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Canadian Counselling and Counselling Psychology in the 21st Century

Canadian Counselling and Counselling Psychology in the 21st Century

Copyright Date: 2015
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    Canadian Counselling and Counselling Psychology in the 21st Century
    Book Description:

    Canadian counsellors and counselling psychologists have made significant advances in mental health services and the broader field of applied psychology, but much of the counselling and counselling psychology scholarship has been published outside of Canada, rendering it difficult to identify as distinctly Canadian. This path-breaking book highlights the work of Canadian counsellors and counselling psychologists and focuses on issues pertinent to practising in Canada. Key topics such as scientific issues, health, wellness, prevention, career psychology, assessment, training and supervision, and social justice and multiculturalism are explored in detail. Using a strength-based framework, each chapter attends to societal factors, diversity of methodological frameworks, and an analysis of the challenges and future directions for the disciplines. Providing a common voice for a diverse group of students and professionals, Canadian Counselling and Counselling Psychology in the 21st Century will be of interest to counsellor educators, faculty in counsellor and counselling psychology training programs, and counsellors interested in advancing their understanding of the current state of the field. Contributors include Kevin G. Alderson (University of Calgary), Nancy Arthur (University of Calgary), Bill Borgen (University of British Columbia), Marla Buchanan (University of British Columbia), Erin Buhr (Trinity Western University), Lee Butterfield (Adler School of Professional Psychology), Sharon Cairns (University of Calgary), Sandra Collins (Athabasca University), Jose Domene (University of New Brunswick), Marilyn Fitzpatrick (McGill University), Nick Gazzola (University of Ottawa), Freda Ginsberg (SUNY Plattsburgh), Liette Goyer (Universite Laval), Bryan Hiebert (University of Victoria), George Hurley (Memorial University of Newfoundland), Anusha Kassan (University of British Columbia), Patricia Keats (Simon Frazer University), Audrey Kinzel (University of Saskatoon), Vivian Lalande (University of Calgary, Sasha Lerner (McGill University), Anne Marshall (University of Victoria), Marv McDonald (Trinity Western University), Louise Overington (McGill University), Jane M. Oxenbury (Independent Practice), Sharon Robertson (University of Calgary), Ada L. Sinacore (McGill University), Suzanne L. Stewart (OISE, University of Toronto), and Jessica Van Vliet (University of Alberta).

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-9691-7
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-2)
    Vivian Lalande and George Hurley

    This foreword comes from two long-time counselling psychologists, Vivian Lalande and George Hurley, who have followed somewhat different paths in Canadian counselling psychology that now interface yet again as we write this joint foreword. George has served primarily in a training, service, and administrative capacity while Vivian has served primarily within a teaching, research, and practice capacity. Both of us, however, have been involved in Canadian counselling psychology from the point of witnessing the incubation, birth, and growth of our specialty area to its current youthful and increasingly robust status. Like proud parents, each of us has stories to tell...

  4. 1 Introduction to Canadian Counselling and Counselling Psychology in the 21st Century
    (pp. 3-14)

    The disciplines of counselling and counselling psychology share common roots in educational psychology and a common set of principles (Hurley, 2010). Yet, counselling psychology differs from the discipline of counselling when it comes to professional identity. That is, counselling psychologists’ primary identity is within the field of psychology while professional counselling has its roots in counsellor education. Counsellor training programs typically train master’s level practitioners whose primary professional affiliation is with the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA). These programs oftentimes embrace a scholar-practitioner training model whereby master’s-level trainees become consumers of research rather than researchers themselves. Alternatively, counselling psychology...

  5. 2 The Present and Future of Counselling and Counselling Psychology Research in Canada: A Call to Action
    (pp. 15-41)

    The first decade of the twenty-first century has been a period of expansion and maturation for the related but distinct disciplines of counselling and counselling psychology in Canada. This is evident in refinements to professional identity, broader legislative recognition, increased availability of Canadian training and education programs, and growing membership in discipline-specific professional associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA) and the Counselling Psychology Section of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) (Alves & Gazzola, 2011; Bedi et al., 2011; Domene & Bedi, 2012; Lalande, 2004). Commensurate with the advancement of the two disciplines has been a growth...

  6. 3 Multicultural Counselling, Education, and Supervision
    (pp. 42-67)

    The definition of counselling psychology in Canada incorporates cultural diversity as a core value (Bedi et al., 2011). Canadian counselling psychologists are going beyond the challenge to respond to diversity in all its complexity, to lead the field in inclusive professional practices that contribute to the health and well-being of all Canadians. In the past several decades, Canadian researchers and theorists have increasingly recognized the importance of cultural diversity, as well as the broader systemic factors that influence health and well-being. They have begun to look beyond the individual to the contexts and relationships that shape worldview, self-perception, and behaviour,...

