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Creating Carleton

Creating Carleton: The Shaping of a University

Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 240
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  • Book Info
    Creating Carleton
    Book Description:

    They analyse how Carleton University tried to adjust to the changing social values of the 1960s, describing how the administration tried to come to terms with financial constraint, the professors tried to shift their emphasis from teaching to research while fretting about job security, and the students challenged the traditional authority of university officials and professors in an effort to become fee-paying clients rather than pupils. Over and above these changes were attempts to come to grips with individual rights and the changing status of women. Creating Carleton is not only the story of how Carleton came to terms with these changes but a case study of the transformation of higher education in Ontario and in North America.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7075-7
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Illustrations
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. xi-2)

    Carleton University in its early years was unique among Ontario universities. The older universities all trace their origins back to the initiative of some religious denomination in the nineteenth century, and those founded after Carleton were all financed in part by money from the provincial government. Carleton, which was founded in 1942, began as a nondenominational college, and it was a private college, financed largely by the students’ fees, supplemented by small charitable donations from some of Ottawa’s citizens. The Carleton University of today bears no resemblance to this early college. It is now one of some fifteen provincial universities...

  5. CHAPTER ONE Founding a College
    (pp. 3-20)

    According to Henry Marshall Tory, Carleton College had its beginning when he met William Connor by chance on an Ottawa street corner in the fall of 1941. Connor was an Ottawa businessman who was active in many social agencies. The conversation, as Tory recalled it, “turned upon the question of the influx into the city of so many young people, many of whom had been practically forced by circumstances into war work. Could anything be done for them by way of assisting them to continue their education?” Connor mentioned that he had been a member of a ymca committee that...


    • [PART ONE Introduction]
      (pp. 21-22)

      After 1945 there were really two Carletons. The original Carleton College did not disappear. There were still evening courses offered for academic credit, taught by part-time lecturers and attended by part-time students, and there were still evening lecture series on topics of public interest, which offered no academic credits. This college continued to attract almost the same number of students as it had from the beginning, with an average of two hundred and fifty enrolled in academic courses and usually more than three hundred in the other lecture series. But after 1945 the original Carleton College was overshadowed by another...

    • CHAPTER TWO The College Goes Full-Time
      (pp. 23-42)

      It was in January 1944 that the Board of Governors first heard of the federal government’s interest in university places for veterans. The next two years were critical. The college of 1946 bore almost no resemblance to the college of 1944. By 1946 Carleton was still offering evening classes, but it now offered day classes as well, and it had its own building, with full-time professors and full-time students, and with many of the students enrolled in programs leading to university degrees. Special circumstances had made this possible, but Henry Marshall Tory deserves much of the credit. He saw the...

    • CHAPTER THREE The Search for Academic Respectability
      (pp. 43-60)

      The professors who taught at Carleton College in the early years often looked back later with nostalgia, in spite of the cramped physical conditions and the limited financial resources. These were hard times for the college; the surviving anecdotes are often about the constraints of space and equipment, and the ingenuity with which people coped. But past poverty does not account for the positive memories. While the hardships are remembered, these were shared hardships, associated with a sense of community, a sense of having worked together for common goals and having surmounted the obstacles in spite of the odds. What...

    • CHAPTER FOUR Student Life at Carleton College
      (pp. 61-79)

      When classes began on First Avenue in the fall of 1946, the war was over but it was not forgotten. For the students, the past had a weight that was felt, even if it could never be measured. The young people who came to Carleton over the next decade were from families that had in various ways been marked by the Depression and knew that economic security could not be taken for granted. Although the war had ended the Depression, it had contributed to the sense of instability, for men and women had been uprooted; they now wanted a more...

    • CHAPTER FIVE The Decision to Move
      (pp. 80-100)

      In 1957 Carleton officially became a university. The designation by the provincial government made little legal difference, but the prestige of the new title came at an appropriate time because it coincided with the move to a new campus. The decision to move, unlike the name, changed the institution significantly. Carleton University would be very different from the college on First Avenue.

      The college could have stayed at its First Avenue location, expanding slowly by buying and adapting more adjoining houses, but it would have continued to be a small institution with cramped facilities and limited space for extracurricular activities....


    • [PART TWO Introduction]
      (pp. 101-103)

      The Carleton University that moved to the new campus was an institution in transition. Within a decade it would bear little resemblance to the college on First Avenue, and indeed it developed in ways that few would have predicted. When it arrived on the new campus, it had already moved some distance from its night school beginnings and could be broadly described as a liberal arts college, mainly serving the Ottawa community. While the college did offer professional training, most of its students were enrolled in arts programs, and even those in journalism and engineering found that their programs included...

    • CHAPTER SIX Carleton Becomes a Provincial University
      (pp. 104-123)

      The dramatic developments on the new campus began at Queen’s Park. Early in the 1960s the provincial government adopted a new approach to its financial support for higher education. Instead of giving grants grudgingly to support higher education, it abruptly decided early in the 1960s to stimulate university expansion by generous grants to defray the construction and operating costs. The new policy transformed the existing universities and created new ones.

      Carleton University changed more dramatically than most of the older institutions. It had the advantage of a new campus, where expansion was relatively easy. Just as important, however, was the...

    • CHAPTER SEVEN The New Campus Takes Shape
      (pp. 124-147)

      In 1961 the new campus had three academic buildings: the Maxwell MacOdrum Library, the Henry Marshall Tory Building for the Sciences, and Norman Paterson Hall for the arts and social sciences. Enrolment would increase each year for the next decade but each year, with some judicious juggling of space, there would be enough classrooms and laboratories to accommodate the influx. There were crises and compromises and many frustrations, but no students were turned away and no students lost their year because essential courses could not be offered. And because a university is more than classrooms and laboratories, the construction program...

    • CHAPTER EIGHT Professors at Carleton in the 1960s
      (pp. 148-167)

      The physical changes on the Rideau River campus were only part of the university’s story in the 1960s. The role and status of the professors also changed. In part this was because university expansion across North America meant that professors were in short supply and could bargain for more benefits and privileges. Yet supply and demand did not explain all the changes. The nature of the academic profession was being transformed. Research and publications more and more determined the reputation of a professor and of the university to which he or she belonged. Teaching loads were actually reduced at most...

    • CHAPTER NINE Carleton Students in the 1960s
      (pp. 168-184)

      For Carleton students the move to the new campus brought many advantages. Certainly, construction had its inconveniences, especially when buildings had to be occupied before they were completed, but the new buildings were a great improvement over the old college and the renovated houses on First Avenue. The classrooms were bright and airy, the library was less noisy, and there was a feeling of spaciousness around the quadrangle and on the playing fields across the railway tracks. The new college would be a construction site for most of the decade, but nobody questioned the wisdom of moving to the new...

  8. Epilogue
    (pp. 185-210)

    The changes of the 1960s meant that Carleton, like other universities, would never be the same again. For the next decade the administration, the faculty, and the students tried to come to terms with what had happened. How would Carleton adjust to being a publicly funded university, financially dependent on a provincial government that no longer saw university education as a high priority? How would professors adjust to a society that had become more ambivalent about the consequences of research and to an era in which there were no university openings for many of the newly graduated phds? How would...

  9. Appendix Enrolment at Carleton University, 1942–1982
    (pp. 211-212)
  10. Notes
    (pp. 213-232)
  11. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 233-234)
    H. Blair Neatby
  12. Index
    (pp. 235-240)