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The WPA Guide to Kentucky

The WPA Guide to Kentucky

F. Kevin Simon Editor
Foreword by Thomas D. Clark
Copyright Date: 1939
Pages: 608
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    The WPA Guide to Kentucky
    Book Description:

    One of the first great reference tools on the Commonwealth, this WPA Guide is an important, vital part of our heritage. While it includes brief essays describing Kentucky's history, folklore, education, industry, geology, ethnic mix and other topics, the most remarkable feature is the driving tours that are as accurate today as they were more than half a century ago. Careful annotations give directions, point out historical and tourist sites, describe the country side, and even provide mileage for the drives.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-5869-3
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. ix-xiv)
  4. List of Maps
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  5. Foreword
    (pp. xvii-xx)

    The Great Depression of the 1930s caught Kentucky in a vulnerable moment. With the economy in a state of chaos, social and cultural conditions were undergoing transition from an intensely rural-agrarian society to a dawning urban age. A special survey committee in 1932 found the condition of Kentucky’s schools “doleful,” much of the state’s population lived in geographical isolation, and in the eastern coalfields a virtual state of labor war existed. Altogether the Depression thrust upon the Commonwealth an all but impenetrable pall of frustration and defeat.

    But changes were under way. The New Deal, largely through the Civilian Conservation...

  6. Introduction
    (pp. xxi-xxvi)
    F. Kevin Simon

    It is now sixty years since work began on the WPA guide to Kentucky. In 1939, after three years of preparation, the volume appeared in bookstores across the Commonwealth. Produced as part of die Federal Writers’ Project’s American Guide Series, theGuideoffered knowledgeable insights to Kentucky’s history and peoples, informative profiles of the state’s leading cities, attractive photographs, and detailed driving tours across the Kentucky countryside. The first printing of the 489-page book sold out quickly. Demand proved steady, and subsequent editions kept the book in print well into the 1940s. This public response lent credence to a reviewer’s...

  7. Preface
    (pp. xxvii-xxviii)
    U. R. Bell
  8. General Information
    (pp. xxix-xxxii)
  9. Calendar of Events
    (pp. xxxiii-xxxvi)
  10. Part I. Kentucky:: The General Background

      (pp. 3-6)

      Kentucky is far from being a unified region. Though known as the Bluegrass State, it divides into three sections which differ as sharply in geography, culture, economic activity, and social habit as if they were widely separated areas. These are the Bluegrass, the Eastern Mountains, and Western Kentucky. Each is populated by people who have adjusted themselves to their environment, and who in the process have developed habits and attitudes differing markedly from those of their fellows in the other divisions. Literature concerning Kentucky often fails clearly to identify the section which forms its locale, and readers unacquainted with local...

      (pp. 7-27)

      Kentucky, lying on the western slope of the Alleghenies, is bounded on the north by the northern bank of the Ohio River, on the northeast and southeast by West Virginia and Virginia, on the south by Tennessee, and on the west by the Mississippi River. Its greatest length, east to west, is 425 miles; its greatest breadth 182 miles. The total area is 40,598 square miles, including 417 miles of water surface.

      “A peculiar situation exists at the extreme southwest corner,” theU. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 817 states,“where, owing to a double bend in the Mississippi River, there...

      (pp. None)
      (pp. 28-34)

      The many mounds, forts, cave shelters, and burial fields in Kentucky show that the prehistoric population must have been fairly large for savages. It was diverse in culture and probably had many separate origins.

      Aboriginal remains are found in every county in the State. The eastern mound area covers the heart of the Bluegrass region and extends northeastward to the Ohio River. This fertile and well watered land was heavily timbered in prehistoric times. It is characterized archeologically by the great number and large size of its Indian mounds, many of them associated with village sites, and by other structures...

      (pp. None)
      (pp. 35-49)

      Kentucky was the first State to be organized west of the Appalachian Mountains. At the mountain barrier the westward movement of American immigrants had come to its first halt, but there was a lively curiosity about the land beyond to the west.

      In 1642 a company of English adventurers, Walter Austin, Rice Hoe, Joseph Johnson, and Walter Chiles, petitioned for “leave and encouragement to explore westward.” Whatever their intentions may have been, they failed to use their grant. Twenty-seven years passed before the subject of western exploration was again discussed in the Virginia Assembly. A permit was granted in 1669...

