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Transit Migration in Europe

Transit Migration in Europe

Franck Düvell
Irina Molodikova
Michael Collyer
Copyright Date: 2014
Pages: 237
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  • Book Info
    Transit Migration in Europe
    Book Description:

    Transit migration is a term that is used to describe mixed flows of different types of temporary migrants, including refugees and labor migrants. In the popular press, it is often confused with illegal or irregular migration and carries associations with human smuggling and organized crime. This volume addresses that confusion, and the uncertainty of terminology and analysis that underlies it, offering an evidence-based, comprehensive approach to defining and understanding transit migration in Europe.

    eISBN: 978-90-485-2316-0
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
    (pp. 11-12)
    Franck Düvell, Irina Molodikova and Michael Collyer
  2. 1 Introduction Transit Migrations and European Spaces
    (pp. 13-34)
    Michael Collyer, Franck Düvell, Hein de Haas and Irina Molodikova

    The term ‘transit migration’ has a long history dating back to the movement of refugees out of German occupied Europe during the Second World War and covering immediate post-colonial arrivals of migrants in important gateway cities, such as Marseille (Temime 1989), but the use to which we refer may be traced to its appearance in policy documents from the early 1990s onwards to refer to largely irregular migration into the European Union (EU), initially across the EU’s Eastern external border (Wallace, Chmouliar & Sidorenko 1996). It is now used, almost exclusively in a European context, to refer to actual or potential...

  3. Part 1 The Mediterranean Quadrants

    • 2 Migrants’ Uncertainties versus the State’s Insecurities Transit Migration in Turkey
      (pp. 37-54)
      Ahmet İçduygu and Deniz Sert

      Since the early 1980s, Turkey has become an important route for so-called transit migration flows in the south-east of Europe. People from different parts of the South and East have begun to use the Turkish peninsula as a bridge to the West and the North, where they hope to find better living conditions. The number of such people is unknown as there are no figures available for ‘irregular transit migration’ passing through Turkey, which is an expected result, given the murky nature of this phenomenon. The only existing data cover the number of irregular migrants who were apprehended in Turkey...

    • 3 Refugee Migration to Egypt: Settlement or Transit?
      (pp. 55-78)
      Mulki Al-Sharmani

      Egypt has a long history of receiving migrants of various ethnic backgrounds, such as Armenians, Greeks, Croats, Palestinians and Sudanese. Recently, the country has witnessed large scale immigration of refugees fleeing armed conflicts in the Middle East and Africa. According to UNHCR (2008) there were 23,660 Sudanese, 10, 786 Iraqis and 5,383 Somalis residing in Egypt. There were also small numbers of refugees from Eritrea, Ethiopia and other nations such as Afghanistan, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, the former Yugoslavia and Yemen. In addition, there were between 50,000 and 70,000 Palestinian refugees residing in the...

    • 4 Transnational Migration The Case of Sub-Saharan Transmigrants Stopping Over in Morocco
      (pp. 79-98)
      Mehdi Alioua

      Since the generalisation of the visa regime across the Schengen area in the 1990s, followed by the restrictions on issuing visas which now stand in the way of the majority of Africans wishing to migrate to Europe, staged transnational migration has become one solution for African migrants, opening or reopening new migratory routes from sub-Saharan Africa, through the Maghreb, to Europe. In this chapter, this phenomenon is referred to as ‘transmigration’, as explained and justified below. So, thousands of sub-Saharan transmigrants enter and relocate themselves collectively every year in the Maghreb, setting up stopovers which, since their establishment in the...

    • 5 Trying to Transit Irregular Immigration in Malta
      (pp. 99-124)
      Cetta Mainwaring

      The Mediterranean Sea has always been a passage for human movement, carrying flows of people and goods on its currents, be it tourists on yachts and cruise liners, soldiers on naval vessels, sailors on container ships, or migrants on dinghies. More recently, at the turn of the twenty-first century, the central Mediterranean experienced an increase in irregular transit migration, as migrants and refugees search for new routes into Europe and attempt the dangerous voyage from the poorer southern shores to the richer northern ones.

      At the heart of the Mediterranean, Malta simultaneously bridges and divides North and South. Its geographic,...

  4. Part 2 The Central and Eastern European Quadrants

    • 6 The East-to-West Circuit Transit Migration through Russia
      (pp. 127-152)
      Irina Ivakhnyuk

      For over a decade, from 1990 to 2000, Russia went through a period of economic downturn and contraction. This was related to the disintegration of the Union of the Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR). Transformations such as these, combined with new transportation facilities, impacted, changed and re-directed international migration routes. Correspondingly, new migration routes emerged which resulted in particular countries being transited by migrants. In the early 1990s these new routes were rapidly established and the vast territory of the formerly closed USSR was increasingly used by transit migrants and smugglers of migrants. Since then, numerous transit routes have run through...

    • 7 Hungary and the System of European Transit Migration
      (pp. 153-184)
      Irina Molodikova

      The role of EU frontier countries has usually been that of a buffer against illegal migrants and asylum seekers travelling West. For example, Hungary has functioned as a buffer between East and West for more than half a century. Already during the Soviet era, the Hungarian western border was the frontier of the Socialist system. After its collapse and the opening of the western border, Hungary constituted a contentious barrier against illegal migrants and asylum seekers to the West. After the enlargement of the EU in 2004, the Hungarian eastern border became the EU frontier and in December 2007 Hungary...

    • 8 Irregular Transit Migration of Moldovan Citizens to the European Union Countries
      (pp. 185-208)
      Valerii Mosneaga

      Since the Republic of Moldova became independent in 1992, diverse peculiarities have shaped Moldova’s migration flows. Moldova is one of several small newly formed states in Europe after the break-up of the Soviet Union and the Eastern bloc. Following a short civil war in 1991, Moldova was divided into two parts, the internationally recognised Moldovan Republic and the unrecognised breakaway territory of Transdnestria. The main industries are located in Transdnestria; Moldova is mostly agricultural. Hence, the Moldovan Republic has, as a consequence of the conflict, lost control of its industrial potential. In addition, because the internal conflict has also led...

    • 9 Transit Migrations in the European Migration Spaces Politics, Determinants and Dynamics
      (pp. 209-236)
      Franck Düvell

      There are many Europes: the Europe of the European Union with its 28 member states, the Europe of the Council of Europe with its 47 member states, and some historical ideas of Europe that even included North African Mediterranean regions. Some aspects, such as whether or not Turkey is European or qualifies for membership in the EU, are hotly disputed. Migration within this region and its neighbourhood, the European migration space, is diverse, complex and constantly changing over time. The principal poles of attraction for migration flows are the European Union, though not all its member states, and Russia; other...

  5. Other IMISCOE Research titles
    (pp. 243-248)