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Perspectives in Developmental Change

Perspectives in Developmental Change

Morris E. Opler
Leonard W. Doob
Solon T. Kimball
Bert R. Hoselitz
H. W. Hargreaves
Fred W. Riggs
Edward H. Spicer
Wilbert E. Moore
Edward Weidner
Edited by Art Gallaher
Copyright Date: 1968
Pages: 280
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  • Book Info
    Perspectives in Developmental Change
    Book Description:

    In this volume a number of distinguished social scientists representing the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, psychology, economics, and political science, explore essential problems of developmental change against the theoretical background and empirical data of their own and related disciplines.

    Developmental change is here viewed under a broad perspective. The considerations range from the problems that arise when human beings are confronted by change, to investment planning and decision-making in a specific case against a background of general poverty and a high birthrate, to the problem of what it is that constitutes development. In the concluding essay it is argued that the concerns of developmental change override the boundaries of existing disciplines and professions and demand the close cooperation of both the academic researcher and the field worker. The book contains valuable suggestions for all who are responsible for development planning and policy.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-6287-4
    Subjects: Sociology, Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Foreword
    (pp. v-xii)
    Marion Pearsall

    The activities that led to publication of these essays and to the establishment of a center for research and training in developmental change at the University of Kentucky began informally several years ago. In a sense, the roots go back to the proliferation of foreign aid programs following World War II. They bear the traces also of domestic programs developed to combat the effects of widespread economic depression in the 1930' s and of even earlier attempts to introduce a modicum of science into the art of solving social problems. It is only in the past generation, however, that the...

  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    Art Gallaher Jr.
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  5. Developmental Change and the Social Sciences: Introduction
    (pp. 1-16)
    Art Gallaher Jr.

    Some two hundred years ago in the grim moorlands of northern England the industrial revolution was begun. From this there emerged one of the more significant variables in the social differentiation of men everywhere (see Briggs, 1963). For in the revolution there inhered a potential gross dualism in the societies of man, matched only once before, during the neolithic revolution thousands of years earlier. During the neolithic era, human societies had divided into those that adopted sedentary agriculture and all of the social and cultural transformations which that new division of labor implied and those that continued with the traditional...

  6. Developmental Change and the Nature of Man
    (pp. 17-35)
    Morris E. Opler

    We are all conscious of the many efforts toward developmental change that are in progress in all quarters of the world today. There is scarcely a nation that does not have some plan for development of its resources and improvement of the living conditions of its people. Nations with large reserves of wealth and technical skill, such as the United States, contribute to these programs in other countries for humanitarian reasons, for political reasons, or for both. Countries with historical or political bonds, such as the units of the British Commonwealth, cooperate in multinational programs. The world community, through the...

  7. Psychological Aspects of Planned Developmental Change
    (pp. 36-70)
    Leonard W. Doob

    Any developmental change, whether it be social, economic, or political, involves modification of old habits and learning of new ones by some, if not necessarily all, people in a society.As mobility becomes easier or more difficult, as markets expand or contract, as political parties grow more democratic or more autocratic, there are corresponding changes in human beings whose behavior is concealed beneath the abstract statements. No one, except a mystic or a metaphysician, would dare deny the inevitable psychological components of social institutions—these are the intervening variables upon which psychological research concentrates—but the legitimate, annoying question being...

  8. Education and Developmental Change
    (pp. 71-100)
    Solon T. Kimball

    The use of education for purposes of public policy may not be new, but it has evoked increased attention since the end of the Second World War.For example, over the past several years the United States Congress and some state legislatures have enacted legislation which encourages the provision of facilities and training of students for occupations which serve the national or state interest. Large numbers of students have received scholarships or other aids to learn the skills of medicine, nursing, teaching, engineering, and science. Thousands of others who already are in professional practice have been awarded grants to upgrade...

  9. Population Growth and Economic Development
    (pp. 101-129)
    Bert F. Hoselitz and H. W. Hargreaves

    High rates of population increase limit income growth. In varying forms, this doctrine dominates Western conceptions of prospects for improving the living standards of the world’s impoverished two-thirds. Thus, while competent analysts claim that economic planning can raise per capita incomes, many believe that emergence can be achieved only with the westernization of birth rates. Undeterred by warnings and poor performances, governments in many poverty regions, nevertheless, plan economic change on the assumption that effective controls upon fertility rates are not necessary.

    Those countries in which gross reproduction rates (G.R.R.) are above two,¹ as shown in Region I, Table 1,...

  10. Political Aspects of Developmental Change
    (pp. 130-171)
    Fred W. Riggs

    Development problems are by no means new for political theory. There is, indeed, an ancient and great tradition of political speculation in which the attainment of such values as freedom, justice, and solidarity have been regarded as major achievements of historical evolution or as fundamental goals of political aspiration. The rise of totalitarianism and the catastrophe of two world wars, however, forced many political scientists to reexamine the fundamental assumptions of their discipline. They had to abandon the facile assumption that historical forces would assure the triumph of democracy and peace. Perhaps more importantly, they began to reexamine the classical...

  11. Developmental Change and Cultural Integration
    (pp. 172-200)
    Edward H. Spicer

    Developmental change, as I shall discuss it, is itself a process of cultural integration. It is a recurring phenomenon in modern nation-states and apparently has occurred in other types of large political units. Such social units are always culturally heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity gives rise to the phenomenon of planned change. The inconsistencies and the low level, or lack, of linkages among the cultures and institutions of modern states cause one segment within the whole to seek changes in the way of life of other segments or in the relations among segments. Developmental change stemming from some kind of planning...

  12. Developmental Change in Urban Industrial Societies
    (pp. 201-230)
    Wilbert E. Moore

    The scholarly world is sometimes silly. I do not speak of the small and impractical concern of scholars, the fusty inquiries that give some lay critics a feeling of angry or tolerant superiority. Nor am I concerned with the mere mannerisms of the academic mind as displayed in the scholar’s contacts with the student or with less captive audiences and human reactors. The quest for possibly useless knowledge seems to me to require no special justification, at least in a prosperous society, and the resultingdeformation professionelledoes not appear any greater than with other professions, just different. The silliness...

  13. Developmental Change and the Social Sciences: Conclusion
    (pp. 231-256)
    Edward Weidner

    We live in a world fraught with dangers. Some of the dangers arise from disputes over ideology. Others stem from power clashes, accentuated by armed conflict. A large portion of the tensions in the world is augmented by greatly advanced means of communication and transportation which permit men to observe closely the way other men live. Immense cultural differences are evident to any person who reads or travels. The perception of these differences is an initial step toward tension. Unfulfilled desires are bound to arise.

    Each society tends to be in a state of continuous change reflecting the many tensions...

  14. The Contributors
    (pp. 257-258)
  15. Index
    (pp. 259-263)