      (pp. None)
      (pp. 50-55)

      The early development of Kentucky was entirely agricultural, and at first only those trades incidental and necessary to farming received attention. Lumbering, mining, and manufacturing had to await the development of agriculture. Isolated from markets and sources of manufactured goods, farmers produced nearly everything consumed by their families, and each farm was largely a self-contained and self-supporting economic unit.

      Sugar and hardware had to be imported from the beginning, and at first were paid for with pelts. When farm production began to exceed consumption, farmers sought means of exchanging their surplus products for the articles they had to buy. A...

      (pp. 56-59)

      Owing largely to natural barriers, and partly to the demands of interstate commerce, Kentucky’s lines of trade and communication by land developed north to south rather than east to west. Pioneer Kentucky lay in the path of the great migrations from Virginia and the South to the West, and commerce between Lakes and Gulf was borne along its bordering waterways. But mountains formed an effective barrier to trade and transport eastward.

      For nearly a century, except for the Wilderness Road through Cumberland Gap, the only transport route common to the three sections of the State—mountains, Bluegrass, and western hills...

      (pp. None)
      (pp. 60-65)

      Kentucky’s industries are widely distributed. Much the greater part of the State’s factory output issues from the towns along the Ohio River but both eastern and western Kentucky are rich in minerals, though the east far outyields the west in tonnage. Yet Kentucky is rightly regarded as being primarily an agricultural State. The value of factory and mine products is nearly three times that of crops and livestock, but, according to the U. S. Census of 1930, more than 340,000 Kentuckians were gainfully employed on farms, while about 203,000 were gainfully employed in mines, shops, and factories. Interest in agriculture...

    • LABOR
      (pp. 66-71)

      Kentucky labor, both white and Negro, has always been almost wholly native born. Its development has been essentially rural and ties in closely with lumbering and river transportation.

      In early times, settlers from Virginia, the Carolinas, and Maryland dominated the Bluegrass and the Pennyrile. Many of their slaves were skilled craftsmen, who worked, when not employed at home, for people who paid their masters for their services. Thus they were a source of income to their owners, and as such were assured a degree of security against sale.

      Coincidentally, the use of white labor was developing. Many early settlers, especially...

      (pp. 72-76)

      Approximately 226,240 or 7.8 percent of the 2,900,000 people in Kentucky are Negroes. They live for the most part in the inner Bluegrass area, of which Lexington is the center, and in the better farming sections of the Pennyrile around Hopkinsville. Despite their relative numerical unimportance, Kentucky Negroes are an integral part of the State’s life and have contributed notably to its development.

      In 1751, when Christopher Gist came into the Kentucky country in search of lands for the Ohio Company, his only attendant was a Negro servant. Fifteen years later a mulatto slave was one of a party of...

      (pp. 77-82)

      Church membership in Kentucky has increased at a rate faster than that of the population. Almost one-half of the people of the State—approximately a million—are church members today, while only about one person in 12 claimed membership in 1800.

      The different religious sects, of which there are nearly 60, show great disparity in size and represent divisions and subdivisions within some of the major denominations. The Baptists, the largest single group, have a total membership of 425,000, of which 300,000 are in the Southern Baptist Convention and the remainder in nine other Baptist divisions. The Catholics come next...

      (pp. 83-88)

      Pioneer Kentuckians were often unlettered, according to the standards of formal education, but they respected learning. Wherever stockades were erected, cabins within them were set apart as schools in which the more literate members of the community taught the “three R’s,” often from memory.

      In 1775, before the first church and the first court of justice were established, the first school was opened in the fort at Harrodsburg. The teacher, Mrs. William Coomes, taught the beginners to read and write from paddle-shaped pine shingles inscribed with the alphabet, and from Bible texts. At McAfee’s Station, near Harrodsburg, there was a...

      (pp. None)
      (pp. 89-93)

      The convenient and pithy term for the mountain people of Kentucky, “our contemporary ancestors,” does not indicate the origin of the customs, beliefs, and peculiarities which persist among them. For they too had ancestors. These were, for the most part, British, and of the soil. Just as today many a mountaineer has never been ten miles from his birthplace, so also his forebears remained at home. They were sturdy men and women, steeped in traditional ways, independent and as little humble as possible. The mountaineer is that way too. He cares neither for ease nor for soft living. He is...

