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Kentuckians in Gray

Kentuckians in Gray: Confederate Generals and Field Officers of the Bluegrass State

Bruce S. Allardice
Lawrence Lee Hewitt
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 344
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt130hpz8
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    Kentuckians in Gray
    Book Description:

    Perhaps more than any other citizens of the nation, Kentuckians held conflicted loyalties during the American Civil War. As a border state, Kentucky was largely pro-slavery but had an economy tied as much to the North as to the South. State government officials tried to keep Kentucky neutral, hoping to play a lead role in compromise efforts between the Union and the Confederacy, but that stance failed to satisfy supporters of both sides, all of whom considered the state's backing crucial to victory.

    President Abraham Lincoln is reported to have once remarked, "I hope to have God on my side, but I must have Kentucky." Kentucky did side with Lincoln, officially aligning itself with the Union in 1861. But the conflicted loyalties of Kentucky's citizens continued to impact the state's role in the Civil War. When forced to choose between North and South, Kentuckians made the choice as individuals. Many men opted to fight for the Confederate army, where a great number of them rose to high ranks.

    WithKentuckians in Gray: Confederate Generals and Field Officers of the Bluegrass State, editors Bruce S. Allardice and Lawrence Lee Hewitt present a volume that examines the lives of these gray-clad warriors. Some of the Kentuckians to serve as Confederate generals are well recognized in state history, such as John Hunt Morgan, John Bell Hood, and Albert Sidney Johnston. However, as the Civil War slips further and further into the past, many other Confederate leaders from the Commonwealth have been forgotten.Kentuckians in Graycontains full biographies of thirty-nine Confederate generals. Its principal subjects are native Kentuckians or commanders of brigades of Kentucky troops, such as Morgan.

    The first complete reference source of its type on Kentucky Civil War history, the book contains the most definitive biographies of these generals ever assembled, as well as short biographical sketches on every field officer to serve in a Kentucky unit. This comprehensive collection recognizes Kentucky's pivotal role in the War between the States, imparting the histories of men who fought "brother against brother" more than any other set of military leaders.Kentuckians in Grayis an invaluable resource for researchers and enthusiasts of Kentucky history and the American Civil War.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-5987-4
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Bruce S. Allardice and Lawrence Lee Hewitt
  4. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-8)

    Early in the conflict, President Abraham Lincoln told Sen. Orville Browning of Illinois, “I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Kentucky gone, we can not hold Missouri, nor, as I think, Maryland. These all against us, and the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including the surrender of this capitol.” With Kentucky in Confederate hands, the boundary between Union and Confederacy lay along the northern bank of the Ohio River, with the Confederacy threatening the bordering free states of Ohio,...

  5. Brig. Gen. Daniel Weisiger Adams
    (pp. 9-15)
    M. Jane Johansson

    Sometime in the spring of 1821, Anna Weisiger Adams, a native Kentuckian, gave birth to Daniel Weisiger Adams in Frankfort, Kentucky. Anna’s husband, George Adams, practiced law and according to a later biographical sketch “was admitted to the bar about the same time as Henry Clay, and the two were intimate friends and correspondents through life.” The couple already had one son, William Wirt Adams, who later also became a Confederate general. In 1825 the family moved to Natchez, Mississippi, and voters elected George Adams as the state attorney general in 1828. This marked the beginning of a rapid professional...

  6. Brig. Gen. William Wirt Adams
    (pp. 16-22)
    Brian D. McKnight

    Wirt Adams’s life was one of service. He was born in Kentucky; his family relocated to Mississippi when he was a child. Throughout his youth, he moved between Kentucky, Mississippi, and Texas, while receiving his education and serving in the military. Before the Civil War, he began his political career and parlayed it into a Confederate commission once fighting began. He spent much of the Civil War operating in Tennessee and Mississippi. After the war, he worked in the banking business and secured political appointments before his tragic death in 1888.

    Born to George and Anna Weisiger Adams in Frankfort,...

