to communicate about the simple division of labor.

    For the individual, the significance of work is often epitomized in such expressions as “a way of life.” Work, for the majority of men, provides major links by which they are continually drawn into...

  12. Juvenile Delinquency: The Sociocultural Context
    (pp. 423-468)

    Concern for the misbehavior of the “younger generation” is at least as old as recorded history. Today, however, worldwide attention to problems of child welfare, together with extensive publicity which is accorded the most sensational and outrageous delinquency episodes, projects this concern to the far corners of the earth, from the most advanced and affluent societies to emerging “new nations.” The body of literature concerning juvenile delinquency and juvenile delinquents, popular and scientific, is enormous and growing rapidly.

    In the United States the problem of gang delinquency has been romanticized for posterity by the dramatic and beautifulWest Side Story....

  13. Modal Patterns in American Adolescence
    (pp. 469-528)

    Adolescence, as a special interest within psychology, has a long history. G. Stanley Hall introduced the topic into the scientific literature in 1899 and published his monumental two-volume work in 1904, about the time that sensory discrimination and the unconscious were emerging as areas of special concern. Yet it is only in the last two decades that our knowledge of adolescent processes has begun to take on the quality of understanding that occurs when theory enters a field. Anna Freud’s insights about the special dilemmas and defensive strategies of the period (1937) represent a theoretical claimstake in the territory of...

  14. Body Size and Its Implications
    (pp. 529-562)

    The size of the individual after birth is a most conspicuous physical attribute, placing him in relation to his peers and affecting the opinions of his judges. In a culture such as ours that values sheer bigness, greater body size may be an economic as well as a social asset. The taller executive is looked up to both figuratively and literally. In adolescent society, greater body size opens avenues of prestige for the male, some of them socially sanctioned (for example, team athletics) and some of them frankly antisocial (as, for example, membership in street gangs). But body size can...

  15. Contributors
    (pp. 563-566)
  16. Author Index
    (pp. 567-584)
  17. Subject Index
    (pp. 585-598)