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Migration from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe

Migration from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe: Past Developments, Current Status, and Future Potentials

Michael Bommes
Heinz Fassmann
Wiebke Sievers
Copyright Date: 2014
Pages: 290
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  • Book Info
    Migration from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe
    Book Description:

    One of the most important challenges facing the European Union over the next few decades is demographic: as birthrates continue to decline and the population ages, immigration will be needed to sustain a sufficient working-age population. This volume takes that fact as a point of departure for analyzing patterns and prospects of immigration from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe, taking into account existing migration links and current EU migration policies as well as demographic, economic, and political developments in the Middle East and North Africa.

    eISBN: 978-90-485-2317-7
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-12)
  3. Preface
    (pp. 13-14)
    Heinz Fassmann and Wiebke Sievers
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 15-26)
    Heinz Fassmann and Wiebke Sievers

    All member states of the European Union will be in need of labour in the near future. Three factors are decisive for this development: low fertility rates, extended life expectancy and, in most EU countries, a baby-boom generation in their late 50s and early 60s that will slowly be reaching retirement age over the coming decades. It is highly probable that, after a period of moderate growth in the present decade, the EU population will stagnate until 2030, decline after that date and age significantly in the whole period until 2050. This decline will particularly affect the workforce when the...

  5. Part I Country profiles

    • 1 Euro-Mediterranean migration futures: The cases of Morocco, Egypt and Turkey
      (pp. 29-74)
      Hein de Haas

      Over the past 50 years, the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean regions have evolved into the main providers of labour migrants to the European Union. In the early stages of the post-war economic boom in North-West Europe in the 1950s and 1960s, most workers were recruited in Southern European countries such as Portugal, Spain, Italy, the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Greece. However, since the mid-1960s, the place of these countries has been rapidly taken over by Turkey, Morocco and, to a lesser extent, Algeria and Tunisia, while the recruitment of workers has shifted from governments to companies, mainly...

    • 2 Migration and development in Egypt
      (pp. 75-98)
      Ayman Zohry

      ‘The role that migrants play in promoting development and poverty reduction in countries of origin, as well as the contribution they make towards the prosperity of destination countries, should be recognized and reinforced’ (GCIM 2005: 23). This is exactly what this chapter will try to do by looking at the example of Egypt. Emigration from Egypt started in the late 1960s, mainly for economic but also for political reasons, with the large majority of the emigrants going to the Gulf states. As early as the 1970s, the Egyptian state regarded emigration as a means of easing pressure on the labour...

    • 3 Turkish emigration and its implications for the sending and receiving countries
      (pp. 99-136)
      Ahmet İçduygu

      Social researchers have dealt with the effect of international migration at three different levels: sending countries, receiving countries and migrants. Generally speaking, the tendency has been to address this issue from a rather limited perspective, focusing largely on the receiving countries, sometimes on the sending countries, and occasionally on the migrants themselves, but only rarely on these three actors of migratory flows together. Some refocusing would therefore seem to be in order. We need to know more than we do about the consequences of migration on the individual countries (both sending and receiving) and on migratory systems in general. This...

  6. Part II Arena of political regulation and conflicts

    • 4 The European Union’s international-migration relations towards Middle Eastern and North African countries
      (pp. 139-158)
      Andrew Geddes

      This chapter examines the impact of European Union (EU) migration policies on Mediterranean ‘partner countries’. This involves relations between the EU and its 28 member states and the ten Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries that have entered into an agreement with the EU within what is known as the European Neighbourhood Policy (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria and Tunisia). The chapter develops its analysis in what has recently been described as a ‘Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity’ (CEC 2011a). This ‘partnership’ was developed by the EU in the aftermath of the Arab uprisings...

    • 5 Political conflicts and migration in the MENA states
      (pp. 159-190)
      Sigrid Faath and Hanspeter Mattes

      The Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) states, stretching from Mauretania in the West to Pakistan in the East, are some of the most volatile countries in the world – and, according to the index of the Freedom House 2010, harbour the largest aggregation of dictators anywhere.¹ Changes have occurred since 2011 when, during the so-called Arab Spring, protesters forced four authoritarian rulers to step down: President Ben Ali in Tunisia in January 2011, President Mubarak in Egypt in February 2011 and the Yemenite President Saleh in February 2012. The Libyan leader, Gaddafi, was killed by revolutionary brigades in October...

    • 6 The uncertainties involved in calculating migration
      (pp. 191-206)
      Franz Nuscheler

      A few years before the uprisings in the Arab world, the migration researcher Steffen Angenendt wrote the following:

      Generally speaking, we should remember that, for methodological reasons, any prognoses about migration potentials are based on so many assumptions as to be severely limited in value […]. Making predictions about the development of a population is, in both the short- and mid-term, relatively reliable: Most influential factors are well known and stable, whereas many other assumptions on the economic, political and social development in the respective countries remain speculative. This is especially true of countries that experience profound transformational processes […],...

  7. Part III Prognosis, scenarios and forecasts

    • 7 Demographic developments in the MENA region
      (pp. 209-230)
      Ralf E. Ulrich

      The EU and the MENA (Middle East and North African) countries¹ are separated only by the Mediterranean Sea. And yet there could hardly be more demographic and economic differences between two regions. In 2010, the EU had a population of around 500 million persons, while the MENA states had over 455 million inhabitants (UNPD 2011a). After 100 years of demographic transition, the countries of the EU today are characterised by low fertility, a dwindling population and demographic ageing. This demographic predicament will precipitate considerable economic and social problems in the various countries of the EU in the medium and near...

    • 8 Estimating migration potential: Egypt, Morocco and Turkey
      (pp. 231-248)
      Heinz Fassmann

      It is a well-known fact that population reproduction in the 27 states of the European Union (EU) will, in the long run, depend on immigration. This is mainly the result of fertility rates which lie below reproduction level. Currently, the number of births and deaths is still more or less balanced in many EU countries. However, as soon as the baby-boomers born in the 1950s and 1960s begin to die, the balance of birth- and death-rates will tilt toward the negative. Only then, at the very latest, will immigration become necessary, both to ease the inevitable structural adaptations in welfare...

    • 9 Migration scenarios: Turkey, Egypt and Morocco
      (pp. 249-288)
      Michael Bommes, Simon Fellmer and Friederike Zigmann

      The previous two chapters in this volume – by Ulrich and by Fassmann – are based on demographic analyses that keep constant all social conditions beyond demographic developments in the populations of the three countries in question. This approach has the advantage that the models employed are easy to manage, and the numbers produced have a certain hardiness to them. Yet they remain rather abstract.

      The present chapter reintroduces some of the ‘realities’ not taken into account in these demographic analyses. We enrich the models presented by Ulrich and by Fassmann by introducing further, mainly economic, variables using highly aggregated...

  8. List of contributors
    (pp. 289-290)
  9. Back Matter
    (pp. 291-296)