  7. Brig. Gen. William Nelson Rector Beall
    (pp. 23-28)
    C. David Dalton

    William Nelson Rector Beall, brigadier general, prisoner of war, and Confederate agent, was born to Samuel Tannehill and Sally Rector Beall on March 20, 1825, in Bardstown, Kentucky. In 1840, the family moved to Little Rock, Arkansas, where his mother’s relatives held high elective office. Tragically, both parents died shortly after their arrival, leaving behind five children. Four years later, Beall entered the U.S. Military Academy, graduating thirtieth of thirty-eight cadets in 1848, too late to see any military action in the Mexican War.

    Commissioned as a brevet second lieutenant with the Fourth Infantry Regiment, Beall served initially on the...

  8. Brig. Gen. Tyree Harris Bell
    (pp. 29-35)
    Nathaniel C. Hughes

    Ten days after Fort Sumter the good citizens of Newbern, Tennessee, rallied at Albert Harris’s store and raised the secession pole. They organized themselves into a company, decided on a name—Newbern Blues—and asked Albert’s cousin, Tyree Bell, to become their captain. Tyree had no military experience, but he was a community leader, and he shared the vision of Gov. Isham G. Harris and Gideon J. Pillow, who had been building a state military organization since March 1861. Pillow called Captain Bell to his headquarters in Memphis that summer and offered him command of a regiment of West Tennesseans,...

  9. Maj. Gen. John Cabell Breckinridge
    (pp. 36-42)
    William C. Davis

    Kentuckians seemed always to be caught in the middle. Maybe it was the Bluegrass State’s geographical position on the border between North and South, or perhaps it was the towering presence of her greatest statesman, Henry Clay, the great compromiser. Whatever accounted for it, Kentucky and her sons faced dilemmas in the 1860s that strained families, loyalties, and hearts in ways endured by few other Americans. Certainly that was the case with John Cabell Breckinridge, the man many thought inherited Clay’s mantle. The sectional controversy helped to make him, and it tried mightily to destroy him.

    He came of a...

  10. Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner
    (pp. 43-48)
    Lowell H. Harrison

    Simon Bolivar Buckner was born April 1, 1823, on a large farm some nine miles from the village of Munfordville, Kentucky. His father, Aylett Hartwell Buckner, was a Virginian who moved to Kentucky about 1803. Mother Elizabeth Ann Morehead Buckner was also a Virginian. They married in Bowling Green on December 8, 1819.

    Young Buckner did not attend school until he was nine years old. His most important early formal schooling was at the Christian County Seminary in 1838–1839. When Buckner learned that a cadet at West Point from the local district had withdrawn from the school, he applied...

  11. Brig. Gen. Abraham H. Buford
    (pp. 49-55)
    Marshall D. Krolick

    It should come as no surprise that Abraham Buford’s greatest service in the Civil War would be in the cavalry. The breeding, raising, and training of horses would be his lifetime passion from his earliest years. In this pursuit he followed in the footsteps of his grandfather and father, who had, while living in Virginia and Kentucky respectively, both been noted for their blooded stock and celebrated racehorses. Buford was born January 18, 1820, in Woodford County, Kentucky, the son of William and Frances Walker Kirtley Buford. As a result of his father’s financial standing, his early life was one...

  12. Maj. Gen. Thomas James Churchill
    (pp. 56-62)
    John D. Fowler

    Thomas James Churchill was born March 10, 1824, to Samuel and Abby Oldham Churchill. He and his seven siblings grew up on the family farm near Louisville, Kentucky. Churchill graduated in 1844 from St. Mary’s College in Bardstown and then completed law school at Transylvania University in Lexington. At the outbreak of the Mexican War, the twenty-two-year-old joined the First Kentucky Mounted Rifle Regiment as a first lieutenant. While camped in Little Rock, Arkansas, en route to Mexico, Churchill met his future wife, Ann Sevier, daughter of Sen. Ambrose Sevier.

    Mexican cavalry captured Churchill while he was on a scouting...