      (pp. 94-101)

      When Daniel Boone in 1775 brought to the Virginia Legislature a resolution to improve the breed of horses over in Kentucky County, he was voicing a determination that has persisted in the Bluegrass. And the Bluegrass has made Kentucky celebrated throughout the world for its fine horses.

      The resolve alone would not have been enough, however, if the Bluegrass did not have a mild climate and 1,200 square miles of cherished land around Lexington peculiarly fitted to be the nursery of thoroughbreds. The long, easy roll of the land, with its firm, dry turf undisturbed by plows and harrows, with...

      (pp. 102-109)

      In may 1785 the second convention to discuss “separation from Virginia and the formation of a new state,” in session at Danville, passed a resolution to establish a printing press in the western territory for the purpose of “giving publicity to the proceedings of the Convention.”

      A committee was appointed to negotiate with a printer and start a paper. But for some reason the West had not appealed to printers, and none could be found among the settlers in the territory. Finally a young surveyor and soldier of the Revolution, John Bradford of Fauquier County, Virginia—without any previous experience...

    • THE ARTS
      (pp. 110-136)

      The first record of public amusement in Kentucky, was an advertisement of May 31, 1797, in theKentucky Gazette,a Lexington paper. It announced that “a room for exhibition purposes” had been erected adjoining Coleman’s Tavern for “an exhibition of tumbling, balancing on slack wire, slack rope walking and dancing. Admission to pit, 2 shillings, to gallery, 2 shillings, 2 pence. Doors open at sunset, performance beginning at dark.”

      Not until January 1, 1802, however, did theater items begin to appear in theGazette,nor was the location of the building, corner of Spring and Vine Streets, given until June...

  11. Part II. Cities and Towns

      (pp. 139-146)

      ASHLAND (555 alt., 29,074 pop.), largest and most important city in Eastern Kentucky, is concentrated on a rather high and wide flood plain of the Ohio River. The river makes a great bend around the southernmost tip of Ohio, receives the waters of the Big Sandy at the border between West Virginia and Kentucky, and then sweeps northwest with slow, easy curves past the long waterfront of Ashland. The city stretches up the river to Catlettsburg at the mouth of the Big Sandy, and down to the rolling mill plant, a distance of seven miles, widening and narrowing with the...

      (pp. 147-156)

      COVINGTON (513 alt., 65,252 pop.), second largest city in Kentucky, lies on a flood plain of the Ohio River at the foot of suburban hills that reach back to a high plain of the Bluegrass. Highways from Louisville and the hills of central Kentucky sweep rather suddenly into position for a fine view of the city. To the east the Licking River separates old Covington residences from Newport; to the west the Ohio River bends away past scattered suburbs and the long Cincinnati waterfront; and to the north most of Covington’s business houses, factories, churches, parks, and homes are clustered...

      (pp. 157-167)

      FRANKFORT (504 alt., 11,626 pop.), capital of Kentucky, lies within the S-loops of the Kentucky River as it thrusts first against the eastern and then against the western bluffs that border its deep and narrow valley. Upon the alluvial plain, through which meanders the navigable stream, stands the city, separated by the river into north and south sides which are connected by three bridges.

      The north side embraces the older residential section of the city, the Old Capitol, and the downtown business section. The south side, chiefly residential, is expanding southward to and beyond the New Capitol, that lifts its...

      (pp. 168-174)

      HARRODSBURG (824 alt., 4,585 pop.), first permanent white settlement in Kentucky, is on a hill of the Bluegrass just west of the upper Kentucky River.

      Set on a lawn facing the main street, the Mercer County Courthouse lifts a white clock tower and cupola high over the countryside. Around it hurries the vigorous life of this tourist city. Along College Street old families live in homes designed in early nineteenth century styles.

      Around the city in all directions cluster horse farms, tobacco farms, and chicken farms with their distinctive houses in the southern plantation manner.

      Harrodsburg’s fine homes and mineral...