  7. 4 Counselling Indigenous People in Canada
    (pp. 68-89)

    Indigenous peoples are defined by the Assembly of First Nations (2002) as comprising three distinct cultural groups: First Nations (status and non-status Indians), Métis, and Inuit. The termIndigenousis often used interchangeably withAboriginal,Native, andIndian. Among the many cultural minority groups within Canada, Indigenous peoples are among the fastest-growing populations. Indigenous peoples represent approximately 3.9 percent of Canada’s total population or about a total of 1,172,785 people (Statistics Canada, 2003a). Over 50 percent of the Indigenous population is under the age of 24 and 40 percent is under the age of 16. Thus the population is a...

  8. 5 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex Individuals
    (pp. 90-116)

    Many acronyms are in usage today, reflecting writers’ attempts to be inclusive of the various segments comprising the nondominant sexual and gender community. What began as a “gay community” later became known as two communities: gay and lesbian. As the definition expanded, bisexual individuals were added, thereby creating a gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) community. Over time, individuals with varying gender expressions (i.e., transgender) and gender identities (i.e., transgender or transsexual) were included, creating the LGBT acronym. One can also add a “Q” for those who are questioning either their sexuality or their gender, another “Q” for those who call...

  9. 6 The Changing Canadian Landscape: Immigration in Canada
    (pp. 117-139)

    Canada has consistently maintained an active immigration program (Kelley & Trebilock, 2010; Reitz, 2007), which has led it to become one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world (Statistics Canada, 2007b). Currently, immigration continues to play an important role in Canada, as evidenced by the 2006 Canadian Census which revealed that nearly twenty percent of the Canadian population was foreign-born (Statistics Canada, 2007b). More recently, in 2010, the country welcomed 280,681 new immigrants, the highest number accepted in fifty years (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2011). Further, these 280,681 immigrants constituted almost one percent of the Canadian population (Citizenship...

  10. 7 Health, Wellness, and Prevention
    (pp. 140-164)

    In Canadian health care services, medical professionals are usually the front line for people experiencing mental health concerns. Psychologists, in contrast, are generally underutilized in Canadian health care, and both physicians and psychologists may lack familiarity with the other group’s training and the services they can provide. Despite this disconnect, counselling psychologists have been making important contributions to the management and conceptualization of mental health, particularly by observing a strength-focused rather than a pathology-based orientation to mental health care (Haverkamp, Robertson, Cairns, & Bedi, 2011). A significant aspect of this contribution has consisted of health and wellness studies done by...

  11. 8 Towards a Definition of Canadian Career Psychology
    (pp. 165-205)

    This chapter offers an overview of the changes that have affected work and workers in Canada, drawing on historical events in the field of career psychology in Canada and internationally in order to understand where we are and how we got here. Moreover, the focus of this chapter is on understanding the present Canadian context and offering suggestions about where we go from here. It begins with an overview of career development within Canadian counselling psychology, the importance of work in people’s lives, and recent questions related to the suitability of traditional career assumptions in the current Canadian (and international)...

  12. 9 Assessment in Canadian Counselling and Counselling Psychology
    (pp. 206-229)

    Canadian literature in counselling and counselling psychology is largely silent on the matter of assessment, and where it does exist, it tends to be scattered among innovative practices, training activities, and literature addressing other professional issues of various kinds. Our first goal in this chapter is to highlight various ways in which assessment is conceptualized in counselling and counselling psychology in Canada, drawing primarily on the work of Canadian authors, while offering a contextual framework within which various approaches can be positioned. The Canadian Psychological Association’s (CPA) recently approved definition of counselling psychology characterizes assessment, diagnosis, and case conceptualization as...

  13. 10 Training and Supervision in Counselling Psychology
    (pp. 230-253)

    There are currently five doctoral-level counselling psychology programs in Canada. They are located within faculties of education in the University of Alberta, the University of British Columbia, the University of Calgary, McGill University, and the University of Toronto. The programs all operate within the Boulder model scientist-practitioner framework and are accredited by the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA); the University of British Columbia and McGill University programs are also accredited (until 2015) by the American Psychological Association (APA). While the spirit of the Boulder model is to allow program-to-program differences in how training is offered, all programs share certain challenges based...

  14. 11 Articulating a Social Justice Agenda for Canadian Counselling and Counselling Psychology
    (pp. 254-272)

    The practice of social justice is a central feature of the Canadian identity and political landscape. In fact, Canada has a global reputation as a nation founded upon the values of tolerance, benevolence, and diversity, and for promoting the ideal of a justice orientation for both its citizens and those around the world (Joshee & Johnson, 2005). Notably, Canada ranks tenth among twenty-one countries in extending its support to poorer countries in the form of aid, trade, and investments, primarily in Asia and Africa (Centre for Global Development, 2006).

    To explore the relative fact or fiction of Canadian social justice,...

  15. Contributors
    (pp. 273-280)
  16. References
    (pp. 281-362)
  17. Index
    (pp. 363-376)