  13. Brig. Gen. George Blake Cosby
    (pp. 63-68)
    Terrence J. Winschel

    A native of Louisville, Kentucky, born on January 19, 1830, George Blake Cosby was the son of Fortunatus Cosby Jr. and Ellen Mary Jane Blake. His father had served as U.S. consul at Geneva, Switzerland, as editor of theLouisville Examiner(which espoused gradual emancipation), and later as superintendent of public schools in Louisville. The future Confederate general was also the brother of Frank Carvill Cosby, who served in the U.S. Navy throughout the Civil War and retired from Federal service as a rear admiral. George Cosby received his early education in private schools and, in 1848, received an appointment...

  14. Maj. Gen. George Bibb Crittenden
    (pp. 69-75)
    James M. Prichard

    Born on March 20, 1812 in Russellville, Kentucky, George B. Crittenden was the oldest son of John Jordan Crittenden and Sarah Lee. The able lieutenant of Henry Clay, John J. Crittenden was one of the most powerful political figures in antebellum Kentucky. The elder Crittenden served as Kentucky governor (1848–1851), held the office of attorney general in the cabinets of both William Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor, and served four terms in the U.S. Senate. He inherited Clay’s mantle as an eloquent advocate of Union and compromise as the nation drifted toward war in the 1850s.

    Raised in Frankfort,...

  15. Brig. Gen. Basil Wilson Duke
    (pp. 76-82)
    Raymond Mulesky

    Basil Wilson Duke was born on May 28, 1837, on his uncle’s estate just north of Lexington, Kentucky, the only child of Nathaniel Nelson Duke and the former Mary Currie. Because Duke’s father, a career naval officer, was frequently away, and because his mother died when he was only eight years old, Duke was raised with his ten cousins on his uncle’s thousand-acre homestead, Richland. As the result of hard work, good fortune, and ample inheritance, the Dukes were a prominent family in antebellum Kentucky.

    The sight of blood and the smell of gunpowder were common components of a rural...

  16. Maj. Gen. James Fleming Fagan
    (pp. 83-88)
    John D. Fowler

    James Fleming Fagan was born on March 1, 1828, in Clark County, Kentucky, to Steven and Catherine Stevens Fagan. When Fagan was ten, his family moved to the new state of Arkansas, where his father had taken a position as a contractor for the statehouse at Little Rock. Not long after, Fagan’s father died, and in December 1842 his widowed mother married Samuel Adams, a prominent planter and future governor (1844) and state treasurer (1845–1849) of Arkansas. After his stepfather died in 1850, Fagan took charge of the family farm on the Saline River and also served for one...

  17. Maj. Gen. Charles William Field
    (pp. 89-95)
    Arthur W. Bergeron Jr.

    Charles William Field was the son of Willis Field and Isabella Miriam Buck Field. He was born at his parents’ home, Airy Mount, in Woodford County, Kentucky, on April 6, 1828. Field received an at-large appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1845 and graduated twenty-seventh in his class on July 1, 1849. Appointed a brevet second lieutenant, Field joined the Second U.S. Dragoons. His first assignment placed him at the Cavalry School for Practice at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, where he reported for duty on October 1. Field did not remain long at Carlisle Barracks. The following...

  18. Brig. Gen. Richard Montgomery Gano
    (pp. 96-102)
    Lindsey Apple

    Richard Montgomery Gano was born on June 17, 1830, in Bourbon County, Kentucky, to one of that state’s pioneer families. Of Huguenot extraction, the members of the Gano family contributed significantly to the military and religious development of the Kentucky frontier. Richard Montgomery Gano continued the history of contribution in both those areas. The Ganos settled in the area of Bourbon, Franklin, and Scott counties when its possession was still contested by American Indians. They fought as members of the state militia to make the area safer for white settlement. Gano’s grandfather for whom he was named, Gen. Richard M....

  19. Brig. Gen. Samuel Jameson Gholson
    (pp. 103-109)
    Bruce S. Allardice

    Esteemed for his courage and his character, Samuel J. Gholson gave total commitment to the Confederacy. Due to circumstances beyond his control, he never had the opportunity to lead a brigade in a major battle. With his age, his wounds, and his lack of cavalry experience, he probably wouldn’t have distinguished himself had he done so. However, his labors in recruiting and organizing the Mississippi state troops proved valuable. Gholson’s greatest contribution to the Confederate cause was the unglamorous day-to-day struggle reconciling the state army forces with their Confederate army counterparts.

