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Creative Communities

Creative Communities: Art Works in Economic Development

Michael Rushton EDITOR
Foreword by Rocco Landesman
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 225
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  • Book Info
    Creative Communities
    Book Description:

    Urban and regional planners, elected officials, and other decisionmakers are increasingly focused on what makes places livable. Access to the arts inevitably appears high on that list, but knowledge about how culture and the arts can act as a tool of economic development is sadly lacking. This important sector must be considered not only as a source of amenities or pleasant diversions, but also as a wholly integrated part of local economies. Employing original data produced through both quantitative and qualitative research, Creative Communities provides a greater understanding of how art works as an engine for transforming communities.

    "Without good data and analysis-much of it grounded in economic theory-we cannot hope to strengthen communities through the arts or to achieve any of the other goals we set for the National Endowment for the Arts, the largest nationwide funder of the arts." -from the Foreword by Rocco Landesman

    Contributors: Hasan Bakhshi (Nesta UK), Elisa Barbour (University of California, Berkeley), Shiri M. Breznitz (Georgia Institute of Technology), Roland J. Kushner (Muhlenberg College), Rex LaMore (Michigan State University), James Lawton (Michigan State), Neil Lee (Nesta UK), Richard G. Maloney (Boston University), Ann Markusen (University of Minnesota), Juan Mateos-Garcia (Nesta UK), Anne Gadwa Nicodemus (Metris Arts Consulting), Douglas S. Noonan (Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis), Peter Pedroni (Williams College), Amber Peruski (Michigan State), Michele Root-Bernstein (Michigan State), Robert Root-Bernstein (Michigan State), Eileen Roraback (Michigan State), Michael Rushton (Indiana University), Lauren Schmitz (New School for Social Research), Jenny Schuetz (University of Southern California), John Schweitzer (Michigan State), Stephen Sheppard (Williams College), Megan VanDyke (Michigan State), Gregory H. Wassall (Northeastern University)

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-2474-2
    Subjects: Business, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-x)
    Rocco Landesman

    Since I took over as chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts in 2009, I have spent a lot of my time in pursuit of creative placemaking, which seeks to integrate art and design in community planning and development, build shared spaces for arts engagement and creative expression, and increase local economic activity through arts and cultural activities. This goal has borne fruit in national programs such as Our Town, Art Place, and other NEA-supported initiatives under my tenure.

    Another focus of mine for the last four years has been to bolster research and evidence sharing about the value...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  5. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-11)

    This volume presents original research findings on the impacts of cultural consumption and production on local economies. The chapters are based on papers presented at “The Arts, New Growth Theory, and Economic Development,” a May 2012 Brookings Institution symposium sponsored by the National Endowment for the Arts. The central theme of the symposium was that the arts are not an amenity or a sector that exists in isolation but that they are wholly integrated into local economies. Indeed, the complex role of art in local growth is what has made empirical research in the field so challenging and the new...

  6. 2 Causal Agents or Canaries in the Coal Mine? Art Galleries and Neighborhood Change
    (pp. 12-35)

    Art galleries serve several important functions within the arts industry. Economically, galleries are places of arts consumption, generally focusing on visual arts such as painting and sculpture. If artists visit galleries to learn about their peers’ work, galleries may also contribute to enhanced arts production. Galleries are almost always for-profit entities; the main distinction between galleries and museums is that museums typically display original art but do not offer it for sale, while galleries display art in order to sell it. Like many forms of arts production discussed elsewhere in this volume (see chapters 3 and 8), the retail art...

  7. 3 The Arts, Consumption, and Innovation in Regional Development
    (pp. 36-59)

    Economic development strategy at the state, regional, and local levels has been dominated by economic (or export) base theory, which posits that exports drive overall growth, whether measured by employment, output, or value added. The dominance of export base theory directs policy attention and incentives chiefly to businesses whose output is exported from the city or region. In the United States, where economic development is practiced principally at the state and local level, public sector development agencies are preoccupied with outside export-type enterprises, which they try to attract to the local area, rather than with local startups, especially those aimed...

