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Post Secondary Education

Post Secondary Education

Edited by / Édité par T.H. McLeod
Copyright Date: 1973
Pages: 260
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  • Book Info
    Post Secondary Education
    Book Description:

    This publication is composed of the summary of discussion and the papers prepared for the Nuffield Canadian Seminar. The seminar, entitled "The Costs of Post-Secondary Education in a Technological Society," was held at Cap-Rouge, near Quebec City, 25-27 June 1971. The seminar reviewed the response of developed nations to the important and difficult challenges confronting post-secondary education in this technological age. It brought together heads of post-secondary institutions and educational advisory bodies, financial and educational government officials, educational researchers, and businessmen. Approximately fifty per cent of the participants were from Canada with the remainder from Australia, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Norway, United States, West Germany, and from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. La présente publication comprend les exposés présentés lors du colloque canadien Nuffield ainsi qu'un résumé des discussions. Le colloque intitulé "Le cout de l'enseignement post-secondaire dans une société technologique" s'est tenu à Cap-Rouge, près de Québec, les 25, 26, et 27 juin, 1971. Le colloque a étudié la façon dont les nations industrialisées ont abordé les solutions aux problèmes de l'enseignement post-secondaire à notre époque technologique. II a réuni des responsables d'institutions d'enseignement post-secondaire, des conseillers en éducation, des hauts fonctionnaires des finances et de l'éducation, des spécialistes de la recherche dans le domaine de l'éducation et des hommes d'affaires. Environ la moitié des participants étaient du Canada; les autres étaient venus de l'Australie, la Belgique, la France, la Grande-Bretagne, la Norvège, les États-Unis, l'Allemagne de l'Ouest, ainsi que de l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6064-2
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-x)
    Edgar Gallant

    This publication is composed of the summary of discussion and the papers prepared for the Nuffield Canadian Seminar. The seminar, entitled “The Costs of Post-Secondary Education in a Technological Society,” was held at Cap-Rouge, near Quebec City, 25–27 June 1971. Both the seminar and this publication were made possible by a grant of $20,000 to the Institute of Public Administration of Canada by the Nuffield Foundation, London, England.

    The seminar reviewed the response of developed nations to the important and difficult challenges confronting post-secondary education in this technological age. It brought together heads of post-secondary institutions and educational advisory...

  4. Préface
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Edgar Gallant
  5. Background Facts
    (pp. 1-8)
    J. M. Galimberti

    The information presented in this paper is divided into two major sections: the expansion of post-secondary education enrolments and the cost and the financing of post-secondary education. The first section distinguishes between university and non-university type postsecondary education, describes various admission systems to university education and includes a statistical presentation of the growth of post-secondary education enrolments. The second section describes the differing structures for the financing of post-secondary education coupled with a statistical analysis of the growth of costs.

    These statistics have been compiled from information furnished by the Secretariat of the OECD. Most of the information has been...

  6. Données fondamentales
    (pp. 9-30)
    J. M. Galimberti

    Les données du présent exposé sont divisées en deux parties principales: I’expansion des effectifs de I’enseignement post-secondaire et le coût et le financement de I’enseignment post-secondaire. La première partie établit une distinction entre I’enseignement postsecondaire de type universitaire et celui de type non-universitaire, décrit les divers systèmes d’admission à I’université et comprend une présentation statistique de I’accroissement des effectifs de I’enseignement postsecondaire. Le deuxième partie comprend une description des différentes structures de financement de I’enseignement post-secondaire ainsi qu’une analyse statistique de I’évolution du coût de I’enseignement.

    Ces statistiques ont été établies à partir des données fournies par le Secrétariat de...

  7. Post-Secondary Education in Canada: A Survey of Recent Trends and Developments
    (pp. 31-50)
    David C. Munroe

    Higher education in Canada was traditionally provided in the universities. The oldest of these were religious foundations. Laval, which served the French Catholic population of Quebec, held both a royal and a papal charter. Denominational colleges, such as King’s, Acadia, and Mount Allison in the maritime provinces and Queen’s, Victoria, and Trinity in Ontario, were supported by the protestant churches to provide for the English-speaking population. Almost concurrently, several non-sectarian universities were established—Dalhousie in Halifax, McGill in Montreal, and a federation of denominational and public colleges that formed the University of Toronto. All these were private institutions. Somewhat later,...