    Samuel Gholson was born near Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky,...

  20. Brig. Gen. Randall Lee Gibson
    (pp. 110-116)
    Mary Gorton McBride

    Randall Lee Gibson was born on September 10, 1832, at Spring Hill, the home of his maternal grandparents, near Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky, the son of Tobias Gibson and Louisiana Breckinridge Hart. His father was a native of Mississippi and a member of a well-known pioneer family, while his mother was descended from distinguished Kentucky forebears. By the 1840s Tobias was one of the largest sugar planters in Louisiana and had amassed several plantations along Bayou Black near the town of Houma, which Louisiana Gibson named. Randall was educated by his parents’ instruction, by private tutors, and in the schools...

  21. Brig. Gen. John Breckinridge Grayson
    (pp. 117-123)
    Lawrence Lee Hewitt

    John Breckinridge Grayson was born into a politically well-connected family on October 18, 1806, at Cabell’s Dale, his maternal grandfather’s plantation near Lexington, Kentucky. His parents, Alfred William Grayson and Letitia Preston Breckinridge, married there on October 28, 1804, and named their middle child, the only one to survive to adulthood, after her father. John Breckinridge had served as U.S. senator from Kentucky (1801–1805) and attorney general (1805–1806) under President Thomas Jefferson before his death at Cabell’s Dale in December 1806. The boy’s other grandfather, William Grayson, former aide-de-camp to George Washington and U.S. senator from Virginia, (1789...

  22. Brig. Gen. Roger Weightman Hanson
    (pp. 124-130)
    Robert I. Girardi

    Roger Weightman Hanson was born on August 27, 1827, in Winchester, Kentucky. He was the second son of Samuel Hanson, a Virginian of Swedish descent, a prominent attorney and judge in Clark County. His mother, Matilda Calloway, was the daughter of a general. The Hansons had five sons. Roger W. Hanson grew into a handsome, solidly built, five-foot-nine-inch man, with huge, round shoulders. He was ambitious, good humored yet with a fiery temper, a deep guttural voice, and a rancorous way with words. He had gray eyes and a florid complexion.

    In 1846, when he was eighteen years old, Hanson...

  23. Brig. Cen. James Morrison Hawes
    (pp. 131-137)
    Brian D. McKnight

    When the Civil War broke out, few Kentuckians were as thoroughly prepared for the coming challenges as James Morrison Hawes. Reared in a prominent political family, he had graduated from West Point, fought in the Mexican War, taught at his alma mater, studied at the Cavalry School of Saumur in France, and helped quell the growing sectional unrest in Kansas Territory. His early successes, however, did not prepare him for the scale or severity of the Civil War. Like many commanders during that conflict, the well-trained and apparently able James Hawes had a wartime career that never lived up to...

  24. Brig. Gen. Benjamin Hardin Helm
    (pp. 138-144)
    Charles Elliott

    The second day on the heavily wooded Chickamauga battlefield found Benjamin Hardin Helm in a cedar thicket and in the thick of a short and furious mid-morning engagement that seemed, at these close quarters, all Kentucky. Although presently serving in the Army of Tennessee, Helm commanded the First Kentucky Brigade, better known as the “Orphan Brigade,” the largest and perhaps hardest-fighting Confederate unit recruited from a state never officially seceding from the Union and never successfully occupied by Southern forces.

    If these Bluegrass rebels couldn’t easily go home again, their bitter exile wasn’t for lack of trying. In the fall...

  25. Brig. Gen. George Baird Hodge
    (pp. 145-151)
    James M. Prichard

    The son of William and Sarah Baird Hodge, George B. Hodge was born in Fleming County, Kentucky, on April 18, 1828. After attending Maysville Seminary, he entered the U.S. Naval Academy and graduated in 1845. The young midshipman saw active duty during the Mexican War as an aide to Capt. David Connor, commodore of the fleet at the siege of Vera Cruz. He resigned his naval commission in 1851 and settled in Newport, Kentucky, where he began the practice of law. During the same year he married Keturah M. Tibbatts, who bore him six children. In 1853 he made an...