  8. 4 A Case Study in Cultural Economic Development: The Adams Arts Program in Massachusetts
    (pp. 60-79)

    Today municipalities face many pressing financial challenges, which typically include declining tax revenues, reduced federal and state aid, and increased demand for local services. As a result, local leaders are continuously searching for new economic development strategies to reinvigorate their tax base. During the past decade, the idea that the arts and culture sector can play an important, if not leading, role in local economic development has rapidly grown in popularity. However, despite widespread interest in this idea, the process through which municipalities move from initial consideration to implementation of a specific initiative remains unclear. This chapter addresses one element...

  9. 5 Do Cultural Tax Districts Buttress Revenue Growth for Arts Organizations?
    (pp. 80-96)

    What role should public funding play in financing the arts in the United States? A wealth of research has assessed whether lump-sum government transfers to nonprofit organizations “crowd out” private giving. However, less attention has been paid to the incidence of local voter-approved cultural tax districts in the country and the effect that they have had on the success and sustainability of participating organizations. The study presented in this chapter used a quasi–natural experiment approach to evaluate the effect of the Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD) of metropolitan Denver—the largest cultural sales tax district in the United...

  10. 6 Arts, Crafts, and STEM Innovation: A Network Approach to Understanding the Creative Knowledge Economy
    (pp. 97-117)

    Emerging research suggests that arts education in childhood and ongoing participation in the arts in adulthood may help individuals to develop the kinds of skills and knowledge that foster innovation in sciences and technologies. Since 1988 a number of scholars have noted the presence of indirect relationships between arts-rich communities and high-tech entrepreneurship.¹ These scholars have identified a so-called “creative class” of individuals—innovators, artists, and craftspeople—who tend to congregate in the same geographical locales, giving rise to new industries where arts support is strong. One reason that innovators and artists may co-localize is that an arts-enriched environment may...

  11. 7 Arts Districts, Universities, and the Rise of Media Arts
    (pp. 118-143)

    On the surface, the expected relationship between indicators of economic growth and the presence of universities and arts districts might seem fairly straightforward. Universities are generally associated far more closely with innovation, at least the kinds of innovation measured in terms of patents and inventions, while arts districts are typically thought to promote or certify greater intensity of employment in artistic fields. Regardless of intuition, the relationship between these local clusters of investment and indicators of economic growth is ultimately an empirical one, and careful data analysis shows that a casual intuition is not supported. Arts-and media arts–related employment...

  12. 8 Cultural Enterprise Formation and Cultural Participation in America’s Counties
    (pp. 144-165)

    “Is this a good place to start my arts venture?” Arts entrepreneurs invariably consider that question as part of their overall development. Entrepreneurship, like labor and capital, is mobile, but a new arts enterprise is most likely to emerge from a particular locale. As seen from other chapters in this volume, the particular characteristics of American communities affect the kinds of arts entities and activities that locate in them, just as the arts affect communities in a reciprocal relationship.

    New growth theory (NGT), a unifying theme of this volume, suggests that economic growth is a function of endogenous activity such...

  13. 9 The Economic Consequences of Cultural Spending
    (pp. 166-189)

    Does increasing local arts and culture production have a positive impact on the local economy? In some sense the answer to that question is obvious. When arts and culture production occurs, inputs are purchased, artists and support staff are paid, and that activity, like other types of production activity, is part of the local economy. Increased arts and culture production adds to the local economy in the short run, but what is less obvious is whether its impact persists in the long run. The economy is a dynamic and complex system that responds to change. An increase in live performing...

  14. 10 Capital of Culture? An Econometric Analysis of the Relationship between Arts and Cultural Clusters, Wages, and the Creative Economy in English Cities
    (pp. 190-216)

    The scale of public investment in arts and cultural clusters in recent decades suggests that policymakers consider the arts and cultural sector to be an important component of the infrastructure that makes their cities better able to innovate, compete, and grow. There is empirical evidence of a strong correlation between arts and cultural clustering on the one hand and the economic performance of cities on the other.¹

    At first sight, the 2010 data for English cities presented in figure 10-1 support this view, showing a positive relationship between clustering of cultural employment (as measured by the location quotient for a...

  15. Contributors
    (pp. 217-218)
  16. Index
    (pp. 219-225)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 226-227)