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Energy and Security in the Industrializing World

Energy and Security in the Industrializing World

Copyright Date: 1990
Pages: 224
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  • Book Info
    Energy and Security in the Industrializing World
    Book Description:

    Provides detailed analyses of the related concerns of energy needs, the economy, and national security for developing countries -- Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, India, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan.

    The essays serve to underline the dangerous problem of nuclear proliferation for several of these countries have uneasy relations with their neighbors. In their detailed reviews of these eight nations -- their plans and their capabilities -- the contributors have provided a valuable source for a neglected area of international affairs.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-6483-0
    Subjects: Political Science, Technology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Lists of Tables and Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. 1 The Relationships among Energy, Security, and the Economy
    (pp. 1-12)

    With the oversupply of oil on world markets and the fall in international oil prices from $32-41 per barrel in 1980 to mid-1989 levels of $15-20 per barrel, the international energy crisis that followed the 1973 Arab-Israeli war appears to have passed.¹ The world has shifted from devising strategies of crisis management to strategies—albeit rapidly fading—for avoiding similar crises in the future. Such were the lessons learned from the sustained energy crisis of the 1970s, which severely affected both the industrialized and developing countries for almost a decade.

    For the Western industrialized nations, economic dependency and vulnerability in...

  5. 2 India
    (pp. 13-34)

    The influence of energy issues on India’s security and development policies first took on significance in 1974 following two important events, one external and the other internal. Externally, the quadrupling of oil prices by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries toward the end of 1973, from about $3 per barrel to $12 per barrel, threw into disarray the commencement of India’s Fifth Five Year Plan in 1974 and compelled India’s economic planners to revise and stretch the Fifth Plan over a period of six years. Internally, India’s test of an underground atomic device in May 1974 brought into question the...

  6. 3 South Korea
    (pp. 35-53)

    Despite the global trend of declining interest in nuclear energy, South Korea continues to invest heavily in building new reactors to generate electricity. Although the first reactor was built as recently as 1978, South Korea is already a major producer of nuclear energy; measured by the actual level of generation, its nine operating reactors currently meet more than half of the domestic demand for electricity. By 1999, five more nuclear power plants will go into operation. When all fourteen reactors become fully operational, they will make South Korea one of the top ten countries in the world in the generation...

  7. 4 Pakistan
    (pp. 54-76)

    Since its founding in 1947, access to vital energy supplies has played a major role in Pakistan’s economic and its foreign policy. At independence, Pakistan had almost no industries, and its only power stations were three hydroelectric plants, two in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and one in the Punjab.¹ During 1947-58, Islamabad acquired only 46 megawatts (Mw) of additional generating capacity, owing to the high costs of dam construction and its conflicts with India and Afghanistan over water resource rights.

    With the implementation of the Indus Water Treaty of 1960, however, Pakistan obtained rights to the waters of the...

  8. 5 Taiwan
    (pp. 77-100)

    Historically, economic growth has been closely associated with expanded energy consumption. One of the primary consequences of the global energy crisis of the 1970s was the recognition that the management and development of energy policy must be closely integrated with and supportive of overall economic objectives. While the OPEC price increases and the uncertainty of supply affected all nations, developing countries paid a particularly heavy price. Because of the expanded emphasis on manufacturing and the development of capital-intensive industries such as petrochemicals during this period, the Third World proved to be quite vulnerable to the instabilities generated by the crisis....

  9. 6 Argentina
    (pp. 101-122)

    Argentina has baffled both internal and external observers for nine decades of the twentieth century with behavior that has not seemed reasonable when compared with the opportunities available to the people. Nationalism, the desire to control Argentina’s growth and destiny, is a strong force in the republic. While a highly controversial figure, Juan Domingo Perón described the feelings of many Argentines when he said: “This is in a few words the Argentine international doctrine: we want to respect all peoples but we want to be respected in turn by them; we are always on the side of the subjugated because...

  10. 7 Brazil
    (pp. 123-152)

    Brazil’s involvement in the international economic system has increased remarkably since 1964.¹ The extent to which growing interdependence has diminished or strengthened the country’s ability to adjust to a broad range of external challenges may be gauged by various yardsticks. Among these, its experience in the energy sector provides a critical measure of state capacity to adapt to changes in the international political and economic environments. Why were certain instruments of domestic and foreign policy selected and not others?

    The first task is to define the nature of the threat to political coalitions and state structures posed by the 1973-74...

  11. 8 Cuba
    (pp. 153-181)

    In June 1960, the Cuban revolutionary government seized the refineries operated by three international oil companies and severed all relationships with its traditional energy suppliers. The economic collapse that would have been predictable in imported energy—dependent Cuba as a result of these events was avoided by swift action of the Soviet Union in setting up an “oil bridge” to supply Cuba from Black Sea ports.

    More than two decades later, Cuba’s dependence on the Soviet Union for energy products continues and, in effect, has deepened. Although Cuban oil production has increased significantly in the 1980s, it continues to account...

  12. 9 South Africa
    (pp. 182-191)

    The nexus between South Africa’s energy and security cannot be separated from its position as a pariah in international politics. Notwithstanding efforts to ingratiate itself with the United States and Europe in the early post–World War II period through economic ties and acceptance of military installations such as Britain’s Simonstown Base, South Africa was never integrated into the Western alliance despite its strategic location at the tip of continent.¹ As years passed, its international political standing deteriorated. This in turn magnified its vulnerabilities to the vagaries of the international energy market, as some exporters of fuels refused to maintain...

  13. 10 Energy and Security in Industrializing Nations: Prospects for the Future
    (pp. 192-199)

    In the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s, the world nexus among energy, economy, and security is indisputable. The oil crisis elicited a stream of scholarship addressing the implications, with attention focused on the United States and its OECD allies.¹ To the extent that Lesser Developed Countries and newly industrializing nations were examined, they usually appeared in aggregate data rather than as case studies.² The preceding chapters have sought to fill the void by reviewing at length a unique conglomeration of such nations: India, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, and South Africa.

    At first glance, these...

  14. Contributors
    (pp. 200-202)
  15. Index
    (pp. 203-209)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 210-211)