  26. Gen. John Bell Hood
    (pp. 152-158)
    Stephen Davis

    Gen. John Bell Hood was the second-highest-ranking Confederate officer from Kentucky, after Albert Sidney Johnston. His record in the Civil War is a disparate combination of early, brilliant success as brigadier in the Army of Northern Virginia, 1862; tragic and debilitating wounds in the summer of 1863 that caused him to be hailed in the South as a martyred hero; promotion to corps command, for which he had shown no talent beyond battlefield gallantry; and promotion higher still to army command, for which he was probably not entitled, save for the Confederacy’s need for promotable officers in its shrinking talent...

  27. Brig. Gen. Adam Rankin Johnson
    (pp. 159-165)
    Raymond Mulesky

    Three pillars supported the civic infrastructure of nineteenth-century Henderson County, Kentucky: tobacco, slavery, and steamboats. The economic potency of a valued commodity, a large pool of slave labor, and the steam transport to move product to consumer markets made Henderson a wealthy environment in the American antebellum period. It was into this setting that Adam Rankin Johnson was born on February 8, 1834, to Dr. Thomas Jefferson Johnson and Juliet Spencer Rankin.

    At the age of eight, Adam Johnson was given the use of a gun. This was the beginning of his long association with the natural environs of his...

  28. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston
    (pp. 166-172)
    Charles P. Roland

    The fifth child of John and Abigail Harris Johnston, Albert Sidney Johnston was born on February 2, 1803, in Washington, Kentucky. He attended Transylvania College in Lexington, Kentucky, for a year then in 1822 entered the U.S. Military Academy. He graduated eighth in the class of 1826, served as adjutant of the corps of cadets his senior year, and entered active duty with the army as a lieutenant of infantry. He served with distinction in the Black Hawk War and seemed destined for high command. But in 1834 he resigned his commission at the wish of his invalid wife, Henrietta...

  29. Brig. Gen. Joseph Horace Lewis
    (pp. 173-179)
    Charles Elliott

    The Russellville Ordinance of Secession aside, Kentucky’s failure to officially secede from the Union, combined with Confederate inability to successfully occupy the Bluegrass State, should not be taken as a dependable measure of national loyalty. Borders, unlike Robert Frost’s famously poetic fences, sometimes make combative neighbors, and the commonwealth remained contested territory during the War of the Rebellion. Kentucky’s Southern sentiments are evidenced by more than just its symbolic presence as the central star in the rebel battle flag but might also be assessed by considering the quality of Kentuckians in gray and complemented by evaluating contemporary local judgments of...

  30. Brig. Gen. Hylan Benton Lyon
    (pp. 180-186)
    Brian Steel Wills

    Hylan Benton Lyon was a native of Caldwell County, later Lyon County, in Kentucky, the son of Matthew Lyon (a state senator) and Elizabeth M. Martin. Born on the family farm, River View, on February 22, 1836, the youth lost both parents at an early age and was raised by a kinsman. At fourteen, he enrolled in Masonic University, located in La Grange, Kentucky, and also Cumberland College in Princeton, Kentucky. In 1852, Lyon accepted an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, from which he graduated four years later, ranked nineteenth in his class.

    The newly minted...

  31. Brig. Gen. Humphrey Marshall
    (pp. 187-193)
    C. David Dalton

    Humphrey Marshall, attorney, politician, and Confederate general, was born to John J. and Anna Birney Marshall on January 13, 1812, in Frankfort, Kentucky. He was the grandnephew of U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall and nephew of antislavery leader James G. Birney.

    Due in part to family connections, Marshall received an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he graduated forty-second out of forty-five cadets in 1832. Eschewing a military career, Marshall resigned his commission, married Frances McAlister, and began a legal practice in Louisville the following year. Eventually the couple would have five children, three...