      (pp. 175-196)

      LOUISVILLE (Loo-i-vil, 463 alt., 307,745 pop.), noted for its fine whisky, beautiful women, and the Kentucky Derby, lies across the Ohio River from New Albany and Jeffersonville, Indiana, on a low, level plain that curves for eight miles along the river. Midway in the adjoining river are the Falls of the Ohio, which determined the location of the original settlement and provided it with a name (Falls of the Ohio) until, as a gesture of gratitude for the aid given by Louis XVI and the French Nation to the American Revolution, the name was changed to Louisville. It is the...

      (pp. 197-220)

      LEXINGTON (957 alt., 45,736 pop.), third largest city in Kentucky, lies on a rolling plateau in the heart of the Bluegrass Country. The golden stallion weathervane on the Fayette County Courthouse symbolizes an aristocracy of horses. An early law passed in this county just after the Revolution was designed to keep the blood of race horses pure. The law was superfluous. The city has few industries except those that have to do with tobacco and horses; and it preserves and advances education and culture. Lexington draws shoppers and sightseers from the farms and small cities of the Bluegrass, and from...

      (pp. 221-230)

      PADUCAH (326 alt., 33,541 pop.) is the seat of McCracken County, and the most consequential port and distributing center for the extreme western section of Kentucky. It lies on the flood plain of the Ohio River at the point where the Tennessee, pouring down from the Southern Highlands, joins the larger stream before it goes on fifty miles to the Mississippi. Cypress and sycamore trees thrive in the low, moist land, giving Paducah the appearance of an Old World town surrounded by rivers and trees.

      The city is laid out in a rectangular plan, its streets running parallel to and...

  12. Part III. Highways and Byways

    • Tour 1 (Portsmouth, Ohio)—South Portsmouth—Ashland—Catlettsburg—Paintsville—Prestonsburg—Pikeville—(Norton, Va.); US 23, the Mayo Trail. Ohio Line to Virginia Line, 194.6 m.
      (pp. 233-242)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed in most places; remainder graveled.

      Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. parallels route throughout.

      Accommodations chiefly in towns.

      This route follows the low bluffs along the curving Ohio River; the Big Sandy Valley, and the Levisa Fork, a tributary of the Big Sandy River. In the southern section it passes between a cordon of small hills that increase in height toward the south until, at the Kentucky-Tennessee border, they are stopped by the great purple and green wall of the Cumberland Mountains. Veined by the river and its tributary creeks and locked on three sides by hills and mountains, the...

    • Tour 2 Winchester—Stanton—Jackson—Hazard—Junction with US 119; 161.9 m. State 15.
      (pp. 242-245)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed.

      Louisville & Nashville R.R. roughly parallels entire route.

      All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere.

      This route, between Winchester and the junction with US 119, passes from the fertile fields and spacious farmhouses of the Bluegrass region, along Indian and pioneer trails and winding streams, to the wooded hills of the mist-hung Appalachians.

      WINCHESTER, 0m.(981 alt., 8,233 pop.)(see Tour 16),is at the junctions with US 60(see Tour 16)and US 227(see Tour 17A).

      Southeast of Winchester State 15 winds through rolling country to INDIAN OLD FIELDS (R), 11m.,the...

      (pp. None)
    • Tour 3 (Cincinnati, Ohio)—Newport—Cynthiana—Paris—Lexington—Nicholasville—Lancaster—Somerset—(Chattanooga, Tenn.); US 27. Ohio Line to Tennessee Line, 221.4 m.
      (pp. 246-261)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed.

      Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Texas Pacific R.R. parallels route between Eubank and Tennessee Line.

      All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere.

      This route crosses rolling hills, fertile Bluegrass lands, and the foothills and mountains of southeastern Kentucky. US 27, bordered by white rail fences or old stone walls, passes fine farms in central Kentucky with their stately old mansions; great stables kept with the tidiness of a Dutch kitchen; sleek horses, purebred cattle, and sheep browsing in blue-tinted fields; and broad acres of waving grain, tobacco, and hemp.

      US 27, the Lookout Mountain Airline, crosses the...

    • Tour 4 (Cincinnati, Ohio)—Covington—Georgetown—Lexington—Richmond—Corbin—Williamsburg—(Jellico, Tenn.); US 25 and 25W Ohio Line to Tennessee Line, 223.7 m.
      (pp. 261-280)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout.

      Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas-Pacific R.R. roughly parallels route between Cincinnati and Lexington, and Louisville & Nashville R.R. between Richmond and Jellico.

      All types of accommodations in cities; limited elsewhere.

      US 25, locally called the Eastern Dixie Highway, reveals a typical cross-section of Kentucky. It crosses the low wooded hills of the Ohio River, passes rolling orchard land and prosperous country estates with waving bluegrass meadows, and between the great gorge cut by the Kentucky River and the rugged foothills of the Appalachians, follows. Daniel Boone’s Wilderness Road.

      US 25-42 crosses the Ohio Line, 0m.,on...

      (pp. None)
    • Tour 5 Warsaw—Frankfort—Lawrenceburg—Harrodsburg—Danville—Jamestown—Albany—(Chattanooga, Tenn.); State 35. Warsaw to Tennessee Line, 187.7 m.
      (pp. 280-288)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed between Warsaw and Liberty, graveled between Liberty and Jamestown, and graded between Jamestown and Tennessee Line.

      Southern Ry. parallels route between Lawrenceburg and Danville.

      All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere.

      This route runs through a sparsely settled hilly area, fine stock farms of the Bluegrass, many small old towns, and the wooded foothills of the Cumberland Mountains.

      WARSAW, 0m.(459 alt., 800 pop.)(see Tour 12),is at the junction with US 42(see Tour 12).

      South of Warsaw State 35 winds across the outer Knobs area, which borders the Ohio Valley. Small farms...

    • Tour 6 (Indianapolis, Ind.)—Louisville—Bardstown—Hodgenville—Glasgow—Scottsville—(Nashville, Tenn.); US 31E. Indiana Line to Tennessee Line, 147.8 m.
      (pp. 288-296)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed.

      Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels route between Louisville and Bardstown, and between Scottsville and the Tennessee Line.

      All types of accommodations in cities; limited elsewhere.

      US 3IE, the Jackson Highway, winds over the central part of the State, which is rolling or hilly for the most part. Towns of any size are far apart, and except for some truck gardening near Louisville, the farms along this highway hold to the typical Kentuckian pattern in that they chiefly produce corn and tobacco, or are given over to the raising of livestock. The winter scene is flat in tone except...

    • Tour 7 (New Albany, Ind.)—Louisville—Elizabethtown—Munfordville—Horse Cave—Bowling Green—Franklin—(Nashville, Tenn.); US 31W, the Dixie Highway. Indiana Line to Tennessee Line, 150.9 m.
      (pp. 296-315)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed.

      Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels route throughout.

      Accommodations chiefly in cities.

      Taking a course through west central Kentucky, US 31W runs near the river for a time, approaches it, and then goes up the Salt River Valley. It enters the Knobs region where the countryside lumps up into small round hills streaked with ravines. Near the south-central part of the State the route makes a great elbow curve through the cavernous limestone region containing Mammoth Cave and many other subterranean wonders, then, below Bowling Green, runs through the Pennyrile. Few cities or towns line this highway. Corn, tobacco,...

      (pp. None)
    • Tour 8 (Evansville, Ind.)—Henderson—Madisonville—Hopkinsville—Guthrie—(Nashville, Tenn.); US 41 and 41E, Dixie B-Line. Indiana Line to Tennessee Line, 114.5 m.
      (pp. 315-321)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout.

      Louisville & Nashville R.R. roughly parallels US 41 throughout.

      All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere.

      This route follows an old Indian trail that ran between the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. It was first made by the great herds of buffalo in their seasonal migrations from South to North and back again. Their trails, always following the least difficult routes, have become main roads throughout the State. Meriwether Lewis, while Governor of Upper Louisiana Territory, once had occasion to traverse this trace and recorded that he and his companions were so engrossed...

    • Tour 9 (Metropolis, Ill.)—Paducah—Mayfield—Fulton—(Martin, Tenn.); US 45. Illinois Line to Tennessee Line, 53.4 m.
      (pp. 322-324)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed.

      Illinois Central R.R. parallels route throughout.

      All types of accommodations in towns, limited elsewhere.