  8. L’enseignement postsecondaire au Canada: Tendances et réalisations récentes
    (pp. 51-72)
    David C. Munroe

    De tout temps, par tradition ce sont les universités qui ont assuré I’enseignement supérieur au Canada. Les plus anciennes étaient des institutions religieuses. L’Université Laval qui était au service de la population catholique francophone du Québec, possédait à la fois une charte royale et une charte papale. Des collèges confessionnels, comme King’s, Acadia et Mount Allison dans les provinces Maritimes et Queen’s, Victoria et Trinity en Ontario, étaient entretenus par les églises protestantes pour dispenser l’enseignement à la population anglophone. Presque en même temps étaient fondées plusieurs universités laïques ou non confessionnelles, notamment celle de Dalhousie, à Halifax, et McGill,...

  9. Post-Secondary Education and Manpower Planning in Australia
    (pp. 73-88)
    D. S. Anderson

    Kurt Lewin once said that one way to understand a system is to try changing it. The creation of a new sector of higher education in Australia, the colleges of advanced education, has produced a rash of attempts to define the distinctive roles of the various sectors: universities, the new advanced colleges (many of them formerly called senior technical colleges), teachers colleges, and the various arrangements for training craftsmen and technicians.

    The idea of colleges of advanced education was first put forward by a Commonwealth committee of enquiry (The Martin Committee) established in 1961 with the task of considering the...

  10. Post-Secondary Education in the Federal Republic of Germany
    (pp. 89-100)
    Hermann Granzow

    The Basic Law of 1949, which provided for the creation of the new Federal Republic of Germany allocated the powers with respect to education almost exclusively to the states (länder). The legislative competence of the central government was limited to the promotion of scientific research and the development of extra-mural education. For the ensuing period of twenty years, until 1969, the development of the West German education system rested in the hands of the individual states. That the system developed with some degree of uniformity and coherence was due initially to the high degree of inter-state cooperation and integration, and...

  11. Some Aspects of Post-Secondary Education in Norway
    (pp. 101-110)
    Kjell Eide

    Official statements on the goals of post-secondary education are rare in Norway. Statements by policy-makers and institutional representatives indicate, however, that consensus may be reached on such formulations as the following:¹

    Post-secondary education shall offer opportunities for further personal development to everybody who is capable of benefitting from such education.

    Post-secondary education shall provide the skills necessary for the proper performance of highly qualified professional functions.

    Post-secondary education shall train its students for critical and constructive contributions to societal development.²

    Consensus regarding such formulations tends, however, to disappear when they are interpreted in more operational terms, or when the relative...

  12. Some Aspects of Post-Secondary Education in the United Kingdom
    (pp. 111-128)
    G. S. Brosan

    For historical reasons there are three separate education systems in the United Kingdom, one for England and Wales, one for Scotland, and one for Northern Ireland. Although they are largely parallel, each has its own traditions and legislative structure. In general, the three central departments, in carrying out their responsibilities for education, do not exercise a detailed control, except in so far as standards are maintained by government inspectors with reporting and advisory functions. Detailed control of education services is otherwise wholly in the hands of local education authorities (corresponding to counties or county boroughs), or of independent governing bodies,...

  13. Post-Secondary Education in the USSR
    (pp. 129-144)
    Bohdan Harasymiw

    In theory the Soviet education system, the most democratic in the world, is open at the post-secondary level to all persons who can qualify for admission. For practical reasons, however, including economic and sociological ones, post-secondary education is not available either to all who are qualified or to all who desire to undertake it. These constraints have produced a situation in which, as Nicholas DeWitt tells us, in order to understand the educational system, we must distinguish between Soviet policy aims and the actual effects of that policy.¹

    It hardly needs repeating that the goals of post-secondary education in the...