  32. Maj. Gen. William Thompson Martin
    (pp. 194-201)
    Stuart W. Sanders

    Inexperience shadowed Confederate general and Kentucky native William Thompson Martin. Although he performed ably under capable cavalry leaders like J. E. B. Stuart, promotion and a move to the western theater damaged his career. Martin was too much of a neophyte, according to Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, to handle corps command. In addition, he became tangled in the cutthroat political climate of the western army, where bickering with fellow officers sometimes outshone military operations. Had Martin remained a regimental or brigade commander in Virginia, his career would have taken a different, more positive turn.

    Martin was born in Glasgow, Kentucky,...

  33. Brig. Gen. Samuel Bell Maxey
    (pp. 202-208)
    Charles D. Grear

    One of the most adverse and unusual careers in the Civil War belonged to Samuel Bell Maxey. Enlisting early in the war, Maxey initially wanted to fight in the western theater to protect his childhood home in Kentucky and win honor and laurels, only to be disappointed. As the war continued into 1863, Maxey requested a transfer to the Trans-Mississippi theater to defend his adopted state and was given command of the Indian Territory, one of the most troubled regions of the war. Though faced with demoralized soldiers, few supplies, and a displaced population, Maxey persevered and found resolutions to...

  34. Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan
    (pp. 209-215)
    James A. Ramage

    John Hunt Morgan identified with the military tradition of his Morgan forebears and determined to serve in the military. He was born the eldest son of Calvin and Henrietta Hunt Morgan on June 1, 1825, in Huntsville, Alabama. When John was five years old, his father, a lieutenant colonel in the militia, closed his apothecary business and moved the family to Lexington, Kentucky, where he worked as overseer of the farm of Henrietta’s father, prominent businessman John Wesley Hunt. Slaves worked the farm and performed the chores, and John Hunt Morgan enjoyed hunting and horseback riding. He preferred the outdoors...

  35. Brig. Gen. William Preston
    (pp. 216-222)
    Peter J. Sehlinger

    Based on his family background, beliefs, and economic standing, William Preston was an advocate of the interests of wealthy southern landowners throughout his adult life. In the decades of the mid-nineteenth century, he defended the interests of the slaveholding South as a legislator, diplomat, and military officer. Ultimately, his successes and failures in these endeavors were determined by the fate of the system and region he represented.

    His father, Maj. William Preston, had served under Gen. Anthony Wayne and came from one of the first families of Virginia, as did his mother, Caroline Hancock. Son William was born October 16,...

  36. Brig. Gen. Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
    (pp. 223-228)
    Alexander Mendoza

    Jerome Bonaparte Robertson was a brigadier general in the Confederate army during the American Civil War, doctor, Indian fighter, politician, and railroad executive. Robertson gained prominence by commanding the Texas Brigade in the Army of Northern Virginia from 1862 to 1863.

    Jerome Bonaparte Robertson was born to Cornelius and Clarissa Hill Robertson in Christian County, Kentucky, on March 14, 1815, the fourth and youngest son of five children. The elder Robertson, a Scottish immigrant, accumulated considerable wealth in Union County, Kentucky, but suffered significant losses in the Panic of 1819. That same year, he passed away, leaving the Robertson clan...

  37. Brig. Gen. Joseph Orville Shelby
    (pp. 229-236)
    Stuart W. Sanders

    The Confederate soldiers who stood on the muddy banks of the Rio Grande were gaunt, their captured Union uniforms frayed and tattered. Their horses, scant survivors of a tortuous, privation-filled ride from Arkansas to Missouri and, finally, to Texas, were famished, their ribs showing beneath cracked saddles. Their commander, a Kentucky-born Missourian wearing a black plume in his dusty hat, had vowed never to surrender. Five hundred of his men, veterans of the fiercest fighting in Missouri and Arkansas, agreed. They would follow their leader, Joseph Orville Shelby, anywhere. Before they crossed into Mexico, the Southerners plunged their bullet-marked battle...

