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Indicators of Trends in American Education

Indicators of Trends in American Education

Copyright Date: 1969
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 480
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  • Book Info
    Indicators of Trends in American Education
    Book Description:

    Assembles, collates, and analyzes data bearing on trends in American education. The author presents the basic data on school enrollment, retention, and attainment, indicating changes in the educational characteristics of the population and comparable time-series statistics on teachers and school finances reflecting change within the school system itself. Dr. Ferriss then relates these data to a statement of educational goals set some ten years ago, utilizing the data to provide an assessment of progress toward those goals.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-832-1
    Subjects: Population Studies, Education, Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Acknowledgments
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. v-vi)
    Eleanor Bernert Sheldon

    Indicators of Trends in American Educationis the second a series of publications initiated by Russell Sage Foundation as part of its program on “social indicators.” In the first volume of the series,Indicators of Social Change(1968) edited by Eleanor Bernert Sheldon and Wilbert E. Moore, general framework for the analysis and measurement change is presented, encompassing relevant concepts and measures. The primary purpose of this earlier overview was to provide a basis for subsequent studies. This volume by Abbott L. Ferriss of the Foundation staff emerges from that earlier presentation and from the Foundation’s continuing efforts to examine...

  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. List of Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  6. List of Figures
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  7. Notes to the Series and Data Series
    (pp. xv-xviii)
  8. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-16)

    This volume presents statistical time series on trends in education in the United States. The principal purpose is to bring together time series that indicate changing characteristics of education -- education considered both organizationally and as a characteristic of the population.

    In “laying out” statistical time series and in searching for indicators of educational change, many single-time studies of the educational system had to be neglected. Similarly, time series of trends in limited or localized areas are disregarded, except in using them to illustrate a series not otherwise available for the nation as a whole.

    The educational system offers a...

  9. 2 Enrollment
    (pp. 17-67)

    In this chapter, two types of enrollment data will be examined: enrollment as reported by the institution, and enrollment status as reported by the population. Both provide useful indices of trends in enrollment. A few aggregates of the number of students enrolled in school will be presented, but the chapter will primarily present trends in enrollment upon the basis of (a) the ratio of enrollment in institutions of some particular educational level to the population chiefly served by that institutional type, and (b) the rate of enrollment of the population of a given age group. Where appropriate, rates of retention...

  10. 3 Teachers
    (pp. 68-86)

    Only a small amount of information on teachers in time series is available. The decennial population censuses have collected some of the characteristics of teachers (age, sex, color, income), and this information has been reviewed by Folger and Nam (1967: 77-109). The U. S. Office of Education has assembled information on the number of teachers by institutional level (sex, certificated or non-certificated, and other characteristics for college faculties).¹/ The National Education Association has assembled information on the supply and demand of teachers at both the elementary and secondary and the college levels, with specification of the discipline of newly-hired teachers...

  11. 4 The Quality of Education
    (pp. 87-99)

    To detect the quality of education is not an easy task and no statistical time series has been developed that tells whether the quality of our educational system as a whole is becoming better or worse.

    Each part of the educational system, being devoted to its own purposes and concerned with its own age levels, requires its own basis for evaluation. However, each level essentially is concerned with the same problem: the problem of determining change or growth in the student during the time the student participates in the learning activities of the institution. This “increment added” by the educational...

  12. 5 Graduates
    (pp. 100-165)

    This chapter reviews trends in graduates of secondary school and higher educational institutions. Both aggregate numbers completing their education and rates of completion are examined.

    The production of the educational system is commonly measured by student days, or student “years” of attendance, and by the number of certificates, diplomas, or degrees granted by institutions.

    The product of the educational system is the person certified as having learned a specific body of knowledge. Graduates of secondary school typically are undifferentiated as to subject matter but graduates of higher curricula are counted by field of specialization. Some students may receive two degrees...

  13. 6 Trends in Educational Organization and Finance
    (pp. 166-201)

    This chapter reviews trends in the number of formal organizations, schools and institutions of higher education, which Serve the purposes of education. It also reviews the trends in their financial support.

    The decline in the small, one-teacher school, the increase in the size of school systems and in the average size of public schools, are probably trends that parallel the urbanization of the population and the growth in size of organizational units of every description. Great increases in the length of the regular school term of public elementary and secondary schools have occurred in the past 100 years. Changes in...

  14. 7 Educational Attainment
    (pp. 202-220)

    The educational attainment of the population, measured by years of schooling, has been analyzed recently in several studies (Folger and Nam, 1967; Duncan, 1968; Cohen, 1967). The approach has been the utilization of the median year of schooling or the percentage completing a given number of years schooling to examine educational differentials in terms of age, sex, color, region or state of residence, religion, place of residence, migratory status, income, occupation, and various other characteristics. Duncan (1968) has gone further and has used decennial census data to examine the educational attainment of successive population cohorts. Insofar as a year of...

  15. 8 Attaining Society’s Goals for Education
    (pp. 221-258)

    From the perspective of the year 1960, the President’s Commission on National Goals (1960) presented proposals and objectives for education for the next ten or 15 years. The goals covered the entire range of educational interests and indicated the direction for governmental and private programs. In a chapter by John W. Gardner, “National Goals in Education,” twenty-five goals and a number of subordinate objectives were specified (Gardner, 1960). Some goals were specific and subject to measurable evaluation, such as, “... we must recruit at least 200,000 new teachers every year for the next ten years.” (Gardner, 1960: 82) Other goals...

  16. Appendix A What Contributes Most to an Increase in Degrees: A Change in Rate or Change in Population?
    (pp. 259-263)
  17. Appendix B The Development of an Academic Production Index
    (pp. 264-268)
  18. Appendix C Age Cohorts of the Population
    (pp. 269-275)
  19. Appendix D Notes to the Series
    (pp. 276-374)
  20. Appendix E Statistical Series
    (pp. 375-417)
  21. Bibliography
    (pp. 418-454)