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Institution Building in Urban Education

Institution Building in Urban Education

Morris Janowitz
Copyright Date: 1969
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 136
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  • Book Info
    Institution Building in Urban Education
    Book Description:

    Presents a sociological perspective on the issues involved in transforming the structure of inner city schools. This book evaluates the models which have guided past and present attempts at educational reform, and proposes a coherent theory for attacking the problems of urban education. Dr. Janowitz examines the inner city school as a social system-the physical structure, community setting, people involved, and persistent patterns of behavior. He analyzes the current trend of specialization teaching and recommends instead an "aggregation" model which increases the scope of the individual teacher and restructures the climate of the school.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-652-5
    Subjects: Education, Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Morris Janowitz
  4. 1. The Slum School and Contemporary Society
    (pp. 1-23)

    By the middle of the 1960’s sociological categories had come to pervade popular and professional thinking about slum schools and education of the lower class. Militant demands for improving the effectiveness of inner city education have incorporated the rhetoric of sociology because of the realities of social class and race. Terms such as “cultural deprivation” and “deviant behavior” were no longer technical jargon but the language of political debate. The persistent criticism of intelligence and psychological testing and the growth of awareness of the social and cultural problems of the slum school facilitated a rapid introduction of sociological analysis into...

  5. 2. Organizational Format: Image and Reality
    (pp. 24-34)

    The public school system of the inner city, and especially its administrative apparatus, has come under severe and repeated criticism. These censurings have produced a set of popular images about school administration which are based on a sense of frustration rather than on careful analysis of organizational realities. The result is that the urban public school system is viewed by citizen leadership and even experts as an excessively rigid organization that has great difficulty in dealing with innovation, whether the issue be academic content, vocational program, or social climate. The rigidities of the system mean that it has a low...

  6. 3. Alternative Models of Change
    (pp. 35-60)

    One underlying assumption of this analysis of the inner city school system is that a crucial barrier to strategic change and increased effectiveness of public school systems is the absence of comprehensive conceptual models.¹ To speak of the importance of conceptual models of education is obviously not an academic exercise that is oblivious to the political and social elements required to produce actual change. Institution building in public education cannot be accomplished by any single drastic or dramatic act. Schools cannot be transformed by boycotts or parents’ strikes, although these demonstrations may speed up the process of reform. School systems...

  7. 4. Operational Elements
    (pp. 61-100)

    The major concern of the specialization model in the management of the classroom is the reduction of class size. This is seen as the crucial variable of change. The national trend toward the reduction of the classroom size has been pushed without abeyance since the turn of the century when the immigrant working-class families sent their children to schools with seventy to ninety pupils per class and educators tried to reduce classes to sixty.¹ The quality of American education has been operationalized in terms of per capita expenditures and that in turn is but a measure of the ratio of...

  8. 5. School-Community Relations
    (pp. 101-115)

    In order to give content to the specialization and aggregation models, the term “school-community relations” has to be given a delimited scope. It encompasses much less than the locus of the school in the national social structure and the broad consequences of education on the society. School-community relations involve the immediate contacts of the school with individual families—complete or broken as the case may be—and with organized groups that penetrate into the immediate neighborhood. Of course, school-community relations extend to include those patterns of communications that link the central staff with the city as a whole. In this...

  9. 6. Conclusion
    (pp. 116-124)

    An appropriate approach to summarizing the argument of this essay is to recall that the large city public school system—the one that serves the inner city—has been and continues to be described by many sources, professional and popular, as an institution that strongly resists innovation and directed change. There can be no doubt that the inner city school system, because it is not an articulated social system, has many elements that can be characterized in these terms. The suburban school is much more responsive to pressure for change. But to accept the global formulation that schools resist change...

  10. Index
    (pp. 125-126)