  38. Brig. Gen. William Yarnel Slack
    (pp. 237-243)
    Jeffery S. Prushankin

    William Yarnel Slack was born in Mason County, Kentucky, on August 1, 1816, to John and Mary J. “Polly” Caldwell Slack. William was the fourth among seven children. Slack’s parents were easterners, his mother a Qyaker from Virginia and his father a Pennsylvanian, and the family settled in Mason County, where John Slack worked as a potter and farmer. In 1819, farming opportunities in Missouri Territory prompted a move to Columbia, and the Slacks settled in Boone County (then called Howard County). The senior Slack worked as a tobacco farmer but soon became the justice of the peace in Columbia,...

  39. Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith
    (pp. 244-250)
    Thomas E. Schott

    Gustavus W. Smith entered the Confederate army as a major general at the beginning of the conflict, second in command of the major Confederate army in Virginia, and he left it as a major general in the Georgia state militia. And therein lies the tale that illuminates much of his Confederate career. A West Pointer with an admirable record in the Mexican War, Smith failed to live up to the promise this record might have suggested. Moreover, early on he began squabbling with President Jefferson Davis over various matters, activity that more or less guaranteed his consignment to the less-than-illustrious...

  40. Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor
    (pp. 251-257)
    Arthur W. Bergeron Jr.

    Richard Taylor was the only son of President Zachary Taylor and Margaret Mackall “Peggy” Smith Taylor. He was born at Springfield, a three-hundred-acre plantation near Louisville, Kentucky, on January 27, 1826. Known to family and friends as Dick, he attended various frontier schools until about 1839. In September 1840, he entered a distinguished preparatory school in Lancaster, Massachusetts. He entered Yale University in 1843 and graduated on August 21, 1845. During the Mexican War he briefly served as secretary for his father, the latter a major general at the time. From an early age, Taylor suffered from several illnesses, particularly...

  41. Brig. Gen. Thomas Hart Taylor
    (pp. 258-263)
    Arthur W. Bergeron Jr.

    Thomas Hart Taylor was born in Frankfort, Kentucky, on July 31, 1825, the son of Edmund H. Taylor and Louisa Hart Taylor. He received his education at Kenyon College in Ohio and Centre College in Danville, Kentucky, and graduated from the latter school in 1843. Taylor studied law and practiced that profession briefly. At the outbreak of war with Mexico, he enlisted as a private in the Third Kentucky Infantry Regiment. His service during the conflict led to his promotion to the rank of first lieutenant, and he sometimes exercised command of his company. Taylor made two trips across the...

  42. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman
    (pp. 264-270)
    Terrence J. Winschel

    Born at Rich Neck Manor near the village of Claiborne on Maryland’s Eastern Shore in Talbot County, on January 26, 1816, Lloyd Tilghman was the fourth child and only son of James and Anne Caroline Shoemaker Tilghman. He was also the grandson of Col. Tench Tilghman, who had served as an aide to Gen. George Washington during the American Revolution and delivered the news of the British surrender at Yorktown to the Continental Congress. A member of one of Maryland’s leading families, Tilghman was educated in private schools and, at the age of fifteen, entered the U.S. Military Academy at...

  43. Brig. Gen. John Stuart Williams
    (pp. 271-278)
    James M. Prichard

    Born near Mount Sterling, Kentucky, on July 10, 1818 (according to most sources), July 18, 1820 (his Mexican War pension application), or June 29, 1818 (from his tombstone), John S. Williams was the son of Samuel L. Williams and Fanny Cluke. The elder Williams distinguished himself during the War of 1812 as a captain in the Fifth Kentucky Regiment and was taken prisoner at the battle of Raisin River. He subsequently served one term in the Kentucky House and three terms in the Kentucky Senate. Young John was educated in the local common schools and the Winchester Academy before attending...

  44. FIELD OFFICERS OF KENTUCKY CSA UNITS
    (pp. 279-313)
  45. List of Contributors
    (pp. 314-320)
  46. ILLUSTRATION CREDITS
    (pp. 321-322)
  47. INDEX
    (pp. 323-337)