  14. Social Class Competition in American Higher Education
    (pp. 145-160)
    Andre Daniere

    For the first time in many years, the United States economy faces a phenomenon which has been endemic in countries at an early stage of their development, but was thought to shrink in direct relation to the development “age” of an economy. There is an apparent surplus of educated manpower, in the sense that holders of academic degrees fail to find the sort of employment they had been led to expect—or lose the sort of employment to which they had become accustomed. To quote a non-scholarly source: “A survey of 140 US colleges and universities indicated that between March...

  15. A Summary of the Presentation by the Speaker from France
    (pp. 161-166)

    The cataclysmic events of May 1968 led to a complete reform of the organization of university education in France. Considerable attention has been given to these events, and to the university reforms that followed. On the other hand, another major development in postsecondary education in France has been largely overlooked—the steps that have been taken to establish a basis for “permanent” education. It is to this latter field of development that we may look for the most important trends in French education over the coming decade.

    With respect to the first of these matters, the importance of the post-1968...

  16. New Structures

    • Experiment and Reform in the State of New York
      (pp. 169-171)
      Bruce Dearing

      While the major portion of the discussion of new structures and approaches centred on the British Open University and the paper presented by Pro-Vice Chancellor Smith, the presentation of Dr. Bruce Dearing, Vice Chancellor for Academic Programs of the State University of New York summarizing some of the experimental programs of that state added a substantial dimension to the discussion.

      The editor has attempted, in summary form, to recapture the essence of Dr. Dearing’s comments.

      A not unusual pattern of motives has existed behind the state’s experimental programs. Not the least of these is the fiscal motive. Despite the fact...

    • The Open University of the United Kingdom
      (pp. 171-173)
      R.C. Smith

      The Open University was established by Royal Charter on the 30th May, 1969, as an autonomous university in the United Kingdom. The actual report⁶, which recommended its establishment and which was accepted by the government of the day, was presented by a planning committee in 1969. For those interested in the history of the concept, a previous paper¹ was presented to Parliament in 1966 describing an institution called then “A University of the Air.”

      One of the main objectives of the Open University was to provide a university opportunity to many people in the United Kingdom who had missed their...

    • Post-Secondary Education in Ontario: A Statement of Issues
      (pp. 174-198)
      Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario

      One of the impressions that the commission has formed about post-secondary education is that there is abroad an air of genuine doubt about current efforts in postsecondary education. It is not only that the government is unhappy about the costs, that the students rebel, and that the public is bewildered by it all. For the first time, the very foundations of our education, and especially of our educational structure, are being questioned. Perhaps it is not even the questions themselves that are new; what is new, rather, is the earnest sense in which they are being asked. The commission shares...

  17. Summary of the Discussions
    (pp. 199-222)
    T. H. McLeod

    At the outset, it seems desirable to indicate, however hastily, the framework within which discussion moved. The idea of “cost” as it related to the substance of the material before the seminar, and, for that matter, to the mood of the seminar, was not interpreted in any narrow fiscal-accounting sense. Comparatively little attention was given to cash flows or to cost data, to contemplation of cost-benefit ratios, or to organization efficiency as such. There was no suggestion that these matters rank too low to be explored in discussions of “higher” education. However, some definition had to be made of an...

  18. Résumé des discussions
    (pp. 223-247)
    T.H. McLeod

    Tout d’abord, il convient de préciser, brièvement dans quel cadre le débat s’est situé. La notion de coût n’a pas été définie, aux fins du colloque, selon le sens étroit d’une comptabilité, ni perçue comme telle durant le débat. Les questions de trésorerie ou d’éléments de coût, de rapport coût-bénéfice ou d’organisation rationnelle, n’ont que relativement peu retenu I’attention: non que ces sujets fussent jugés indignes d’être étudiés à propos de I’enseignement dit supérieur cependant, il fallait bien circonscrire un champ de débat que I’on pût explorer dans les délais fixés et qui convînt en même temps à des participants...