      This route crosses the western section of the State, which is called the Jackson Purchase because the United States, on October 19, 1818, through its commissioners, Gen. Andrew Jackson and Gov. Isaac Shelby, purchased from the Chickasaw Indians, for the sum of $300,000, 8,500 square miles of desolate wilderness, west of the Tennessee River. Today that territory comprises eight counties in the westernmost section of Kentucky and 20 counties in Tennessee, and is among the most fertile sections in both of these States. The...

    • Tour 10 (Cairo, Ill.)—Wickliffe—Bardwell—Clinton—Fulton—(Memphis, Tenn.); US 51. Illinois Line to Tennessee Line, 45 m.
      (pp. 324-328)

      Illinois Central R.R. parallels the route.

      Hard-surfaced roadbed.

      All types of accommodations in towns; limited elsewhere.

      US 51, in crossing the westernmost tip of Kentucky, passes through an area rich in agricultural products and replete with historical associations. Along the roadside are level fields of grassland interspersed with tobacco, corn, and, in the southern extremity, cotton. Back from the highway, extending from the Ohio River to Tennessee, is a chain of attractive small lakes fringed with cypress. Along the high bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River are ancient barrows, remains of stone forts, fortified towns, and a paved canal, last traces...

    • Tour 11 South Portsmouth—Vanceburg—Maysville—Alexandria; 109.7 m. State 10.
      (pp. 329-334)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout.

      Chesapeake and Ohio R.R. roughly parallels this route.

      Hotels chiefly in cities.

      State 10, called the Mary Inglis (or Ingles) Trail, runs along the Ohio River most of the way between South Portsmouth and Vanceburg, makes a detour to the outer Knobs plateau, comes back to the river at Maysville, and then relegates itself again to the back country, though at several places it is fairly close to the Ohio in point of miles.

      At one time the slopes of the billowing plateau that rears up beside the Ohio were densely wooded. Besides the common maples and...

    • Tour 12 (Cincinnati, Ohio)—Covington—Warsaw—Carrollton—Louisville; US 42. Ohio Line to Louisville, 106.9 m.
      (pp. 334-344)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout.

      Accommodations of all kinds available; hotels chiefly in cities.

      US 42, the down-river route between Cincinnati and Louisville, swings cross-country at Covington and does not meet the Ohio River again until Warsaw is neared. In most places between this point and a short distance beyond Carrollton, highway and river run side by side accompanied by the rolling Kentucky hills with their masses of foliage and, across the river, by the low bottomlands and low hills of Indiana. The route once more strays away from the river, though closely parallels it all the way to Louisville. Numerous villages...

    • Tour 13 Willow—Falmouth—Owenton—New Castle—Junction with US 60; 116.4 m. State 22.
      (pp. 344-351)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout.

      Accommodations limited.

      The route, following roughly the base of a triangle, two sides of which are formed by the Ohio River, passes through a rolling-to-hilly region that frequently affords superb views of the hills and river valleys.

      Tobacco of especially fine quality is produced in this area.

      State 22 branches west from State 10(see Tour 11)at WILLOW, 0m.,and at 12.1m.passes the forks of the Licking River.

      FALMOUTH, 12.4m.(525 alt., 1,876 pop.)(see Tour 3),is at the junction with US 27(see Tour 3).

      Between Falmouth and 15.5m....

    • Tour 14 (Aberdeen, Ohio)—Maysville—Georgetown—Versailles—Bardstown—Elizabethtown—Central City—Paducah; US 62. Ohio Line to Paducah, 358.9 m.
      (pp. 351-362)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout.

      Illinois Central R.R. roughly parallels route between Elizabethtown and Paducah; Southern Ry. between Georgetown and Versailles.

      All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere.

      This route, a pleasant alternate to the more congested and commercialized highways across the State, traverses the steep hills along the Ohio River, the rich bottomlands of the Licking River Valley, and the rolling pasture lands of the Bluegrass. Between Springfield and Leitchfield it winds through the Knobs area; between Leitchfield and the Cumberland River it skirts undulating farm lands of the Pennyrile—local variant of pennyroyal, a pungent, aromatic plant of...

    • Tour 15 (Aberdeen, Ohio)—Maysville—Lexington—Harrodsburg—Bardstown—Hodgenville—Cave City—Bowling Green—Paducah; US 68. Ohio Line to Paducah, 381.8 m.
      (pp. 362-386)

      Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels this route between Maysville and Lexington and between Cave City and Paducah.

      Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout.

      Accommodations chiefly in towns.

      Between the Ohio and the Licking Rivers, US 68 follows an old buffalo trail that was used by Simon Kenton and other early travelers. It was known as Smith’s Wagon Road, because in the summer of 1783 a Lexington man named Smith took a wagon over it for the first time. The route by 1816 was a part of a national post road between Zanesville, Ohio, and Florence, Ala.

      New scenes unfold along the way at...

    • Tour 16 (Huntington, W. Va.)—Ashland—Owingsville—Mount Sterling—Winchester—Lexington—Versailles—Frankfort—Louisville—Henderson—Paducah—Wickliffe—(Charleston, Mo.); US 60, the Midland Trail. West Virginia Line to Missouri Line, 516.4 m.
      (pp. 387-413)

      Paved roadbed throughout.

      Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. parallels route between West Virginia Line and Lexington; Louisville & Nashville R.R. between Frankfort and Louisville, and between Cloverport and Henderson.

      All types of accommodations in cities and larger towns; limited elsewhere.

      US 60, the longest single route in the State, winds east-west through Kentucky, revealing all its varied topography. Between Catlettsburg and Ashland it follows the Ohio River, paralleling the railroad tracks and yards through the industrial section of eastern Kentucky. Between Ashland and Louisville it passes through mountain counties that had been practically inaccessible before the highway was built in the...

    • Tour 17 Warfield—Paintsville—Mount Sterling—Georgetown—Junction with US 60; 185.3 m. State 40.
      (pp. 414-423)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed except for graveled section between Warfield and Paintsville.

      All types of accommodations in larger towns.

      State 40 winds through a mountain area that was isolated until shortly after the World War, when this highway was built. Consequently the mountaineers living in this region have for the most part retained their distinctive speech, manners, customs, and modes of living(see Tours 1, 18 and 19).Jagged mountains, pine groves on inaccessible pinnacles, laurel-grown cliffs with rhododendron in profusion on the upper sandstone ridges, log cabins, and tales of “hants” characterize this country. The topography changes gradually from mountainous terrain...

    • Tour 18 Junction with US 23—Hindman—Somerset—Columbia—Glasgow—Junction with US 31W-68; 274.6 m., State 80.
      (pp. 424-433)

      Hard-surfacing throughout being completed (1939).

      Limited accommodations except in larger towns.

      This route passes through a region of primitive beauty and grandeur, where stillness fills the valleys that are shadowed on all sides by bluegreen mountains. Some of the patches of cultivated land—mostly cornfields—lie on steep slopes between stands of virgin timber and end on the rims of steep cliffs; others huddle along the streams below.

      Far back from the main roads and almost hidden in the coves or on mountain sides are dilapidated log cabins, which usually consist of a single large room and a lean-to, with...

    • Tour 19 (Williamson, W. Va.)—Pikeville—Jenkins—Junction with US 25E; US 119. West Virginia Line to Junction with US 25E, 165.9 m.
      (pp. 433-441)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout.

      Louisville & Nashville R.R. roughly parallels route between Lynch and Pineville.

      Accommodations chiefly in towns.

      US 119 crosses a rugged and long-isolated region twisting around high mountain shoulders, where each turn of the road reveals range after range of dark green wooded slopes, beautiful in the spring with the snowy white, pink, and deep red of the rhododendron and wild azalea, and -where the narrow, winding valleys echo with the sound of the waterfalls and rapids in the clear streams. At intervals along the highway are lonely little log cabins perched on ridges or half-hidden in the...

    • Tour 20 Burnside—Monticello—Albany—Burkesville—Glasgow; 102.3 m., State 90.
      (pp. 441-448)

      Hard-surfaced roadbed between Burnside and Albany; remainder graveled. Accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere.

      This route winds through an agricultural region as diversified intopography as in the types and occupations of the people. Its farmsvary widely in size and methods of cultivation. Subsistence farming predominates, but the region also contains some very fertile tracts on which the modern methods of cultivation and equipment contrast sharply with those on the neighboring submarginal farms where oxen still pull plows.

      The remoteness of the area and the sparseness of population have allowed a profusion of wild flowers to survive. Evergreens abound and ferns...

  13. Part IV. Appendices